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January 1983 
USA $2.95 (UK£2.0U) 



A WAYNE GREEN PUBLICATION 



micro 



the magazine for TRS-80* users 



® 



The Creator 



I'M GOING TO GIVE YOU this 
$295 software package for 10 
bucks. If you don't want to 
spend $10, you'll find the 
source code in this magazine. 
It's yours to type in and use. I'm 
doing this because I want to 
make a statement. If this pro- 
gram is worth $10, then what 
should some others be selling 
for? Most commercial software 
is vastly overpriced. I want to 
make a splash, set a standard, 



continued on page 74 




74470 !, 65947 



01 



TRS-80 IS A TRADEMARK OF RADIO SHACK, A DIVISION OF TANDY CORP. 



More and more hardware and communications services are allowing speeds up to 1200 baud. Soon, some may be going 
faster than that. Today's terminal software simply can't keep up. But now there is an alternative. Micro-Systems Software in- 
troduces Micrbferm, the highspeed terminal. 

Model III MicroTerm will communicate, without insertion of null characters, at 4800 baud. Guaranteed. No cop-outs, 
no question. MicroTerm is so fast that you can exit from the terminal to the main menu, adjust video width, open the buffer] 
turn on the printer, or any one of dozens of other functions, and return to the terminal model without missing a thing! 

MicroTerm continues to input from the RS232, even while at the main menu. This is the only terminal capable of such 
an astounding feat. MicroTerm offers you most of the features that "Brand X" smart terminals have, plus it gives you: • Ultra high 
baud rate operation (up to 9600 in certain cases). • Input while at menu. • Easy to use translation tables. • Easy to use phone 
number listings. • Maximum auto dial support — most major brands. • Direct file transfer companion program included at no 
exta cost (compatible with DFT). • DOS commands from n\enu without exiting program. • Over 34K of capture buffer (in a 48K 
TRS-80). • Can be setto automatically dial telephone and transmit buffer at presettime without any operator intervention. 

And many, many more great features, MicroTerm is so fast you must see it to believe it. The various menus are displayed 
so fast, they seem tojump out atyou. Status ofvarious functions can be displayed and altered in split seconds. 

For the computerist who wants the ultimate, state-of-the-artterminal software, there is no other choice. 

MicroTerm retails for $79.95, but registered DOSPLUS owners can purchase it for only $59.95. $20.00 off the retail price! 
MicroTerm comes complete with the terminal program, the direct file transfer program, some standard translation tables, and 
documentation. 

Don't delay, order yours today! Specify when ordering: Model I or III and whether you want rt on 40 or 80 track media, 
luires a 16K TRS-80 with one disk drive. We recommend 48K for serious communications work. MicroTerm will be available 
beginning June 30, 1982. 



.-,- 



k^T- 



MICROSYSTEMS 
SOFTWARE, INC, 

4301 -18 Oak Circle 
Boca Raton, FL 33431 

Telephone: (305) 983-3390 ^334 







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• 




With Reliable Hard-Line Thinking 



Let's cut through all the "compu-babble" about hard-disk systems with some hard-line 
thinking. 

You want a hard-disk system for your TRS-80* Model III for some fairly basic reasons: 

• More storage capacity than your present 
system 

• Faster retrieval and storage of information 
•Accurate processing with reliable hardware and 

software 
PERCOM DATA was pioneering critical, reliable data separation functions for micro 
systems long before many of today's companies even began. PERCOM DATA'S solid 
industry reputation is your promise of hard-disk performance, from a drive with speci- 
fications equal to or superior to your own system. 

PERCOM DATA 5% inch PHD's ,M are your easy, hard-line answer. These units are 
available in 5, 10, 15 and 30 megabyte models. The First Drive unit has a micro- 
processor-based drive controller, permitting you to add up to 3 more hard-disk PHD's. 
And PHD series prices begin at under $2500. 

So, if you're ready to expand your TRS-80 Model III, do it with PERCOM DATA'S PHD. 
Our hard-line thinking of more than half a decade means you get a reliable, high-quality 
PERCOM DATA peripheral, backed by the PERCOM DATA Performance Promise. 

Take a hard-line of your own today! Call one of our Sales Consultants for more 
information and specifications or for the name of your close-by PERCOM DATA Dealer. 

PERCOM DATAs Hard-Line Hotline is 1-800-527-1222 



PEFQCM QATA 



ORATION 



panding Your 



Vision 



DRIVES 



NETWORKS 



SOFTWARE 



11220 Pagemill Road Dallas, Texas 75243 (214) 340-7081 
1-800-527-1222 



•TRSflO is a registered trademark of Tandy Aadio Shack Corporation 




Features 



74. The Creator 

Some myths die hard, such as the 
quickest way to riches is to write a 
super program. 
Bruce Tonkin 



100. Forthwrite 

The second generation of word pro- 
cessors is upon us. One newcomer, 
Forthwrite, deserves to be ranked 
with the best of them. 
Wynne Keller 

104. Selling Your Software 

So you've decided to put your pro- 
gram on the market. Should you sell 
it through a publishing house? Neil 
tells you how to begin. 
We/7 J. Salkind 



80 Micro (ISSN 074478681 'J published 12 limns a year By 
10OI0OI Inc 80 Pino St . Peterborough. NH 034S6 Phone 
603 924-9471 Second class postage pant at Peterborough. NM. 
and additional mailing offices Subscription rates inUS are 

S25 io' one year and $i3 to* three years in Canaoa and Me«<co 

$27 97 one year only. U S funds drawn on a U S bank Cana- 
diandislriButoi Micro Distributing, 409 Oucen Si Wesl. loton 
lo. Ontario Canada M5V 2*4 BC Canadian disiritxiior 
Graymar Oala Services. Ltd.. «4 258 E Is! Ave . Vancouver. BC 
VSI IA6 Foreign subscriptions (Surface mam. 544 97-twic 

yeai only. US lunds drawn on a U S bank Foreign subscrip- 
tions (air mail), please inquire In South Alnca contact 80 Micro. 
PO Bo. 782815. Sannton South Africa 2146 Alius andCana 
dian subscription correspondence snouio oe addressed to SO 
Micro. Subscription Dos a ,:ment. PO Bo» 981. Famungdale. 
NV n/37 Please include your address label with any cor 
rnspondonce Postmaster Send form -3579 to 80 Wic'o 
SuBSCliption Services. PO 80» 981. Farmingdate. HV 11737 




Manuscripts aro wotcorno at 60 Micro Wo will consider publ 
lion of any TRS 80 oriented material GuKtolinos tor budding 
mors arc avaiiaore Please send a soil-addressed envelope . 
ash 10' "Mow to Write tor 90 Micro " 90 MrciO is published mot 
ly By lOOtOOl Inc . a subsidiary of Wayne Green Inc Enlne c 
tents copytn:nt t982WaynoGreeninc No pan of triispuBiicai 

may be rer minted. c* reproduced By any moans, without prior v- 
ten permission from me puBlisner All programs are puB'isned 
personal use only All rinhts reserved 



•TRS-80, Scrlpsit and TRSDOS are trade- 
marks of Tandy Corp. 



117. The Art of Documentation 

Here's a step-by-step explanation of 
how to write clear, concise manuals 
for your programs. 
G. Michael Vose 

154. How to Copyright 

You've spent a lot of time and effort 
writing and debugging a program. Of 
course you want to protect your idea 
from theft, but how? 
Anthony T. Scarpelli 

156. Planetary Orbit 

|- ^g| If you're interested in knowing a 
planet's location at sometime in the 
past or future, use this program to 
calculate its position. 
Don Carrera 



Articles 



110. The Great Beyond 

This version of Basic is much more 
powerful than Microsoft's. Use it to 
write sleeker code. 
Terry Kepner 

126. Mailing List Compiler 

Your Color Computer can be used to 
produce address labels and main- 
tain mailing lists. 
Gerald Sprouse 

132. Hardware Hacker— Part IV 

In his finale, Philip M. Van Praag ties 
together three devices to make up a 
powerful Peripheral Support Inter- 
face. 
Philip M. Van Praag 

146. A Pascal for All Seasons 

If procedure-oriented languages in- 
trigue you, Alcor Pascal may be the 
answer to your needs. 
Bruce Powel Douglass 

178. Block Titles for the Mod II 

Print block letter titles on your fan- 
fold printouts to make them more 
readable. 
George Berman 

180. The Garbage Collector 

The price you pay for strings with var- 
iable lengths can be a bargain if you 
collect your garbage efficiently. 
Bob Snapp 

188. Lunar Lander 

Games are rarely written for the 
Model II, but here's one that lets you 
make a lunar landing. 
Nat R. Koch 




192. Dogfight 

Envision yourself as a flying ace sit- 
ting in a cockpit shooting the 
enemy's biplanes. 
Ralph White 



197. Partially Disabled Break 

When you invoke the executioner in 
TRS-80 unintentionally, you'll beglad 
to have this program on hand. 
Stephen Mills 

200. New Tricks for an Old Dog 

I ■:• .1 In the early days of 80 Micro, you 
might have punched in a word pro- 
cessor by Delmer D. Hinrichs. If you 
did, these mods should be a cinch. 
Duane Hope 

216. Outbreak 

ISO A Basic version of the popular ar- 
cade game featuring the amazing 
bouncing ball. 
Tom Hanson 

221. Judge 80 

GrD Stu's son failed to qualify in the Pine 
Wood Derby when his racer was mis- 
judged. So Stu didn't get mad; he re- 
placed the judge with his 80. 
Stuart Cole 

227. Denominational Computation 

You don't have to be a Reverend to 
benefit from this financial statement 
program. 
Gerald Sprouse 

232. DSAVE 

E5S A way to take the risk out of saving 

disk files to tape. 

John Hodgson 

238. Windchill Determiner 

G=D Now you have a way to determine 

K oto sol ' ' 

just how cold you will be on those 
frosty winter mornings. 
John L. Cranmer, Jr. 

242. Getting the Most 
from the Model II 

Use supervisor calls and other tricks. 
La Verne E. Olney 

252. CC Monitor 

Tired of machine language forcing 
you to PEEK and POKE your Color 
Computer to death? Read on! 
Sergio Zigras 



4 • 80 Micro, January 1983 



Contents 



258. Interrupt Your 80 

Without a hardware mod, your 80 is 
immune to rude interruptions. 
Douglas C. Fisher 

268. Building a Better Adventure 

ygy Knowing about parsing can help you 
create The Great Microcomputer 
Adventure Game. 
Dan Cataldo 

270. Optimize Your Code 

Make your favorite programs run 
faster with a little help from a stop- 
watch. 
Robert W. McTernan 




276. PEN RAM 

U|y A machine-language utility to edit 
random access memory. 
Roxton Baker 

292. Repairing a Disk Crash 

If one of your Color Computer disks 
crashes, you could lose several pro- 
grams. To rescue them, try the steps 
outlined in this article. 
Philip Martel 

298. Discipline for the DIR Command 

Confused by the order your Color 
Computer prints the directory? This 
utility makes your directory look the 
way you want it to. 
Gerry Schechter 

302. APL Primer— Part II 

Vectors were your favorite part of 
high school physics class, right? 
This month, Margaret tells you how 
to use them in APL on your 80. 
Margaret M. Grothman 

310. Cassette Merge 

You can combine old Color Comput- 
er programs with new ones. This 
technique tells you how, and you 
won't have to retype anything. 
John Nicolettos 

316. Bit Smitten— Part VI 

L^J Good looking title and credit pages 



for your programs are easy to set up 
with this utility. 
Jay Chidsey 

324. Tape File Manager 

The four routines of Tape File Man- 
ager will increase the speed with 
which your buffer can read and write 
data to and from the tape. 
Roger W. Faulds 

342. DROSSDOS/8E 

I —J Since operating systems can be in- 
advertently frustrating, KTI's faithful 
observer asks, "Why not stop the 
pretense and make them purposeful- 
ly frustrating?" 
David Busch 

348. When OK Isn't 

Tired of the same old prompt? 
Ed Deming 

352. BASTEP 

G=y Catching bugs a step at a time. 
Alan D. Smith 

358. A Port-Mapped A/D Converter 

Monitor your freezer and play Pong, 

too! 

M. Parris 



Departments 



8. Remarks 

The need for more secure computer 
systems and a call for better TRS-80 
graphics. 
Wayne Green 

12. Proof Notes 

Custer's Revenge invades the sanc- 
tity of Microdom. 

16. Input 

Disgruntled Model II owner who 
wants a hard disk. A call for a Super- 
Scripsit printer driver for an Epson. 
Let's have more Line Printer VII ar- 
ticles. Praise of the Word Machine. 
Knock on MONEY DOS. 

30. Debug 

Colorful Computer fixes. Escape 
from SuperMaze. Curing jack o'lan- 
tern drool. 

34. Aid 

Credit union software. Smith-Corona 
and Scripsit. Request for govern- 
ment general ledger program. LEX 1 1 
schematic. 



37. Commander 80 

The ghost of Thomas Wolfe haunts 
Jake as he returns to his home (in 
what he unfondly calls "Gray" Bri- 
tain) and discovers the Dragon. 
Jake Commander 

40. The Gamer's Cafe 

The odyssey ends up in Vegas. 
Rodney Gambicus 




410. Reload 80 

412. Fun House 

Leap Year. Sands of Time. Perpetual 

Calendar. 

Richard Ramella 




425. Applications 

Putting the final touches on the 
build-your-own LNW. 
Dennis Kitsz 

366. Calendar 

435. Index to Advertisers 

436. New Products 

TDK floppy disks and cassettes. 
Telex communications for CP/M 
owners. CO Mailer. Medical lab soft- 
ware. Model I expansion mainframe. 
Computer-Assisted Home Energy 



80 Micro, January 1983 • 5 



PUBLISHER/EDITOR 

Wayne Green 

EXECUTIVE VICE PRESIDENT 

Sherry Smythe 

ASSISTANT TO PRESIDENT 

Matt Smith 

GENERAL MANAGER 

Debra Wetherbee 

ASSISTANT PUBLISHER 

Jetf DeTray 

CORPORATE CONTROLLER 

Roger Murphy 

CIRCULATION MANAGER 

603-924-9471 

Patricia Ferrante 

BULK & NEWSSTAND SALES MANAGER 

Ginnie Boudrieau 

ADVERTISING. 603-924-7138 

Advertising Manager: David Schissler 

Sales: Penny Brooks, Mary Hartwell 

Ad Coordinator: Betty Butler 

New England 

Advertising Representatives: 

John A. Garland, Frank Sarace, 

Garland Associates, Inc., Box 314 SHS, 

Duxbury, MA 02332 617-934-6464 

PRODUCTION 

Manager: Nancy Salmon 

Assistant: Michael Murphy 

Frances Benton, Mike Ford, Phil Geraci, 

Kim Nadeau, Donna Hartwell, 

Ruth Mustoe, Dianne Ritson, 

Deborah Stone, Theresa Verville, 

Laura Woerner, Karen Wozmak; 

Ad Coordinators: David Wozmak, 

Mary Seaver 

Advertising Production: Jane Preston, 

Fiona Davies, Bruce Hedin, Scott Philbrick 

PHOTOGRAPHY 

Sandra Dukette, Laurie Jennison, 

Irene Vail, Thomas Villeneuve, 

Robert M. Villeneuve 

TYPESETTING 

Marie Barker, Melody Bedell, Sara Bedell, 

Michele DesRochers, Jennifer Fay, 

Lynn Haines, Linda Locke, 

Nancy Newman, Debbie Nutting, 

Karen Stewart, Susan Weller 

DESIGN 

Susan Donohoe, Denzel Dyer, 

Howard Happ, Laurie MacMillan, 

Dion Owens, Joyce Pillarella, 

Susan Stevens. Donna WohKarth 



The left bracket, [, replaces the up arrow 
used by Radio Shack to indicate exponen- 
tiation on our printouts. When entering 
programs published in 80 Micro, you 
should make this change. 

80 formats its program listings to run 
64-characters wide, the way they look on 
your video screen. This accounts for the 
occasional wrap-around you will notice in 
our program listings. Don't let it throw 
you, particularly when entering assembly 
listings. 

Article submissions from our readers 
are welcomed and encouraged. Inquiries 
should be addressed to: Submissions 
Editor, 80 Pine Street, Peterborough, NH 
03458. Include an SASE for a copy of our' 
writers' guidelines. Payment for accepted 
articles is made at a rate of approximately 
$50 per printed page; all rights are pur- 
chased. Authors of reviews should con- 
tact the Review Editor, 80 Pine Street, 
Peterborough, NH 03458. 



Management. Nutritional manage- 
ment software. Color III conversion 
plans. Brevi-T abbreviation utility. 
Educational Software Library. C for 
Model 16. Bazul's Quest. 

450. 1982 Index to Articles 

460. 1982 Index to Reviews 

465. Index to LOAI)80s 

45. Reviews 

Pac-Droids. C.C. Mailer and C.C. 
Merger. Make your computer talk 
with Chatterbox. Trashman, a string- 
cleaning utility. Options-80, a stock- 
market utility. Log Electronic Note- 
book. Rental Property Investment 
Program. Black Death, a gem of 
garage-punk programming. Super- 
Scripsit. 

72. Review Digest 

Address Factory for the Color Com- 
puter. PrintCC allows your TRS-80 
act as a buffer for your parallel 
printer. Astro-Blast, not just another 
space game for the Color Computer. 
The Moses Lightpen. Color Comput- 
er Katerpillar. 

370. News 

Enter the Dragon, a new 6809 micro 
taking Britain by storm. Tandy's 
scheme to market its color machine 
outside the Radio Shack chain hits 
some rough water. The Source offi- 
cially opens its new computer 
center. 



394. The 1982 Readers' Choice Awards 

May we have the envelope, please. . 




396. The 80 Micro Hall of Fame 

Wherein immortal software is en- 
shrined. 




400. Feedback Loop 

A program to forecast the weather. 
Unmodified Model I word process- 
ing. Okidata ribbons. Model II Scrip- 
sit and Epson woes. Epson tractor- 
feed problems. SuperScripsit-Epson 
incompatibility. 
Terry Kepner 




80 Micro, January 1983 



Circle 3i on Reader Service card— 



SWITCH 





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SWITCH T0 57 8"D0UBLE DENSITY 

IXDoublerS/s 



FEATURES 

• 5- and 8-inch* disk drives 

• Single- & double-density 

• Any size and density in any mix 

• Read Model I, II* and III disks 

• 5- or 8-inch* system disk 

• Single & double sided disk drives 

• DOS+ 3.3.9 included, with Disk 
BASIC. 

• 6 month warranty 

• Up to 3.75 megabytes online 

• Easy installation - plug-in & run 

• Analog phase lock loop data 
separation 

• Precision write precompensation 

• Regulated power supply 

• Guaranteed operation at 4MHz 

• All contacts gold plated 

• Solder masked & silk screened 

• Runs under DOS+ 3.3.9, TRSDOS 
2.3, NEWDOS 2.1, NEWDOS/80 
1.0, LDOS, NEWDOS/80 2.0 r 
and ULTRADOS 

• Reads 40- and 35-track disks on 
80-track drives 

• FD1791 controller + your FD1771 

• Fits Model I expansion interfaces 

• Fits LNW expansion interfaces 

• Track configurations to 80-tracks 

• 5 inch disk storage increased to: 

161,280 bytes - 35-track SS/DD 
322,560 bytes - 35-track DS/DD 
184,320 bytes - 40-track SS/DD 
368,640 bytes - 40-track DS/DD 
368,640 bytes - 80-track SS/DD 
737,280 bytes - 80-track DS/DD 

• 8 inch disk storage increased to: 



591,360 bytes - 77-track SS/DD 
1,182,720 bytes - 77-track DS/DD 
SS: single-sided DS: double-sided 
SD: single-density DD: double-density 

COMPLETE - The LNDoubler 5/8, 
switches your Model I or LNW-80 
into the most versatile computer you 
can own. The LNDoubler's switch 
allows you to boot from 5- or 8-inch 
system disks, and it's accessible from 
outside the interface. The LNDoubler 
5/8 comes with a double-density disk 
operating system (DOS+ 3.3.9), 
complete with BASIC and utility 
programs . . . ready to run your 
software NOW! 

VERSATILE - Whether you want 
single-sided, double-sided, single- or 
double-density, 5- or 8-inch operation, 
complete versatility is here today! 
Any combination of 5- and 8-inch disk 
storage is possible with the 
LNDoubler 5/8. Each of your present 
40-track, single-sided 5-inch drives 
will store up to 184,320 bytes 
(formatted storage) - that's an 80% 
increase in storage capacity for only 
half the cost of just one disk drive. 
With three 8-inch double-density, 
double-sided drives your Model I will 
have 3.75 Megabytes of online storage 
- that's more storage than a Model II 
or Model III! 

ADVANCED - The LNDoubler 5/8 
is the most technically advanced, 
tested and reliable double-density 



board you can buy. The LNDoubler 
5/8 has more features, more options 
and more software support than any 
other product of its kind. 

EASY TO INSTALL - The 

LNDoubler 5/8 is easy to install. 
There are no traces to cut, no wiring 
to do, just a screwdriver and a few 
minutes of your time is all that is 
required. The instructions are fully 
illustrated for all interfaces. In 
minutes you will be 'up-and-running', 
and enjoying your computer as never 
before. 

COMPARE - Compare features, 
compare quality, compare value, and 
make the SWITCH today! 
Immediate delivery from stock - at 
your dealer NOW for only 

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DEALERS - You too can 
make The Switch. 




IjNffyRESEARCH CORPORA TION 



2620 WALNUT Tustin, CA. 92680 (714)544-5744 (714)641-8850 

•8" drive operation requires special cable. 8" double-density requires 3.55MH/. CPU speed-up modification or LNW-80 4MHz computer. TRS-80 is a trademark of Tandy Corporation. 



REMARKS 



by Wayne Green 



As a key person in a small business, 
you may not have thought much 
about security for your computer. Oh, 
you may want to keep payroll informa- 
tion confidential, but why should you 
worry about your mailing list, customer 
information, supplier information, 
sales records, and so on? 

You're right — this is not a major 
problem so far. But in the longer run, 
you may want to keep in mind the need 
for establishing an ever more secure 
computer system. 

We are heading toward the time 
when even smaller businesses are going 
to have executives communicating with 
the office computer while on business 
trips. Salesmen and reps are soon going 
to be getting sales data and placing 
orders over the phone via computers. 
Indeed, more and more of our business 
and records will be accessible over the 
phone, and thus prone to interception 
or even malicious interference. 

Few people who have not worked for 
the phone company have even a hint of 
the extensive monitoring of calls that 
Ma Bell does. Your calls are being 
monitored. The system is set up so that 
calls can be monitored from anywhere 
in the country without giving you a hint 
that anything is amiss. Now, how are 
we to know that Ma won't start setting 
up to automatically record every digital 
communication going over her lines? 
There's no serious problem technically. 
Then Ma's minions can check what is 
going over the lines when it is conven- 
ient and, if it is interesting, look back 
through months or even years of re- 
corded data. 

With an increasing amount of Ma's 
communications going by microwave, 
we know from recent articles in the 
technical magazines that it's easy to in- 
tercept these communications without 
leaving any trace. The interception and 
recording of all digital communications 
by firms interested in selling business in- 
formation to your competitor could be 
a growth industry. Government agencies 
can also listen in to these calls and get a 
good inside look at what is going on. 

One malicious employee with access 
to your computer can raise holy hell 
with sales records, customer files, pay- 
roll, and so on. Do you really want to 
have your business computer system 
working on the basis that no one is ever 

8 • 80 Micro, January 1983 




The need 
for more 
security 



going to get mad and try to get even? 

All of this leads up to the obvious 
need for security. To some degree, we 
are in a similar situation to that faced by 
the software firms in that no known se- 
curity system seems to be really secure. 
Worse, the more you try, the more your 
computer is tied up with the security 
system and the more frustrating the 
whole thing can be to use. 

The first step is to recognize the im- 
portance of the problem. The next is to 
start tackling it. We can do this best via 
articles by those few people who have 
already been working in the field. This 
will help the rest of us understand what 
work has been done so far so we won't 
waste a lot of time redoing it. This will 
also spark some original ideas in the rest 
of us. I suspect that the very complexity 
of ICs that can be designed today may 
hold the key to a relatively simple en- 
cryption/decryption device. 

One of the difficulties of encryption 
keys is the ability of a computer to try 
an incredible number of keys in a short 
time. This might be nullified with a sys- 
tem similar to a combination lock, 
wherein a. time delay accompanies each 



failed try, thus defeating the speed of 
the computer. I'm sure that if we have 
enough brains working on the project, 
we'll come up with some fine solutions. 
We're going to need them. 

The State of Graphic Arts 

Computer graphics are moving ahead 
so fast that most of us can't keep up 
with the developments. They've been 
making the consumer magazines in re- 
cent weeks, spurred on by their use in 
Tron and other recent films. I really 
didn't need to go to still another com- 
puter show, yet how could I stay away 
from one right down in Boston, just a 
bit over an hour away? 

It must be excessively depressing for 
the higher management at Tandy to go 
to shows like this and see how far com- 
puter graphics have developed, yet to 
have so little available via the TRS-80 
systems. The uses for color graphics for 
business are so manifest that the hand- 
writing on the wall really can't be ig- 
nored. There were Apple computers all 
over the place at the show, but only one 
TRS-80 that I saw. 

The Color Computer has a lot of 
promise for such applications, if Radio 
Shack would provide their stores with 
the documentation, accessories, and 
programs to back up the system. I am 
hearing rumors that there are some 
cracks appearing in the xenophobic ar- 
mor at Tandy and that at least a few of 
the people there are fighting to change 
age-old tradition and allow the sale of 
support products from outside firms. 

The powers at Tandy realize all too 
well that the computer sales are the 
only thing that has kept the firm grow- 
ing. They see these sales getting to be 
more and more of the total Tandy sales. 
This is a two-edged sword. With no end 
in sight for computer sales, it is a 
firm foundation for keeping the whole 
firm growing. But with increasing com- 
petition from a growing number of 
firms with better computers, better soft- 
ware, and more accessories, the bubble 
could burst. 

If you add up the support Radio 
Shack has in the form of peripherals 
and software from outside firms, no 
other system can approach it. But 
Radio Shack customers have to go out- 
side . . . generally by mail order ... to 
reach this market. 



META TECHNOLOGIES^*** 

26111 Brush Avenue. Euclid Ohio 44132 l^S? 

FOR ORDERS ONLY CALL 1-800-321-3552 ^ 

IN OHIO and all other inquiries call (21,6) 289-7500 



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VERBATIM 

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5-1/4" 1S/DDen(MD525-01) $26.95 

5-1/4"2S/DDen(MD550-01) $39.95 

5-1/4" 2S/4Den(MD557-01) $51.50 

8" 1S/DDen(FD34-8000) $43.95 

Hard-Sectored Diskettes 

5-1/4" 1S/DDen10-sector (MD525-10) $26.95 

5-1/4" 2S/DDen10-sector(MD550-10) $39.95 

5-1/4" 2S/4Den10-sector(MD557-10) $51.50 

Head Cleaning Kit S12.50 

Refills (10 Cleaning Disks) S 2.00 

HUB RING KIT for 5V*" disks $10.95 

HUB RING KIT for 8" disks $12.95 

REFILLS (50 Hub Rings) $ 5.95 

SVi-inch diskette case $3.50 

8-inch diskette case $3.95 

5 'A -inch File Box for 

50 diskettes $24.95 

8-inch File Box for 

50diskettes $29.95 



S19.95 
.$24.95 
.$28.95 
$29.95 
$28.95 

$10.95 



DIShlTJU 

MODEL III DISK UPGRADE 

Features 

• Uses Micro Main Frame Finest 
Disk Controller 

• Gold Plated Edge Connectors 

• Switching Power Supply 

• Supports 5" or 8" Drives 

• 40/80 Track Supported 

• Single/Dual Head Supported 

• Metal Disk Drive Brackets 

• All Hardware and Cables for 
Two Disk Drives 

• 1 Hour or Less for Installation 

• 100% Compatible 

• No Soldering Needed 

• 180 Days Warranty on Controller 




DEALER INQUIRIES WELCOME 

DISKIT III is a trademark of MDS 



DISKIT III 

W/Out Drives 

$27900 



DISKIT III 

W/One Tandon 
Disk Drive 

$47900 



DISKIT III 

W/Two Tandon 
Disk Drives 

$69900 



PRACTICAL PERIPHERALS 

MICROBUFFER™ IN-LINE 



TRS-80, HEATH, IBM, APPLE, ZENITH 
DISK DRIVES 

Model I & III Complete 

Tandon 40 Track $279.00 

Tandon 80 Track $ CALL 

BARE TANDON 

T100-1 40 Track $209.00 

T100-2 40/40 Track $ CALL 

T 100-3 80 Track $ CALL 

8 INCH MODELS 

Seaman 77 Track s/s-d/d . $339.00 

NEW TANDON 'THIN LINE'" 8 INCH 

848- 1 Single Side . $399.00 

848-2 Dual Side $499.00 

APPLE Add-On Disk Drive $359.00 



BOOKS 

OTHER MYSTERIES 

TRS-80 DISK 

Microsoft Basic Decoded 
The Custom TRS-80 . 
Basic Faster & Better . . 
The Custom Apple 

1001 Things To Do With 
Your Personal Computer 



FOR ALL COMPUTER/PRINTER OR 
COMPUTER/MODEM COMBINATIONS 

The Microbuffer In-Line is a stand-alone printer buffer with a minimum of 32K. It is easily 

upgraded to 64K with four user-installed RAM chips. It can be further user-upgraded, 64K 

at a time, to up to 256K by adding low-cost memory expansion modules. 

Both the parallel and the serial versions can be used with virtually any computer (including 

TRS-80, Atari, IBM, Apple, Osborne, NEC, etc.) and any printer (including Epson, Centronics 

NEC, C. Itoh, IDS, Anadex, Qume, Diablo, Tl-180, etc.) 

Microbuffer In-line requires no user modification of software — it installs easily, in seconds 

MICROBUFFER II 

16K Parallel $259.00 

32K Parallel $299.00 

16K Serial $259.00 

32K Serial $299.00 

MICROBUFFER/E 

MBP-16K Parallel $159.00 

MBS-8K Serial $159.00 

MICROBUFFER IN-LINE 

32K Parallel $ CALL 

64K Parallel $ CALL 

32K Serial $ CALL 

64K Serial $ CALL 

64K Memory Expansion Modules $ CALL 



MODEL I / III SOFTWARE 

Apparat's NEWDOS/80 V2 + MTC Que Card™ $129.95 

Electric Pencil Version II - Disk Version $ 79.95 

Electric Pencil Version II - Tape Version $ 69.95 

Introduction to TRS-80 Assembly Programing 

Remassem-1 (Tape Version) $ 69.95 

Remassem-1 (Disk Version) $ 74.95 

Remassem-3 (Tape Version) $ 74.95 

Remassem-3 (Disk Version) $ 79.95 

.Remdisk-1 (Disk I/O Techniques) $ 29.95 



APPLE Is a registered trademark 

ol Apple Computer Inc. 

TRS 80 is a trademark ol the 

Radio Snack Division ol Tandy 

Corporation. DATALIFE is a 

tradomark ol VERBATIM. PLAIN 

JANE. PARAGON MAGNETICS 

are trademarks ol MTC. 

■ 1982 by m.i. Technologies 

Corporation 



MOST ORDERS 

SHIPPED WITHIN 

ONE BUSINESS DAY 

24 Hr. Bulletin Board 
(216) 289-8689 



PRICES IN EFFECT 

THRU 

January 31, 1983 

Prices, Specifications, 

and Offerings subject to 

change without notice 

8301 



T 



WE ACCEPT 
•VISA 

• MASTER CHARGE 
•CHECKS 

• MONEY ORDERS 
•C.O.D. 



T 



Add S3.00 for shipping 
& handling. 
•$2.00 EXTRA for U.S. 
Mail delivery. 

• $5.00 EXTRA for C.O.D 

• Ohio residents add 6.5% 
sales tax. 



REMARKS 



The announcement that Tandy will 
be selling the Color Computer through 
independent computer stores could 
bring some relief, yet considering the dis- 
couraging discount schedule, this may 
not turn into a significant outlet. It 
could get some action if computer 
stores carrying the Color Computer 
start stocking up on third-party acces- 
sories and software. That could turn 
out to be a significant market, with the 
software and accessories bringing in the 
profits rather than the computer itself. 

You know, I get letters now and then 



from readers who wonder why I don't 
toady to Radio Shack instead of taking 
them to task. I try, as best as I can, to 
reflect the educated opinions in the 
marketplace, not just my own. I talk 
with Radio Shack-owned stores, with 
independent Radio Shack store owners, 
and with many people in the industry. 
From all this, I get a fair idea of what is 
really going on, not just what Tandy 
sends out for PR or publishes in their 
pamphlet, which is generally self-serv- 
ing. I don't go out of my way to be criti- 
cal of Tandy, but then I don't avoid it 



either. I try to call it as I see it. If some 
readers have facts of which I'm not 
aware, I'm open to getting them and re- 
vising my ideas. The Tandy people are 
extremely secretive, which, of course, 
begs for guessing. I know of no other 
firm in the industry that even comes 
close to Radio Shack in that aspect. 

Will Radio Shack notice what's hap- 
pening with color and get cracking with 
some good advanced color computers? 
Or are we going to see the color graphics 
battle won by Japan with entries such as 
the Sony SMC-70 and the new NEC? ■ 



GAMESTER SOFTWARE 



16K COLOR COMPUTER 

#402 SPIDER a fast-action $19.95 T 

graphic arcade game! 
by Chromatic Software 

#403 PAC-DROIDS the best $19.95 T 

color game available! 
by The Programmers Guild 

#404 DRAGONQUEST challenging $19.95 T 
adventure! Ext. basic req. 
by The Programmers Guild 

#405 TOWER OF FEAR a classic $19.95 T 
adventure! Ext. basic req. 
by The Programmers Guild 

#406 THUNDER ROAD a FUN $19.95 T 

adventure! Ext. basic req. 
by The Programmers Guild 

#407 LOST DUTCHMAN'S GOLD an $19.95 T 
adventure! Ext. basic req. 
by The Programmers Guild 

16K COLOR MISADVENTURES 

extended basic not needed 
#501 MADAM ROSA'S MASSAGE $15.00 T 
PARLOR 
Fun! Slightly risque' 

#502 WET T-SHIRT CONTEST $15.00 T 

Wet and Wild Adventure! Fun! 

#503 SEWERS OF MOSCOW $15.00 T 

Challenging Misadventure! 

#504 CASINO OF PLEASURE $15.00 T 

Take the ultimate gamble! 

#505 NAKED NIGHTMARE $15.00 T 

ready 1-10-83 NEW! 

#506 SUPER HERO MISADVENTURE $15.00 T 
ready 2-16-83 NEW! 



DOHNE' BUGG is our best-selling ADVEN- 
TURE-DECODER! Are you STUCK in a 
machine-language ADVENTURE GAME? This 
program will display on the screen all VERBS 
that interact in the game, all LOCATIONS & 
OBJECTS you will find, and all ACTIONS that 
result! A MUST FOR THE SERIOUS ADVEN- 
TURER! 



LEAPER: now with voice; new; 



Joystick compatable! 1 
MACHINE LANGUAGE! 
available! 



or 2 players. 
Best 1 -board 



Fast-action 
'frog-game" 




9 Southmoor Circle, Kettering, Ohio 45429 [513] 294-3383 
Mail & Phone Orders [from 12-6] accepted [COD, VISA/MASTER CARD, Check]. 
Usually same-day shipment! Dealer Inquiries invited. We pay postage! 

16K MODEL I AND III 

#301 DOHNF BUGG $15.00 T 

an adventure-decoder! 

#302 BLOCK BREAKER $14.95 T 

by Cedar Software 
best "break-out type game" 
available! 

#303 LEAPER $15.95 T 

by Cedar Software 

Now with VOICE! NEW! $19.95 D 

This is the best single-board 
"frog" game available! 

#304 DEMON SEED $19.95 T 

by Computer Shack - NEW! 
arcade fun - amazing game! $24.95 D 

#305 CYBORG by Computer Shack $19.95 T 
The galaxy's ultimate sport! $24.95 D 

#306 BOUNCEOIDS $15.95 T 

by Comsoft Group 
Crazy Fun. ..go for it! $19.95 D 

#307 FROGGER by Comsoft Group $19.95 T 
Authorized version! $21.95 D 

GREAT MUSIC! 

#308 CRAZY PAINTER $19.95 T 

by Comsoft Group 
What else can we say 
but WOW! $21.95 D 

#309 MICRO CORD $19.95 T 

by Comsoft Group 
Easy! Two-tone harmony! Make 
your own beautiful music - and 
save it on tape or disk! $24.95 D 





tit+tc 




Jim 




^ 




Our MISADVENTURE SERIES consist of 
CHALLENGING and FUN "adventure-type" 
programs that may occasionally be a bit 
naughty! 

MISADVENTURE SERIES 

$15.00 each 16K Model I or III 

#1 MADAM ROSA'S MASSAGE PARLOR 

#2 WET T-SHIRT CONTEST 

#3 SEWERS OF MOSCOW 

#4 CASINO OF PLEASURE 

#5 NAKED NIGHTMARE ,,379 

#6 SUPER HERO ADVENTURE 

#7 coming soon! 

NOTE: Radio Shack refused to Include our 
first Misadventure [MADAM ROSA'S 
MASSAGE PARLOR] in their Sourcebook 
due to our description of the game! We 
appreciate the publicity - thanks! 



10 • 80 Micro, January 1983 




META TECHNOLOGIES^ 

26111 Brush Avenue. Euclid Ohio 44132 WS? 

CALL TOLL FREE 1-800-321 -3552 TO ORDER ^S 

IN OHIO, call (216) 289-7500 (COLLECT) 



ITM 



A Few Words About 

The NEW AIDS-I 

by SofTrends, Inc. 

1. TRUSTWORTHY. A bad diskette or an independable machine can ruin your 
whole day. The NEW AIDS-III checks itself. If something's wrong, it tells you, in- 
stead of turning on you like a mad dog. 

2. GENEROUS. The NEW AIDS-III doesn't use BASIC. But it does use the 
memory BASIC uses. And to make the most out of that extra memory, it selec- 
tively compresses bytes into tiny bits. It all adds up to more usable data records. 
Up to 3 times as many.* 

3. THOUGHTFUL. The NEW AIDS-III never treats you harshly. If one keystroke 
will do, it won't ask for two. The NEW AIDS-III remembers things like report for- 
mats, search strategies and file names. So you don't have to. It even reminds you, 
gently, to save your important data. 

4. INTELLIGENT. The NEW AIDS-III is smart. It doesn't waste your time with 
questions about record sizes, field counts and other technical mumble-jumble. A 
new system can be created, or an old one modified, in a couple of minutes. Even 
if your name isn't Albert Einstein. 

5. KIND-The NEW AIDS-III is always ready to help. It says so, on every screen 
display. HINTS™ (Help INdexed To Screen) tells you on which page in the NEW 
AIDS-III manual to look for more information. The manual is easy to understand 
and easy on the eyes. 

6. QUIET, if you hit the wrong key, you won't hear any annoying buzzes, clicks 
or chirps. Instead, FLAWS™ (FLash-Annunciated Warning System) will create a 
striking visual effect. But only for an instant. And without affecting any of the 
text on the screen. Guaranteed to catch the eye of the fastest touch-typist. 

7. ALERT.|f the NEW AIDS-III is left alone, it lets you know it missed you. It wor- 
ries about your important data. After several minutes of no activity, the NEW 
AIDS-III creates a striking visual display to get your attention. Touch any key to 
let it know you're still there, and it stops. For a little while, anyway. 

8. LEAN. There's no fat in the NEW AIDS-III. That's because it uses SofTrends' 
proprietary PMX™ system architecture. Small, lightning-fast, reliable. Lean? 
Yes. Mean? Definitely not. 

9. FAST. Searches and sorts hundreds of records in seconds. Screens are 
displayed in the blink of an eye. Disk access rates approach one-thousand char- 
acters per second. No waiting for "garbage collection". The NEW AIDS-III lives 
fast. Up to 10 times as fast.* 

10. REASONABLE. At only $79.95, the NEW AIDS-III is very reasonable. Down- 
right inexpensive, if you value your time. Join the thousands of AIDS owners I 
around the world. Order yours today and put the N EW AIDS-I 1 1 data management 
system to work for you. 

• As compared to MTC AIDS-III, Version 1.0 

Specify Model I or Model III $79.95 

** CALL REGARDING UPGRADE POLICY ** 

CALCS-IV (ADVANCED CALCULATION SUBSYSTEM) has the 
ollowing features: 

• All the capabilities of CALCS-III. 

• SAVE REPORT FORMATS on disk for EDITING, as required. 

• More than TWICE the COMPUTATIONAL POWER of CALCS-III. 

• Non-interpretive report execution for FASTER EXECUTION. 

• Reports can be run by a NOVICE. 

ONLY $20 when purchased with AIDS-lll/Version 2.0! 
Specify Model I or Model III $39.95 



NEW AIDS SUBSYSTEMS 

by SofTrends, Inc. 

VISAPLEX™ 

Interfaces AIDS-III and VisiCalc*. Use AIDS-III 
for data entry, sorting and selection. Then load 
the data into VisiCalc', perform computa- 
tions, summations, etc. Like what you see? 
Change the data back into AIDS-III format for 
future processing. Remarkably easy to use. 
Comprehensive documentation complete with 
examples. 

Specify Model I or Model III $39.95 



ADEPT 7 



M 



This module is ideal for entering large batches 
of data into AIDS-III. Features include pre- 
defined field values, definition and expansion 
of abbreviations, transposition of entries, 
range checking, entry of data from previous 
record, expanded validation and more! Type as 
fast as you can ... no problem! Use with 
VISAPLEX™(above) to provide a comprehen- 
sive data entry facility for VisiCalc*. Complete 
documentation with examples. 

Specify Model I or Model III $29.95 



If you own Apparat's 

NEWDOS/80-Version 2.0 

you need 

BREVI-T™ 

by SofTrends, Inc. 

If you have trouble remembering command for- 
mats, want to simplify use of DOS, do a lot of 
program development or just want to be more 
effective with your TRS-80 ,U . then BREVI-T is 
for you. Abbreviations can be defined for both 
DOS and BASIC. These are automatically ex- 
panded as part of the command line pro- 
cessor. Optionally, parameters may be defined 
as part of an abbreviation. For example, "F 1" 
might be used to FORMAT drive 1 . Change the 
1 to a 2 and FORMAT drive 2. It's that simple. 
Complete with easy-to-follow instructions, ex- 
amples and a sample abbreviation file. 

Specify Model lor Model III $19-' 



Let your TRS-80™ Test Itself With 

THE FLOPPY DOCTOR & 
MEMORY DIAGNOSTIC 

by David Stambaugh 

A complete checkup for your MODEL I or 
MODEL III. THE FLOPPY DOCTOR-Version 3 
completely checks every sector of single or 
double density 35-. 40-. 77-. or 80-track disk 
drives. Tests motor speed, head positioning, 
controller functions, status bits and provides 
complete error logging. THE MEMORY 
DIAGNOSTIC checks for proper write/read, 
refresh, executability and exclusivity of all ad- 
dress locations. Includes both diagnostics and 
complete instruction manual. 

SYSTEM DIAGNOSTICS $24.95 
For MODEL III $29.95 



TRS-80 is a trademark of tho 
Radio Shack Division of Tandy 

Corporation. VisiCalc is a 

trademark of Visi Corp. PLAIN 

JANE. AIDS I, AIDS-III. CALCS-III. 

CALCSIV. MERGE-lllare 

trademarks of MTC. 

1982 by Meta Technologies 
Corporation 



MOST ORDERS 

SHIPPED WITHIN 

ONE BUSINESS DAY 

24 Hr. Bulletin Board 

(216)289-8689 



PRICES IN EFFECT 

THRU 

January 31, 1983 

Prices, Specifications, 

and Offerings subject to 

change without notice 

8301 



WE ACCEPT 
•VISA 

• MASTER CHARGE 
•CHECKS 

• MONEY ORDERS 
•C.O.D. 



i 



1 Add $3.00 for shipping 
& handling. 

• $2.00 EXTRA for U.S. 
Mail delivery. 

• $3.00 EXTRA for C.O.D. ! 
Ohio residents add 6.5% 
sales tax. 



PROOF NOTES 

The editors look at the issues 



MANAGING EDITOR 

Eric Maloney 

SENIOR EDITOR (EDITORIAL) 

Michael E. Nadeau 

SENIOR EDITOR (PRODUCTION) 

Lynn Rognsvoog 

NEWS EDITOR 

John P. Mello Jr. 

REVIEW EDITOR 

Janet Fiderio 

NEW PRODUCTS EDITOR 

Eric Grevstad 

ASSISTANT EDITORS 

Deborah Sargent 

Mary E. Ruth 

Stephen F. Tomajczyk 

Lynne Patnode 

TECHNICAL CONSULTANT 

Jake Commander 

TECHNICAL EDITORS 

G. Michael Vose 

Art Huston 

PRODUCTION EDITOR 

Susan Gross 

LAYOUT EDITORS 

Joan Ahem, Bob Dukette, 

Sue Hays, Anne Vadeboncoeur 

PROOFREADERS 

Peter Bjornsen, Vinoy Laughner, 

Peg LePage, Louis Marini 

EDITORIAL ADMINISTRATIVE 

Carole Macioci, Nancy Noyd 



Subscriptions: 

Problems with Subscriptions: Send a 
description of the problem and your current 
and/or most recent address to: 80 Micro, 
Subscription Department, P.O. Box 981, 
Farmingdale, NY 11737. 
Change of Address: Send old label or copy 
of old address and new address to: 80 
Micro, P.O. Box 981, Farmingdale, NY 
11737. Please give eight weeks advance 
notice. 

Microfilm: This publication is available in 
microform from University Microfilms In- 
ternational. United States address: 300 
North Zeeb Road, Dept. P.R., Ann Arbor, 
MI 48106. Foreign address: 18 Bedford 
Row, Dept. P.R., London, WC1R4EJ, 
England. 

Dealers: Contact Ginnie Boudrieau, Bulk 
Sales Manager, 80 Micro, Pine St., Peter- 
borough, NH 03458. (800) 343-0728. 



The headline read, "Atari outraged 
by video-pom." The object of the 
company's wrath was Custer's Re- 
venge, a video game that involves rap- 
ing an American Indian woman tied to 
a post. 

The company's solution was to an- 
nounce a law suit against American 
Multiple Industries, the makers of 
Custer's Revenge. 

Apparently, Atari's people have been 
in the game room so long that they've 
forgotten what the real world is like. 

You cannot mention a medium in 
which pornography doesn't have a sub- 
stantial piece of the market. Literature, 
art, film, cable TV, video recorders, 
magazines — in each case, somebody 
has found a way to make a buck from 
sleaze. 

Computer games will be no different, 
and there is nothing Atari can legally do 
about it. 

That's the way it should be. Consum- 
ers do not need a Big Brother telling 
them what's good for them. And Atari 
has no right to impose its moral sensibil- 
ities on the public, however justified 
their outrage might be. 

Atari's intent is obviously to protect 
their wholesome family image. Custer's 
Revenge offers it an easy vehicle to 
prove how moral and righteous it is. But 
Atari's anger serves only to evade a 
much more important point. 

Games like Custer's Revenge appeal 
to racist and sexist attitudes that are 
engrained in American culture. And 
while the computer industry may not 
actively encourage those attitudes, it has 
done little to alter them. 

How many computer games seek to 
create positive images of oppressed and 
minority groups? How many arcade 
games — many of which are Atari's — 
provide anything more than vicarious, 
sensual entertainment? And how do the 
violent microworlds those games create 
help to foster a peaceful, more tolerant 
society? 

Atari is correct to excoriate cheap 
junk like Custer's Revenge. But its 
moral indignation would carry a lot 



Video porn 

is here 

for good 



more weight if it also took some steps 
toward bettering its own products. Pac- 
Man may not have raped any Indian 
women lately, but he also hasn't done 
much to improve the world we live in. 

— EM. 

***** 

Model II owners may not make up a 
large part of 80 Micro's readership, but 
they sure are vocal. Hardly a week goes 
by when we don't receive some mail 
pleading for more Model II material. 

Well, we've taken some steps to cor- 
rect the situation. Starting in April, 
we'll be publishing conversion tables for 
some of our Model I/HI programs. 
This will let Model II people share in the 
wealth of useful and interesting soft- 
ware they've heretofore only been able 
to look at. 

Naturally, we encourage and wel- 
come original Model II programs. 
***** 

Next month promises to be an inter- 
esting issue. Our "To Copy or Not to 
Copy" letter has inspired a number of 
our readers to express in no uncertain 
terms how they feel about software pro- 
tection and piracy. We'll be printing a 
batch of those letters, along with reac- 
tions from several software manufac- 
turers. 

Also, we'll be publishing the results 
of our first Young Programmers Con- 
test. The contest has been successful be- 
yond our expectations, both in numbers 
and in quality. We're sure you'll be as 
open-mouthed as we are about what 
America's youth is producing at their 
computers these days. ■ 



12 • 80 Micro, January 1983 



If you can find 

lower prices than ours, 

read their fine print. 



Our fine print: 



We guarantee every-thing lor 30 days. No returns 
alter 30 days. Defective soltware will be replaced 
Iree. other soltware returns are subject to a 15% 
restocking (ee and must be accompanied by RMA 
slip. No returns on game soltware. 

VISA and MasterCard accepted on all orders — 
no extra charge. COO orders accepted up to $300. 

shipping CHARGES: S3 lor all prepaid orders, 
actual shipping charges lor non-prepaids: $3 for 
COD orders under 25lbs. (S6 for over) plus a $4 
surcharge: add 15% for foreign. FPO and APO 
orders. Calilornians add 6% sales tax. in L.A. 
County add 6'/>%. 

Prices quoted are lor slock on hand and subject 
to change without notice. 

That's It. 



PRINTERS 

COMREX CR-1 PARALLEL 839.00 

COMREX CR-1SERIAL 859.00 

C-ITOH F-10 40 CPS PARALLEL 1390.00 

C-ITOH F-10 40 CPS SERIAL 1390.00 

C-ITOH 8510 PROWRITER PARALLEL.. .480.00 

C-ITOH 8510 PROWRITER SERIAL 590.00 

EPSON MX-80 III W/GRAFTRAX + JCALL 

EPSON MX-80 III F/T W/GRAFTRAX +$CALL 
EPSON MX-100 III W/GRAFTRAX + ....SCALL 

IDS MICROPRISM 480 SCALL 

NEC 8023A 485.00 

NEC SPINWRITER 3530 P.RO 1995.00 

NEC SPINWRITER 7710 S.RO 2595.00 

NEC SPINWRITER 7730 P.RO 2595.00 

OKIDATA MICROLINE 80 389.00 

OKIOATA MICROLINE 82A 460.00 

OKIDATA MICROLINE 83A 700.00 

OKIDATA MICROLINE 84 1170.00 

OKIGRAPH 82 49.95 

OKIGRAPH 83 49.95 

EPSON ACCESSORIES 

MICROBUFFER; MBS-8K 159.00 

MICROBUFFER* MBP-16K 159.00 

MICROBUFFER IN-LINE 32K 299.00 

MICROBUFFER IN-LINE 64K 349.00 

GRAFTRAX PLUS 60.00 

MX-80 RIBBONS 8.95 

MX-80 PRINTHEAD 40.00 

MX-100 RIBBONS 24.00 

MX-100 PRINTHEAD 49.00 

EPSON SERVICE MANUAL 20.00 



16K RAM SPECIAL13.95 

Set ol 8 NEC 4116 200ns Guaranteed one year. 

MODEL I, III 
SOFTWARE 

PROSOFT NEWSCRIPT/LABELS MOD 1. 111.109.00 
OMNITERM SMART TERMINAL MOD I. III. 89.95 

MAXI-MANAGER MOD I. Ill 89.95 

DOS PLUS 3.4 MOD I. Ill 89.00 

LOOS 5.1 MOD I. Ill 119.00 

MICROSOFT EDITOR ASSEMBLER 

+ MOD I (DISK) 44.95 

MICROSOFT FORTRAN MOD 1 80.00 

DISKETTES 

ALPHA DISKS 21.95 

Single sided, certified Double Density 40 Tracks, 
with Hub-Ring. 8ox ol 10. Guaranteed one year. 

SCOTCH 3M 

S.S.D.DEN 40 TRK 23.50 

D.S.D.DEN 40 TRK 36.50 

VERBATIM 

MO 525-01. 10. 16 26.50 

DISKETTES STORAGE 

5'/4" PLASTIC LIBRARY CASE 2.50 

8" PLASTIC LIBRARY CASE 3.50 

PROTECTOR 5%" 21.95 

PROTECTOR 8" 24.95 

TRS-80 HARDWARE 

PERCOM DATA SEPARATOR 27.00 

PERCOM DOUBLER II W/ DOS 3.4 159.00 

TANDON 80 TRK DISK DRIVE W/ P.S..345.00 
TANDON 40 TRK DISK DRIVE W/ P.S.. 289.00 

LNW DOUBLER W/ DOSPLUS 3.3 138.00 

LNW DOUBLER 5/8 W/ DOSPLUS 3.4. .171.00 

ISOLATORS 

IS0-1 3-S0CKET 53.95 

IS0-2 6-S0CKET 53.95 

MODEMS 

NOVATION CAT ACOUSTIC 135.00 

NOVATION D-CAT DIRECT CONNECT.... 156 00 
NOVATION AUTO-CAT AUTO ANSWER.. 219.00 
HAYES SMART MODEM (300 BAUD)... .227.00 
HAYES SMART MODEM (1200 BAUD). .540.00 

LEXICON LEX-11 119.00 

SIGNALMAN MODEM W/ RS-232C 85.00 

FAN FOLD PAPER 

(Prices F.O.B. S.P.) 

9'/; x 11 181b WHITE 3.000 CI 29.00 

14 7/8 x 11 181b WHITE 3.000 d 39.00 



MODEL III DISK DRIVE KITS 

CONTROLLER KIT INCLUDES ALL BOARDS ASSEMBLED ANO TESTED. INTERNAL CONTROLLER. 
MOUNTING BRACKETS. SWITCHING POWER SUPPLY. AND INSTALLATION INSTRUCTIONS. 
HANDLES 4 DRIVES 360 00 

KIT #1: CONTROLLER KlI AND 2 TM 100-3 
SINGLEDSIDED. 80 TRACK DRIVES 875.00 
KIT *2: CONTROLLER KIT AND 2 TM100-4 
D0U8LESIDE0. 80 TRACK DRIVES 1060.00 



KIT #3: CONTROLLER KIT AND 2 TM100-1 
SINGLED-SIDED. 40 TRACK DRIVES. 720.00 
KIT #4: CONTROLLER KIT AND 2 TM 100-2 
OOUBLE-SIDEO. 40 TRACK DRIVES 850 00 



SUPPLIES 

AVERY TABULABLES 

1.000 ZVz x 15/16 8.49 

3.000 3'/i x 15/16 14.95 

5.000 3'/* x 15/16 19.95 

SPECIALS 

SPECIAL N0.1 

TRS-80 DISK AND OTHER MYSTERIES. BOX OF 
VERBATIM DISKS. PLASTIC LIBRARY CASE... 
44.50 

SPECIAL N0.3 

NEWDOS/80 2.0. BOX OF VERBATIM DISKS. 
PLASTIC LIBRARY CASE 149.00 

SPECIAL N0.4 

MICROSOFT BASIC COMPILER. BOX OF VER- 
BATIM DISKS. PLASTIC LIBRARY CASE 

179.00 

SPECIAL N0.5 

MICROSOFT BASIC DECODED AND OTHER 
MYSTERIES. BOX OF VERBATIM DISKS. PLASTIC 
LIBRARY CASE 49.95 

DOUBLE DENSITY SPECIAL 

PERCOM DOUBLER II. NEWDOS/80. BOX OF VER- 
BATIM DISKS. PLASTIC LIBRARY CASE 

279.00 

COMMUNICATION SPECIAL 
MOD I & II 

NOVATION MODEM. OMNITERM TERMINAL 
SOFTWARE. 

ACOUSTIC SPECIAL (CAT) 219.00 

DIRECT CONNECT SPECIAL (D-CAT).. ..239.00 
SERIAL CABLE 25.00 

DISK LIBRARY SPECIAL 

RACET DISKCAT CATALOGING PROGRAM. FLIP 
SORT (50 DISK CAPACITY). 50 STICK-ON D X 
LABELS 59. ! J5 

BOOKS 

BASIC BETTER & FASTER DEMO OISK... 18.00 

THE CUSTOM TRS-80 24.95 

MICROSOFT BASIC FASTER & BETTER... 24.95 

CUSTOM I/O MACHINE LANGUAGE 24.95 

TRS-80 DISK & MYSTERIES 16.95 

MICROSC'T 8ASIC DECODED 24.95 

TRS-80 GAMES 

All games are disk versions. Cassette versions 
may not be available. 

TEMPLE OF APSHAI 31.35 

HELLFIRE WARRIOR 31.35 

STAR WARRIOR 31.35 

RESCUE AT RIGEL 23.36 

CRUSH. CRUMBLE ANO CHOMP 23.36 

INVADERS FROM SPACE 17.95 

PINBALL 17.95 

MISSILE ATTACK 18.95 

STAR FIGHTER 24.95 

Z-CHESS III 24.95 

ADVENTURE NO. 1. 2. & 3 34.95 

ADVENTURE NO. 4. 5. & 6 34.95 

ADVENTURE NO. 7. 8. & 9 34.95 

DUEL-N-DROIDS 17.95 

STARFLEET ORION 21.95 

INVASION ORION 21.95 

OLYMPIC DECATHLON 24.95 

MONTY PLAYS MONOPOLY 31.95 

SARGON II 31 95 

BLACKJACK MASTER 27.95 

ROBOT ATTACK 17.95 



GALAXY INVASION 17.95 

SUPER NOVA 17.95 

TUESDAY MORNING QUARTERBACK 26.95 

LUNER LANDER 18.95 

THE MEAN CHECKER MACHINE 21.95 

SPACE ROCKS 18.95 

PIGSKIN 17.95 

ZOSSED IN SPACE 18.95 

ARCADE-80 21.95 

SPACE INTRUOERS 17.95 

MORTONS FORK 26.95 

SCARFMAN 17.95 

CALL OUR MODEM LINE 
FOR WEEKLY SPECIALS. 



lb order or for 

information call 

InNewVbrk; 
(212)509-1923 

In Los Angeles: 
(213)706-0333 

In Dallas: 
(214)744-4251 

By Modem: 
(213)883-8976 




IPUTER 
PRODUCTS 



^473 

31245 LA BAYA DRIVE 
WESTLAKE VILLAGE, CA 91362 



CP M is a reg trademark ol Digital Research "Requires Z-80 Solicard. tReg. trademark ol Micro Pro International Corp $T:ademark ol Practical Peripherals, inc 



SCARFMAN ARMORED PATROL REARGUARD STRIKE FORCE 



This incredibly popular game craze 
now runs on your TRS-80! It's eat or 
be eaten. You run Scrartman around 
the maze, gobbling up everything in 
your path. Try to eat it all before nasty 
monsters devour you. Excellent high 
speed machine language action game 
from the Cornsoft Group. With sound. 
Price: A 



♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦•Hfr 



H I i i'H i i i 



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A realistic tank battle simulation. 
Your view is a 3-D perspective of an 
alien landscape. Maneuver your T-36 
tank to locate and destroy enemy 
tanks and robots that lay hidden, 
ready to assault you. Clever graphics 
create the illusion of movement and 
dimension. From Adventure Inter- 
national. With sound. Price: B 

BOUNCEOIDS 

Huge boulders careen off the walls. 
You're in the middle, in danger oil 
being flattened. Keep your wits about 
you as you blast these "bounceoids*' 
from the screen. Large ones break into 
many small ones. Clear a screen, and 
enter a fast-paced challenge stage 
with a chance for big bonus points. I 
From the Cornsoft Group. Price: A 

CATERPILLAR I 

An arcade favorite! Stop these multi- 
sectioned crawlers before they creep 
down through the mushrooms. Zap 
one and it splits into two smaller bugs, 
each with its own sense of direction. 
There are moths and tumble bugs too. 
It all adds up to lots of fun for kids and 
adults alike. From Soft Sector Market- 
ing. With sound. Price code: A 

DEFENSE COMMAND 

The invaders are back! Alone, you 
defend the all important nuclear fuel 
canisters from the repeated attacks of 
thieving aliens, repeatedly. An alien 
passes your guard, snatches a 
canister and flys straight off. Quick! 
You have one last chance to blast him 
from the sky! With sound and voice. 
Price: A 

CRAZY PAINTER 

You have to paint the floor white. We 
give you the paint and brush. Sounds 
easy? Hah! You'll be confounded by 
stray dogs, snakes, sloshing buckets 
of turpentine, even a ravenous "paint 
eater." A crazy, imaginative new 
game with ten selectable levels of skill 
for new or seasoned game players. 
Lot's of laughs. Price: A 

SUPER NOVA 

Asteroids float ominously around the 
screen. You must destroy the 
asteroids before they destroy you! (Big 
asteroids break into little ones). Your 
ship will respond to thrust, rotate, 
hyperspace and fire. Watch out for 
that saucer with the laser! As 
reviewed in May 1981 Byte Magazine. 
Price: A 



Deadly waves of enemy Cyborg craft 
attack your fleet from the rear. You are 
the Mothership's sole defender. You 
have unlimited firepower but the 
Cyborgs are swift, nimble attackers. 
Your abilities are tested hard in this 
game or lightening fast action and 
lively sound from Adventure Inter- 
national. Price: B 



As the primary defender of a world of 
cities under deadly alien attack, your 
weaponry is the latest: rapid fire 
missiles, long range radar, and 
incendiary "star shells." Your force 
field can absorb only a limited number 
of impacts. A complex game ot 
strategy, skill and reflexes from 
Melbourne House. Price: A 



'It you purchase Alpha's 
Joystick you get the ex- 
quisite pleasure of enjoy- 
ing (action games) to the 
limit of arcade-style 
realism." 

\ -80 Microcomputing 
} 80 Reviews. Jan '82 



POWER 



THE 

ALPHA 

JOYSTICK 



ONLY 



+ Features the famous Atari Joystick 
* Works with all Model I or ill systems 
+ Compaiibie .Niih any other accessories 
-i- Saves your keyboard trom abuse 
+ Experiment in BASIC UseA = INPiO) 
+ Complele. ready to plug in and use 
+ Model I plugs into KB oi 6/1 
+ Model III plugs mm 5Q urn I- bus 

Price includes Joystick + Alpha Interlace 
+ Instructions + Demo Program listing 
Please specify Model I or III. 



© 1982 Mi alpha Products 14 DAY MONEY BACK GUARANTEE 




METEOR MISSION II 

As you look down on your view, 
astronauts cry out for rescue. You 
must maneuver through the asteroids 
and meteors. (Can you get back to the 
space station?) Fire lasers to destroy 
the asteroids, but watch out, there 
could be an alien Flagship lurking 
Includes sound effects! Price: A 



OUTHOUSE 

You are the mighty protector of this 
small (but important) wooden 
structure. For reasons unknown, a 
bizarre gang of miscreants wish to 
vandalize, loot and otherwise destroy 
the little "half moon house." Your 
patrol craft has lasers and smart 
bombs to deal with this terror. 
From SSM with sound. Price: A 



Toll Free Order Line 
800-221-0916 

Orders Only, NY & Info call (212) 2965916. Hours: 9-5 E.S.T. 



TAPE: For Model I + III, 16K Level II 
DISK: For Model I + III, 32K, 1 Disk 
All games are joystick compatable 
or may be played using the arrow 
keys. 



GAME PRICES 

A: TAPE: $15.95 • DISK: $19.95 
B: TAPE: $19.95 • DISK: $24.95 
C: TAPE: $24.95 • DISK: $24.95 



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PANIK 

Trapped at an enemy building site, 
your fate seems certain. Your laser is 
empty and evil Mzors are closing in. 
You'll have to climb ladders and think 
one step ahead ot the various 
monsters. A challenging game for 
agile minds. From Fantastic Software 
with voice (Disk has larger vocabulary). 
Price: B 



SEA DRAGON 

Your submarine, the U.S.S. Sea 
Dragon, penetrates a mined enemy 
channel. Armed with missiles and 
torpedos. you engage the enemy while 
navigating unknown waters. Succeed 
or come to a salty end in this game. 29 
screens of horizontally scrolling sea- 
scrape and sound from Adventure 
International. Price: B 



As you can see, all the best games from the top 
producers are joystick compatible. These 
games are fun without the joystick but we hope 
that you are one of the many thousands who 
enjoy the advantage of real joystick action. 

Now you can deduct up to 20% on the price of 
games: buy any 2 games deduct 10%, buy any 3 
games deduct 15%. buy any 4 games deduct 
20% from game prices. 

' TOP TEN 

1 . SCARFM AN All time favorite 

2. ARMORED PATROL- Super 3D graphics 

3. PENETRATOR Rave reviews 

4. STELLAR ESCORT Fast and Challenging 

5. CRAZY PAINTER Unique game concept 

6. PANIK Remarkable Voices 

7. DEFENSE COMMAND Tough struggle 

8. CATERPILLAR Good rendition 

9. ROBOT ATTACK With voice 

10. SEA DRAGON Amazing "Seascape" 



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•ft-** <H> *•«■•£>. -0- 

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GALAXY INVASION LASER DEFENSE 



The sound of the klaxon is calling you! 
Invaders have been spotted warping 
toward Earth. You shift right and left 
as you fire your lasers. A few break 
formation and fly straight at you! You 
place your finger on the fire button 
knowing that this shot must connect! 
With sound effects! Price: A 



In this game of ICBM's, high-energy 
lasers and particle beams, you control 
the U.S. strategic defense satellite 
system. From your viewpoint high 
above the globe, you intercept Soviet 
nuclear missiles in flight and attempt 
to destroy their scattered missile 
silos. With sound from MED Systems. 
Price: B 




STELLAR ESCORT 



The latest super action game from Big 
Five. As the Federation's top space 
fighter you've been chosen to escort 
what is possibly the most important 
shipment in Federation history. The 
enemy will send many squadrons of 
their best fighters to intercept. With 
sound. Disk version has voices. 
Price: A 

ROBOT ATTACK 

[ Talks without a voice synthesizer, 
through the cassette port. With just a 
hand laser in • a remote space station. 
[ you encounter armed robots. Some 
; march towards you, more wait around 
corners. Careful, the walls are 
electrified. Zap as many robots as you 
dare before escaping to a new section. 
More robots await you. Price: A 

LUNAR LANDER 

As a vast panoramic moonscape 
• scrolls by, select one of many landing 

sights. The more perilous the spot, the 
i more points scored -- if you land 

safely. You control LEM main engines 

and side thrusters. One of the best 
I uses of TRS-80 graphics we have ever 
(seen. From Adventure International. 

With sound. Price: A 



CHICKEN 

Will the chicken cross the road? 
That's up to you. Can you guide these 
helpless little chicks across the 
perilous 10 lane super highway to 
safety? Or will you bumble, littering 
the blacktop with a storm of chicken 
feathers? A humourous yet chal- 
lenging game of nerves from SSM with 
sound. Price: A 




PENETRATOR 

Soar swiftly over jagged landscape, 
swooping high and low to avoid 
obstacles and enemy missiles attacks. 
With miles of wild terrain and tunnels 
to penetrate, you're well armed with 
bombs and multiple forward missile 
capability. From Melbourne House. 
Features sound, trainer mode and 
customizing program. Price: C 



jm 



rs\ 



ALPHA LF"Lf(0)(o 

79-04 Jamaica Ave., Woodhaven, NY 11421 



ADD S2.00 PER ORDER FOR SHIPPING AND HANOLING. 

WE ACCEPT VISA. MASTERCARD. CHECKS. M.O. 

C.O.D. ADD $3.00 EXTRA. 

NY RESIDENTS ADD SALES TAX. 

OVERSEAS, FPO. APO: ADD 10%. 

DEALER DISCOUNTS AVAILABLE. . r 



VtSA 




INPUT 



Hard Disk for Model II 

I have been led down the primrose 
path by Tandy in buying a Model II. I 
was under the impression that a reason- 
ably-priced hard disk unit would soon 
be on the market. 

Can anyone tell me what it would 
take to replace my single disk drive in 
the Model II with two thinline types 
such as the Tandon TM848-2? 

I'm not in favor of adding an extra 
expansion box for them. I would like to 
see them built in, as in the Model 16. I 
have a Model II service manual and it 
appears that the disk controller could 
support such a drive, but I'm not cer- 
tain about the power requirements. 

I am certainly not the only Model II 
owner with this ambition. With so 
many in-cabinet upgrades available for 
the Model III, why can't someone do it 
for the Model II? 

Tom Chaapel 

Ronco C&E Inc. 

41 E. Market St. 

Corning, NY 14830 

The hard/soft disk system (HSDS) 
from Racet Computes modifies 
TRSDOS 2. Oa to work with many hard- 
disk units. — Eds. 



Lots of Problems 

Your September and October "Re- 
load 80" sections contain an outstand- 
ing utility. When combined, the two 
short programs become one utility in- 
valuable for Assembly-language rou- 
tines or subroutines. Many conversion 
programs have appeared in the maga- 
zine in the past, but none as comprehen- 
sive as this. It's a real gem. 

As a novice Assembly-language pro- 
grammer one thing has eluded me (and I 
suspect others as well). When source 
listings are given you need the hexadeci- 
mal starting address, hexadecimal end- 
ing address, and hexadecimal entry 
point to change memory locations. 

How do I read a source listing to de- 
termine the above-mentioned ad- 
dresses? 

I just purchased Radio Shack's disk- 
based Series-I Editor/Assembler (Cat. 
#26-2013) that includes a version of 
TRSDOS 2.3B which is not compatible 
with TRSDOS 2.3. This upgrade utility 
does not permit the Basic command to 

16 • 80 Micro, January 1983 




Please do not submit any letters 
longer than 300 words for the Input, 
Aid, and Debug columns. 80 Micro 
reserves the right to edit any letters 
submitted. — Eds. 



return to Basic to set the number of files 
or to set memory. 

All my machine-language utilities 
that operte under TRSDOS 2.3 will not 
run under TRSDOS 2.3B.To quote 
from the pages that come with the Edi- 
tor/Assembler, "Old TRSDOS disk 
used under the new TRSDOS must be 
upgraded before use. Once upgraded, a 
system or data disk becomes a new 
TRSDOS data disk." 

When I contacted Radio Shack I was 
told that they don't know how to enter 
Basic through this TRSDOS version, 
and that TRSDOS 2.3B is unsupported 
by Radio Shack and no manuals are 
planned for its use. I was told that this 
version of TRSDOS was written specifi- 
cally for the Series-I Editor/ Assembler. 

Does anyone have anything to offer 
regarding using TRSDOS 2.3B? 

Jerry Reiser 

93 Scotland Hill Road 

Spring Valley, NY 10977 



Write Your Own Driver 

The new SuperScripsit Word Proces- 
sor has some interesting features to rec- 
ommend it over the standard Scripsit. 
Its modular construction (much like 
TRSDOS, where a resident supervisory 
module calls in various overlays to do 
specific tasks) offers a choice of six spe- 
cific printer drivers, plus a serial printer 
driver; but, of course, only Radio 
Shack printers are provided for. 

An appendix in the manual on "How 
to Write Your Own Driver for a Non- 
Radio Shack Printer" does nothing to 
dispel the confusion. 

Has anyone put together a driver for 



the Epson MX-80 to interface it with 
SuperScripsit? 

Paul Martin 

P.O. Box 1331 

Punta Gorda, FL 33951 

New Sound Routine 

In the modifications to "Space 
Chase" by Charles E. Gillen (80 Mi- 
cro, October 1982, p. 31) he states, 
"The modified program should work 
equally well on Models I and III..."; 
this is not quite accurate. The sound 
routine in this program is one com- 
monly used; I have found it in several 
game and music programs in 80 Mi- 
cro. Unfortunately, this routine does 
not work on the Model III. 

I've developed a routine to modify a 
number of these programs. It gives ap- 
proximately the same results from the 
same USR input values and works with 
either the Model I or III. 

DATA 243,205,127,10,62,1,14,0,69,238,3, 
211,255,13,40,4,16,251,24,244,37,32,246,251, 
201 

This routine has only 25 bytes instead 
of the 29 in the original routine. This 
means that you must reduce the limits 
of the For... Next loop that reads the 
data by four. Also, if you POKE the 
data into a string, you must reduce the 
length of the string. 

For example, in Mr. Gillen 's modi- 
fied program: 
Line 50— Change "ZZ$ = STRINGS 
(29,0)" to "ZZ$=STRING$(25,0)" 
Line 60— Change "FOR ZZ = Z3 TO 
Z3 +28" to "FOR ZZ = Z3 TO 
Z3+24" 

Some of the programs use CMD'T" 
to remove the buzzing sound from the 
notes. That is not necessary with this 
routine since the interrupts are disabled 
at the start of the routine and enabled 
again before the return to Basic. 

David H. Siebenthaler 

54 W. Maplewood Ave. 

Dayton, OH 45405 



WP Comparison 

Mr. Robinson's insight into the de- 
tails of word processing, and his ability 
to explain them to the reader, are most 
evident. However, I believe he missed 



NOW MODEL I AIMO MODEL III ! 



Now Model III users can take advantage of the ALPHA I/O system too. Our new 
MOD III/I BUS CONVERTER allows most port based Model I accessories (such as 
our ANALOG-80, INTERFACER 2 and INTERFACER-80) to connect to the Model III 
bus. MOD III/I BUS CONVERTER, complete with all connectors, only $39.95. 




2Pri 



tinters? 



PRINTSWITCH 

Have 2 printers on line ai all limes and selecl primer I or 
2 by means ol a conveniently locaterj switch. End the problem 
of consianiiy plugging and unplugging primer cables PRINT- 
SWITCH is a compact module that plugs omo ihe pareliei primer 
port ol your TRS-80 and provides an edge conneclor lor each 
ol your Iwo printers. II works wilh any two lypes ol primers: 
dot matrix, daisy wheel, plotters. TRS-80 converted seleclrics. 
etc. Assembled, tested, ready lo use with conneclor and in- 
structions. For Model I or III (please specify). ONLY . . S59 00 



OE^ ) 40PH8- {p CABLES 

@od 34PK42- ra ra 

©a 34P*v54-ra m ra ra 

©HID 34P*i,2ft rp 
®ED 34 Pin, 4ft Fp 

© §£D 40 Ptn, 2 or 4 ft ("J 3 



SUPERIOR QUALITY REPLACEMENT & EXTENSION CABLES 
Highest quality cable and high (orce. gold plated contacts 

ensure Ihe utmost in connection reliability 

O KEYBOARD TO EXPANSION INTERFACE S2 1 

© DISK DRIVE CABLE FOR 1 OR 2 ORIVES . . . S32 
© DISK DRIVE CABLE FOR 3 OR 4 DRIVES . .. .S4S 

O DISK DRIVE CABLE EXTENDER $22 

© PRINTER CABLE EXTENDER S24 

© 40 PIN BUS EXTENDER - 2 II. . S22 4 It . $24 
Custom cable configurations are also available Call us 





'*Xr 0jt 



fflR&A 



ANALOG-80 A WORLD OF NEW APPLICATIONS POSSIBLE 
3 O'GiIAi MULTIMETERS PLUGGED WTO YOUR TRS-SO'" 
Measure Temperature Voltage Coirtnl light Pressure etc 
Very easy lo use for example let s >e»e :nput channel M !0 
OUT s Selects input »4 and also Sluts we conversion ?o 
■". :W0> Puis me result in vanaoie A Vona' 
Specifications input range O-'jV lo C-iOOV Each channel 
cm ae set lo a dilleren; scale 

Resolution ?0mvion5V range ■ Accuracy 8bnsi 5%i Port 
Access jumper selectable Plugs into keyboard tius Or E/l 
(sreen printer DO'ti Assembled and tested 90 day warranty 
Complete with power supply, connector manual $139 



TIMEOATE 80: REAL-TIME CLOCK/CALENDAR MODULE 

Keeps quart/ accurate time tor 3 years on ? replaceable 
AAA batteries inot included' tiiues MO 'DATE YR DAY 0: 
WEEK MR WIN SfC and AM/PM Features IMELL'GINI 
CAii-NOAR ,:nd even provides tor leap Year itus compact 
module Simply plugs wlo rear ot Keyboard or side ol 
fxp,:nsion Interlace imay he s-ippea msioe ill Includes 
cassette sollwa'e lor Milling 1 lock and patching to any DOS 
including NEVVDOS 80 ? ■ Optron.il Y connector al.ows 
lOl lurtllOt expansion For Model I Fully assembled .HIC 
tester: C:m :>n:le with instruction:, ,im! CiSSirtle ONI Y 
5 00 v option add Si 2 00 

power relays undei 

your 




DISK DRIVE EXTENDER CABLE. FREE YOUR MINI-DRIVES. 

End Ihe daisy-chain mess once and lor all Fits all mini- 
dnves. Percom. Aerocomp. Shugarl. Micropolis. MTI. Visia. 
Pertec. Siemens. BASF East to install. |ust remove the drive 
cover, plug in ihe EXTENDER CABLE and replace Ihe cover 

Now you can change and move your drives without dis- 
assembly Keep the cover on and the dust out High reliability 
gold plated contacts, computer grade 34 conductor cable 
Tesledand guaranteed 

Get one for each drive ONLY S8 9b 



INTERFACER-80: the most BOwcrlu: Sense • Control module 
•8 industrial grade relays single a-oie double throw isolated 
contacts 2 Amp ;,, 125 Volts II L latcnec D-iip-is are also 
dccessioie to onve externa.- solid slate relays 
.8 convenient i (.(is constantly display the relay slates 
Simple OU' co-'ii'arids 1 in basic I control :'t 8 relays 
• 8 oplicailyisoiated inputs for easy direct interlacing to 
external switches photccei-s keypacs sensors etc 
Simple imp' co-~manas 'eac tne status 0; trie 8 inputs 
Selectable port add'ess Clean compact enclosed design 
Assembled tesicd. 90 days warranty Price includes power 
supply, cable connector supero user's manual $159 




YOU ASKEO FOR IT: "EXPANDABUS" XI. X2. X3 AND X4. 
CONNECT ALL YOUR TRS-80 DEVICES SIMULTANEOUSLY 
on the 40 pin TRS-80 bus Any device that normally plugs 
mio the keyboard edge connector will also plug into tne 
EXPANDABUS' The X4" is shown with protective 
covers (included) ine TRS-80 keyboard contains the bus 
drivers (74LS367) lor up to 20 devices, more than v ou will 
ever need Using the E/l it plugs either between K8 and E/l 
or in the Screen Printer port Professional ouahiy gold 
plated contacts Computer grade 40 conductor ripoon cable 
X2. S29 X3 S44 X4 $59 Xb S74 

Custom configurations are also available can -js 



GREEN SCREEN 

WARNING 

IBM and all the biggies aie using green screen monitors 

its advantages are now widely advertised We leei mat every 

TRS-80 user should enjoy the benehis it provides But 

WARNING: al 1 Green Screens are nol created equal Here is 

what we lound 

•Several are just a Hal piece of standard colored lucite The 

green lini was nol made for this purpose and is judged by 

many 10 be loo dark Increasing ihe brightness control will 

result in a fuzzy display 

•Some are simply a piece of mm piasnc film taped onto a 

cardboard Irame The color is satisfactory but me wobbly litm 

gives il a poor appearance 

•One "optical lilter" is in lad plain acrylic sheeiing 

•False claim: A lew pretend to reduce glare" in fact their 

Hal and shiny surfaces (both lilm and Lucite type) ADD their 

own reflections 10 ihe screen 

•A lew laughs One ad claims lo "reduce screen contrast ' 

Sorry gentleman but it's just tne opposite One ol ihe Green 

Screen's major benelits is lo increase the contrast between 

Ihe lexi and the background 

•Drawbacks Most are using adhesive strips to fasten their 

screen to me monitor Tins method makes it awkward to 

remove lor necessary periodical cleaning AM lexcepi ours) 

are Hat Light pens win not work reliably because ol me big 

gap belween ihe screen and the lube 

Many companies have been manufacturing video filters lor 

years We are nol the lirsl (some think ihey are). Out we have 

done our homework and we think 'we manufacture the best 

Green Screen Here is why 

•it his right onto the picture tube like a skin because it is me 

only CURVEO screen MOLDED exactly 10 me picture lube 

curvature It is Cut precisely 10 cover ihe exposed area of the 

picture tube Ihe In is Sucn thai the sialic electricity is 

sufficient 10 keep il m place' We also include some invisible 

reusable lape lor a more secure fastening 

•The finer material mai we use is iusi righl not 100 dark nor 

loo iigm Ihe result is a really eye pleasing display 

We are so Sure thai you will never lake your Green screen oil 

that we offer an unconditional money-back guaranty try our 

Green Screen lor 14 days if for any reason you are not 

delighted wilh It. return it (or a prompt relund 

A las: word We think thai companies like ours, who are 

selling mainly by mail should «iist their street address»have a 

phone number (lor questions and orders)«accepi CODs. nol 

every one likes 10 send checks to a PO box»oller ihe 

convenience ol charging iheir purchase 10 major credit cards 

How come we are Ihe only green screen people doing if 

Order your ALPHA GREEN SCREEN today SI ? 50 



LJE ALPHA Products 



A00 S2 50 PER ORDER FOR SHIPPING AND HANDLING 

ALL ORDERS SHIPPED FIRST CLASS MAIL 

WE ACCEPT VISA. MASTER CHARGE CHECKS MO 

COD ADOS? 00 EXTRA 

OUANTITYOISCOUNTS AVAILABLE "f 

N Y RESIDENTS AOD SALES TAX ma 



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INPUT 



the point of the Word Machine's real 
utility. 

I have been interested in, working 
with, and fascinated by word processors 
and text editors for years. This includes 
WP/34 for the IBM, WordStar, Select, 
Scripsit, and Electric Pencil. I have also 
observed the reactions of clerks and sec- 
retaries in offices when told that they 
would have to learn to use a word pro- 
cessor. The reaction is generally nega- 
tive. It takes a good secretary about a 
month to lose the fear of using this 
thing. It takes another month to gain 
some confidence, and then it's mostly a 
matter of how much the secretary is 
willing to put into it to get more out of 
it. The majority of users don't need or 
use up to 80 percent of what these word 
processing programs offer. Yet they 
have to go through the initial ordeal to 
learn to use the 20-50 percent that they 
do use. 

I believe much software on the mar- 
ket today is the result of contests be- 
tween first-rate programmers. These 
results approach programming perfec- 
tion, but do not give the user what he 
really needs. The average secretary, 
hobbyist, or home user uses a word pro- 
cessor mainly for letters and notes, 
memoranda, small reports, and one or 
two-page advertising text. 

The Word Machine is designed for 
these people. It takes about ten minutes 
to be able to use this menu-driven pro- 
gram. The screen is self-prompting, and 
the choices are clear and simple. 

The Word Machine is written in Ba- 
sic, which, as Mr. Robinson points out, 
is not as fast as Assembly language. In- 
dividual routines in the Word Machine 
can take longer than in the more expen- 
sive programs. We do, however, invite 
comparison with any of the Assembly- 
language programs on the market. 

We have designed the Word Machine 
for use with the TRS-80 Models I and 
III, with Centronics (Radio Shack line 
printers) or Epson MX printers. The 
Model I owner without the lowercase 
hardware modification can even get 
lowercase printout if his printer has a 
lowercase font. The Epson version al- 
lows variable line spacing. I am con- 
vinced that these features satisfy 100 
percent of the requirements of 99 per- 
cent of the people who want to reap the 
rewards of a word processor. 

Gary Himler 

P.O. Box 3322 

Granada Hills, CA 91344 

18 • 80 Micro, January 1983 



Dan Robinson Replies 

Choice of a word processing program 
is a personal matter. My personal belief 
is that a word processor written in Basic 
can 't compete with a machine-language 
program. Basic 's editing commands can 
hardly be simpler for a secretary to 
learn than those of a well-written pro- 
gram like Scripsit. Moreover, in the 
Word Machine's tape version, having 
to make substitutes for every comma or 
colon can hardly make the work 
easier. — Dan Robinson 



Impartial Reviews 

Bruce Powel Douglass' review of 
Newscript 7.0, by Prosoft (80 Micro, 
October 1982) is a glowing report of 
that program's virtues and capabilities. 
On looking further through the maga- 
zine, I found on page 215 an ad for a 
game called Regilian Worm by Bruce 
Powel Douglass, and marketed by Pro- 
soft. In my mind, this raises a question 
concerning the objectivity of the reviews 
in your magazine. 

While a product review by someone 
having a business relationship with the 
product's supplier can be fair and im- 
partial, 80 Micro has an obligation to 
inform readers of any known business 
relationship between a reviewer and the 
company that markets the product be- 
ing reviewed. 

R. B. Ormsby 

135 Marshglen Point, N. W. 

Atlanta, GA 30328 

At the time Bruce Douglass' review 
was accepted, Regilian Worm was not 
yet being marketed by Prosoft. We are, 
however, sensitive to the kinds of con- 
flicts of interest you mention. While we 
can 't claim a track record of 100 per- 



cent, we try to screen out reviews by 
people with vested interests. — Eds. 

Trying Harder 

As a Radio Shack computer service 
technician, I take exception to Wayne's 
"Remarks" (80 Micro, October 1982), 
that state, "... otherwise, you are help- 
less at the hands of the Tandy service 
people, who seem to have little respon- 
sibility to the stores that work with 
them — or to the customers." 

It is unfair to condemn all service 
people as uncaring based on a few ex- 
periences. With any product or service, 
there are going to be unhappy custom- 
ers, especially from the service end. 
However, many of us strive to provide 
customers with the fastest, most courte- 
ous service at the lowest possible price. 

We are not the only company selling 
microcomputers. So if our customers 
put their faith and money into our 
products, it's only fair that they be 
treated in a proper manner. If it weren't 
for them, I, and many others, would be 
out of a job. 

Paul Gaitanis 

461 Westover Hills Blvd. 

Richmond, VA 23225 

Model III Dialer 

The article "Telephone Dialer" by 
Jim Hickey (80 Micro, June/ July 1982) 
works fine on a Model I, but the Model 
III cassette port operates differently. 
The dialer uses the remote control for 
the cassette deck. When a 4 is output to 
port number 255, the contacts on the 
jack close to complete the circuit and 
turn on the relay. Likewise, a sent to 
the same port turns off the relay. The 
Model III controls the remote through 
port 236. 



40 OUT 236,2 

60 OUT 236,16 

400 RESTORE:PRINT CHR$ ( 28) ;: PRINT 6128, "COMMAND : 

";CHR$(30);:L=20:GOSUB 800:IN$=W$ 

405 PRINT CHR$(31); 

410 IFIN$ "LIST" THEN CLS:PRINT:GOTO490 

490 READNA$,NO$:IFNA$ "END"THENPRINT: PRINT: LINEINPUT"Press 

ENTER to continue";A$:PRINT@,CHR$(31);:GOTO 

400ELSEPRINTA$, ; : GOTO 4 90 

511 IFNO$ "0*THEN520 

610 OUT236,2:FORLP 1TO300:NEXT:OUT236,16:GOTO400 

800 LINEINPUTW$: RETURN 

Program Listing 1 



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80 Micro, January 1983 • 19 



INPUT 



The flashing cursor routine at line 
800 can be replaced on disk systems 
(Disk Basic) by a Line Input; this saves 
memory and is more efficient. 

Change or delete the lines in Program 
Listing 1 to make a dialing program 
work on a Model III. 

Tom Lake 

15 Silver Lane 

Chappaqua, NY 10514 

Hexagon Speaks 

I was impressed by the comprehen- 
sive review of word processing pro- 
grams in your September issue. As 
the author of Hexspell 2, 1 would like to 
comment on your Spelling Checker 
section. 

Mr. Robinson commented he found 
Hexspell "a bit slow." No doubt with 
many programs to review he could not 
spend a long time with Hexspell — 
otherwise, he would have found it 
speeds up in use. Hexspell reorders its 
word list to bring the most-frequently 
used words to the front, where they are 
found fastest. This leads to a noticeable 
increase in speed. Hexspell was de- 
signed for people who wish to read 
through a document before sending it 




The DOSPLUS II Model II operat- 
ing system, listed in our November 
1982 New Products section, is a joint 
creation of PowerSOFT (1 1500 Stern- 
mons Freeway, Suite 125, Dallas, TX 
75229) and Micro-Systems Software 
Inc. (4301-18 Oak Circle, Boca Raton, 
FL 33431). PowerSOFT's contribu- 
tion was inadvertently omitted.— Eds. 



Regarding my Patch for Scrip 
Patch that you published in your Oc- 
tober 1982 issue (Input, p. 22), I apol- 
ogize for not being more explicit. The 
Basic address of 26347 wasn't a direct 
conversion from 66DFH (26335), 
which is what you printed. 26335 
causes a load file format error. * 

Bill Geib 

8185 State Road 

North Royalton, OH 44133 



out. As such, it runs only at the user's 
reading speed, and contains provisions 
to slow down. 

The choice of a word list for a spell- 
ing checker is difficult. Mr. Robinson 
favors difficult-to-spell words in place 
of words like cat and dog. Some people 
would be upset to hear that such words 
are incorrect every time they run a spell- 
ing check. Mr. Robinson points out that 
all spelling checkers miss some obvious 
words. A large dictionary contains 
some 500,000 words, so even the largest 
TRS-80 spelling checker misses 85-90 
percent of possible words. 

Choosing the perfect word list is such 
a personal matter that Hexspell avoids 
it. Instead, Hexspell concentrates on 
adapting its original word list to the 
user's requirements. It does this by 
learning new words, and rearranging its 
list according to frequency of use. 

While comparative reviews are useful 
they don't give the reviewer a chance 
to spend more time with a complex 
program. 

Bernard J. Hughes 

Manager — Hexagon Systems 

P.O. Box 397, Station A 

Vancouver, BC 

Canada V6C2N2 

Dan Robinson Replies 

Mr. Hughes has an excellent program 
in Hexspell 2, and I tried to convey that 
fact when describing the program 's fea- 
tures in my review. Construction of the 
master word list and the spelling correc- 
tion procedures are perhaps more a 
matter of taste and style than efforts to- 
wards some fixed goal. 

Most of us wouldn 't use the half -mil- 
lion words in a large dictionary, even if 
we knew them all. Our working vocabu- 
laries will be limited and rather similar, 
with the addition ofprofessional words 
tucked away in an auxiliary file. 

Hexspell begins with a shorter word 
list and tailors that list to the words that 
the writer uses most often. Hexspell also 
supports an auxiliary list of the user's 
words, which brings the total dictionary 
to the neighborhood of 50,000 words. 
Hexspell requires more effort on the 
part of the writer when he first uses the 
program in order to have a word list 
closely suited to the writer's needs. It 's a 
fair exchange. 

The question of speed is more a mat- 
ter of how you produce documents. If 
all the writing is done as a batch and set 



aside for proofing, one document after 
another, and then printed as a batch, 
stand-alone programs won 't differ too 
greatly in speed. On the other hand, if 
you write the copy, check the spelling, 
and print it before going on to the next 
document, then a dictionary program 
integrated into the word processor is 
much faster — and more expensive. 

Word list selection and the correction 
process are a matter of choice. Hex- 
spell's other virtues, such as the ability 
to process numerical data and define 
foreign character sets, aren 't found in 
any other program. Hexspell is a good 
program, and for many will be the first 
choice. 

Dan Robinson 

1625 Higgins Way 

Pacifica, CA 94044 

More LP VII Articles 

I purchased a Line Printer VII from 
Radio Shack and am most pleased with 
it. I read the article you published about 
it in your April 1982 issue, but I'm still 
in the dark about its complete opera- 
tion. The manual supplied by Radio 
Shack is about as useful as most of their 
documentation. 

I would like to see more articles giv- 
ing practical applications and programs 
using the graphics mode to show its ca- 
pabilities to the fullest. 

Robert E. Wesley 

116 Court St. #7 

Pittsburgh, NY 12901 

Trick Fix 

Mike Keller's "Trick or TRS-80" (80 
Micro, October 1982) is perfect for our 
haunted house display this Halloween. I 
did encounter a problem, though; my 
operating system defaults to three files. 
This causes M2$ to occupy address 
32768, which results in an overflow er- 
ror. The solution: Specify less than 
three files. 

Further modifications to the pro- 
gram included running it once to pack 
the strings, and deleting the remark and 
data lines. I moved F$, Ml$, and M2$ 
to lines 90-92 and deleted the GOSUB 
at line 90 also. As long as the program is 
not saved in ASCII format, all is well, 
although listing the program can be 
confusing, and LLISTing it can drive 
your printer up the wall! 

I added line 145 to prevent the face 
from scrolling off the screen: 145 IFF< 



20 • 80 Micro, January 1983 



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teach you how to write usable, useful 
programs on your computer. And you 
don't have to worry about irrelevant 
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because there are three specific volumes. 
One for the Apple,* one for the IBM-PC,* 
and one for the TRS-80.* 

In each of these books author Ed Faulk 
leads you through your favorite com- 
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programs for it. As you proceed, interest- 
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wonder why you were ever intimidated 
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If you want to get the very most out of 
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Toll free (800) 336-0338 



INPUT 



323THENF = 323ELSEIF F>349 
THENF = 349. 

Thanks to Mr. Keller for a neat and 
timely program. 

Bill Schreiber 

P.O. Box 1034 

Boone, NC 28607 



A Horror Story 

I ordered, from various suppliers, a 
Model III with 16K, an extra 32K of 
memory, a single Percom drive, and a 
Lynx modem. When I opened the com- 
puter I saw that I was not competent to 
install the drive and memory, so I put it 
back together and took it to a nearby 
Percom dealer. He installed the drive 
and the memory, and for a few weeks 
all was well. Then I began to have prob- 
lems booting disks; a technician told me 
that it was probably the ribbon cable 
that connects the drive controller to the 
CPU board. 

One night a thunderstorm struck; I 
had unplugged the power cords but 
didn't disconnect the telephone lines 
from the modem. The modem and the 
CPU were damaged. Emtrol Systems 
(the Lynx people), fixed the modem and 
didn't charge me a penny. 

I took the computer to the non-Radio 
Shack technician and waited three 
weeks for a new CPU board. The board 
was bad; I waited again for a new 
board. It too was bad, or my computer 
had a mysterious problem. The non-Ra- 
dio Shack technician was embarrassed 
to have had my computer for so long. If 
I had bought from Radio Shack, I could 
have had the damage fixed in a couple 
of days at the Computer Center. The 
resolution was satisfactory; they let me 
trade in my equipment for a new Model 
III with factory drives. So, for a few 
hundred dollars difference, I have a 
new machine and am rid of my head- 
ache. From now on Radio Shack will 
service my equipment. 

David Dalton 

3558 Bo wens Road 

Tobaccoville, NC 27050 

The Word Is Worth It 

The "Word Machine" review (Sep- 
tember 1982) is good for more than just 
"a few personal letters." My wife has 
done several papers using "The Word 
Machine" with a minimum of learning 
and no hassle. I have also used it and 



found it more than adequate. 

It is true that an under-$50 word pro- 
cessor will not compete head-to-head 
with the big boys, but it doesn't destroy 
the budget. Maybe writers don't need 
this inexpensive tool, but many of us 
find such a program affordable and 
usable. 

Kenneth Held 

19224 Castlebay Lane 

Northridge, CA 91326 

Video Genie 

I have a Video Genie, also known as 
the PMC-80, and which was subject to 
an article "What's a TRZ-80?" by Mr. 
Lindsay in your January 1982 issue. 

The Genie is much improved over the 
model described by Mr. Lindsay. I wish 
he had described the hardware mod to 
make large characters controllable from 
software (OUT 255,8 won't do it, and 
PRINT CHR$(23) leaves the size nor- 
mal but double-spaces). 

When you turn on the machine, it 
does not prompt Ready, but Ready?. 
The machine uses ports for cassettes 
and printer rather than memory latch- 
ing, and the external cassette is not at 
Port FE. Port FE selects the cassette 



drive, default is #1, but OUT 254,8 se- 
lects^ (via the DIN socket) and OUT 
254,0 selects #1, which is built into the 
machine. 

The current Genie has a 1.5K ROM 
(from 3000H up) that adds a lowercase 
driver, a flashing repeating cursor, 
screen print, renumberer, and a machine- 
code monitor. This is the same area of 
RAM utilized by the Aculab ROM (the 
British equivalent of the ESF) so I've in- 
stalled a switch to disable the internal 
ROM when I use the Aculab. There is 
also an internal amp and speaker for 
sound output via the cassette port. 

In 80 Micro, November 1981, "Cus- 
tomized Commands" by Mr. Rupert 
described a merge utility. I have con- 
verted this to a Basic routine that loads 
into System RAM unused by Model I 
non-disk machines and adds the com- 
mands, (see Program Listing 2). 

Save — to close off the current Basic 
program in memory and allow another 
Basic program to be entered or loaded 
from cassette. 

Merge — to append the last program 
to that previously saved. 

RSET— Warm Boot, to reset memo- 
ry size without initializing System 
RAM, useful if you wish to load a 



If CLS 

20 PRINT"To save the existing program in memory, enter 

•SAVE 1 ." 

30 PRINT"Then 'CLOAD' the next program you wish to append 

to" 

40 PRINT"the existing program. Ensure that the second 

program" 

50 PRINT"has line numbers GREATER than the first program." 

60 PRINT"The two programs are then joined by entering 

•MERGE'." 

70 PRINT"In addition 'RSET' will initiate the Memory 

Reserve process without initializing System RAM." 

80 PRINT 

90 PRINT"This routine does not occupy user RAM, but it is 

located" 

100 PRINT"between 16477 (405DH) and 16510 (407EH) in System 

RAM." 

110 POKE 16801, 93:POKE 16802,64: 'Initialize SAVE. 

120 POKE 16780, 112: POKE 16781,64: 'Initialize MERGE. 

130 POKE 167 95, 181: POKE 16796,0: 'Initialize RSET 

140 POKE 16509, PEEK(16548) :POKE 16510 , PEEK (16549) 

150 FOR 1= 16477 TO 16505: 'Load M.C. 

routine. 

160 READ X: POKE I,X: NEXTI 

170 PRINT: PRINT: INPUT"Ready to continue, if so press 

'NEWLINE'";X:NEW 

180 DATA 42,164,64,237,99,125,64,42,249,64,43,43,237,99,164 

190 DATA 64,195,114,0,42,125,64,237,99,164,64,195,114,0 

Program Listing 2 



22 • 80 Micro, January 1983 



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also totals W-2s, computes FICA overpayment, 
calculates tax alternatives . . . even prepares 
client billing. 

TAXPRO IS INTELLIGENT. It analyzes 
the client's tax picture, suggests the best 
route to go. Determines eligibility for special 
forms such as minimum/ 
maximum tax, income 
averaging, to name a few. 

TAXPRO IS EASY. 

Because it follows the tax 
forms line by line. Taxes 
are automatically figured, 
entered everywhere they 
apply. Change any entry, 
and all relevant data is 
automatically revised. 
Produces a printout that 
exactly fits 1040 and 




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INPUT 



machine-language program into high 
memory but forgot to reserve. 

John Megson 

25 North Road 

Bourne, Lines 

PEW 9AP 

England 

More Speed for Space Duel 

I have a modification for Dave 
Edick's "Space Duel" (80 Micro, Au- 
gust 1981). In the original game the ship 
moves too slowly. My modification in 
Program Listing 3 will speed it up. 

Uwe Scariot 

Maerkische Str. 90 

D-4600 Dortmund 1 

West Germany 

More Modifications 

Richard Straw's "JKL Minus 
Blanks" modification for NEWDOS + 
{80 Micro, September 1982, page 290) is 
a welcome addition. For those who 
have lowercase modifications in the 
Model I keyboard, the printer goes into 
a series of line feeds when it encounters 
the control code ASCII values used by 
video memory. This occurs because the 
ASCII values for the capital letters are 
shifted from 65-90 to 1-25. 

A few extra instructions in the PRNT 
sequence fix the problem by testing to 
see if the ASCII value in the A register is 
less than 27, then converting if it is. I 
added three lines to the program (see 
Program Listing 4). 

I also found that, changing the 
ORG in line 250 from FFDBH to 
FDCEH, I was able to use the 
ULCDVR lowercase driver that 
resides from FDDO to FFFF in my 



48K system. Otherwise, the two pro- 
grams occupy the same memory area. 

Stan Treitman 

150 Glen Road 

Wellesley Hills, MA 02181 

Almost Satisfied 

Let me express my satisfaction with 
your magazine and its contents. 

May I suggest more coverage for the 
professionals in the software field who 
are using TRS-80s as their develop- 
ment tool? 

C. W. Medlock 

Pro /Am Software 

220 Cardigan Road 

Centerville, OH 45459 



Scriplus Update 

The Scriplus review (80 Micro, Au- 
gust 1982, page 101) was fair, although 
slightly ancient. To bring you up to 
date, the program now works on all the 
current DOSes for the Model I or III. 
The same disk boots on either ma- 
chine, thanks to Kim Watt. 

It is also compatible with all Scripsit 
versions, and can convert the Model I 
version 1.0 for use on the Model III. A 
sideline effect is that Scripsit 's backup 
protection was removed for the user's 
convenience. 

The program has also been updated 
to include chaining, killing, and merg- 
ing of files from within Scriplus, as 
well as the alphabetized directory. A 
Pause command has been added to fa- 
cilitate inserting a name in a form let- 
ter, or changing print wheels. Scriplus 
now includes details for use on the 



92 CC+CC+1, PRINT@832,E$; 

100 IF PEEK(14400)=32 PO=PO-l 

110 IF PEEK (14400) =64 PO=PO+l 

123 IF PEEK(14337)=1 AND CC>2 THEN1000 



Program Listing 3 



360 
361 
362 
363 

370 



PRNT LD 
CP 
JR 
ADD 
CP 



A, (DE) 

27 

NC , PR2 

A r 64 

80H 



TEST FOR ALPHABETIC/LC MOD 

GO IF NOT 

CONVERT TO STANDARD ASCII 



Program Listing 4 



Daisy Wheel II and other Radio Shack 
printers. 

The Scriplus 3.0 disk is $39.95; all 
previous owners can upgrade their old- 
er versions for only $15, which includes 
the new, larger manual. 

Dennis A. Brent, President 

Breeze/QSD Inc. 

11500 Stemmons Freeway, Suite 125 

Dallas, TX 75229 

Patching Service 

Many thanks to Dan Robinson for 
the comparison of word processing 
products in the September issue. It 
must have been an exhaustive research 
effort. 

Due to a recently announced change 
in version numbering policy by Lazy 
Writer's author, we are now offering 
our enhancements to that program in 
the form of a patching service. This al- 
lows us to keep up with changes in 
Lazy Writer that might not be reflected 
in the version number. 

By applying our LZ Patches to a 
user's specific version, we will be able 
to avoid incompatibilities. The price 
for this service is $29.95 (the original 
price of LZ Patcher). We are equipped 
to patch version 1.9 and later. Anyone 
who wishes more information can call 
me at (505) 294-4966. 

Mike Keller 

Imaginuity Inc. 

13423 Desert Hills NE 

Albuquerque, NM 87111 

Talking Down 

I have enjoyed 80 Micro for several 
years, but especially Mr. Keynes' recent 
MONEY DOS articles. They have, 
however, an almost imperceptible Jeho- 
vah-like background air, and I get the 
feeling he is writing down to me. 

This was particularly true in the re- 
cent article on commodities trading in 
which he says, in essence, "This is a 
good program but you should see the 
one I'm using (but you can't, goody, 
goody)!" He even emphasizes this on 
his WATS line encyclical when he 
proudly announces his modification is 
"not available at any cost." His stature 
would have been much taller had he not 
even mentioned his personal, unavail- 
able, much superior modification. 

H. S. Banton Jr. 

Doctors Building 

Union Springs, AL 36089 



24 • 80 Micro, January 1983 



.-V 



// 



It 



IF YOUR PRINTER 




ON THIS LIST, 
NEWSCRIPT SHOULD Bl 
ON YOUR COMPUTER." 



NEWSCRIPT'S exclusive print processor 
gives you total printer control. 

NEWSCRIPT's exclusive print 
processor takes over where formatting 
leaves off with over 200 print processing 
and support features. NEWSCRIPT takes 
you beyond text formatting — beyond 
just printing text on paper. With NEW- 
SCRIPT's Print processor you take full 
advantage of your printer's hardware and 
software features, creating an unsurpas- 
sed printed image. Text editing (the part 
you see), is only part of the job, printing is 
the other part — the part others will see. 

NEWSCRIPT controls over 80 popular 
printers. 

You don't even have to know how 
your printer works — only what it can do. 
NEWSCRIPT will do the rest with such 
major features as underlining, right jus- 
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bottom titles, top/bottom left-right-center 
page numbering, chaining and embedded 
printing of any length file with disk span- 
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letters with selective editing, boldface, 
sub/super scripts, character substitution/ 
translation, table of contents, indexing, 



hanging indents, paragraph numbering, 
line numbering, double width characters, 
italics, hard and soft hyphens, in-memory 
spooling, and many other features.* 



NEWSCRIPT'S text editor has 
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processing. 



Buffered key entry rates to 450 
characters per second — you never drop 
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block move and copy within and between 
files, definable auto save, "HELP" and 
"WHOOPS" commands, repeat and query 
last command, search and replace within 
column and line limits as well as globally, 
and an automatic interface to the ELEC- 
TRIC WEBSTER spelling checker (sold 
separately). 

NEWSCRIPT'S 277 page manual 
contains an introductory tutorial with ex- 
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needs, a "How to Section" to help when 
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over 1,300 entries, and a handy quick- 
reference card (naturally!). 



Start getting the printed results 
only NEWSCRIPT can give you for 
$124.95. Requires TRS-80 Model I or HI 
with 48K and 1 disk (minimum — 2 rec- 
ommended) 




is available at computer stores, selected B. 
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of stock order direct. Include $3.00 
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TO ORDER, CALL NOW, TOLL-FREE: 

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For technical information call: 

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Dept. C, Box 560, No. Hollywood, CA 91603 



NEWSCRIPT companion programs (sold separately): MAILING LABELS $29.95, DAISY WHEEL PROPORTIONAL $49.95 
(not required for Daisy Wheel II), PENCIL & SCRIPSIT FILE CONVERSION $24.95, ELECTRIC WEBSTER (spelling checker 
and automatic correction) $149.50, GEAP (TRS-80 graphics — requires Epson MX-80) $49.95, DOTWRITER (Hi-res graphics — 
requires Epson MX-80/100 with Graftrax) $69.95, GEAP/DOTWRITER combination (requires Epson MX-80/100 with Graftrax) $99.95 

Dealers: NEWSCRIPT is distributed by IJG, Inc. (714) 946-5805 
*Some features work only if your printer has the mechanical capability. 

NEWSCRIPT trademark PR0S0FT registered U.S. Pat. Office TRS-80 registered trademark TANDY Corp. 







TRS80 Mode! I & III 

$19.95 Tape 

$22.95 Disk 



■WpTTm 



PM 1 1 1 • n LI •] L=9iiU I? La Jiixiiliiilill 



All orders by VISA, Mastercard or 
check add $1 .50 shipping. Indiana 
residents please include 4% sales tax. a 



,". from' your local software dealer or order direct. 






■. ..■ •* 



Tlie CpAsoft Group 



6008 Kl. Keystone Aye.,. Indianapolis, IN 46220 (31 7) 257-3227 



TRS rf£* is a registered tr 



1 the Tandy^orporatiori: ?, 



•'« ■ • v • 




Bounceoids corfie'crasfiTflfJdown from spHW^ and 
rebound across the screen. Blast them or they will smash 
you. You have a shield but its lifespan is limited so use it 
sparingly. 

The commotion will attract alien natives with poison 
darts, off-world snakes and shaking bugs. Be on your 
guard. The longer you survive the harder it is to simply 
exist. Bounceoids start dropping from the sky in tiny 
clusters or with constantly changing outer dimensions. 

Bounceoids copyright 1982 by the Cornsoft Group 



Reach the exclusive chal|en(ge levef -and f ace the flying 
space flock in a tensefcbaUenge ofjSTrcfl Bg^, coordination 
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TRS 80- is n registered trade mark of the Tandy Corporation 



^308 




Become a "Crazy Painter" 

and create a masterpiece 

...if you can. 

A mischievous puppy, snakes and poisonous turpentine 
buckets force changes in your painting. In higher skill 
levels, "paint eaters" start chewing up your work. 
Suddenly, everyone's a critic. Can you overcome them? 



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6008 N. Keystone Ave., Indianapolis. IN 46220 • (317) 257-3227 



'319 



r>azy Painter copyright 1382 by The Cornsoft Group. 



TRS80* is a registered trademark of the Tandy Corporation. 



INPUT 



Just in Time 

The article "Cheaper Upgrade" was 
just in time. 

I purchased a 16K RAM kit from an 
advertiser in 80 Micro; getting the Ex- 
tended Basic ROM was a little harder. I 
went to several Radio Shack Computer 
Stores while on vacation in Tampa and 
St. Petersburg, and locally in Lexing- 
ton, KY. They all said no to my pur- 
chase of a ROM chip. 

The local Radio Shack franchise, 
however, was more than happy to order 
it for me, and kept after the back order 
until it arrived V/z weeks later. I in- 
stalled it with the article's help and ev- 
erything worked fine. 

Steven Lewis 
15 13 A Maple Lane 
Corbin, KY 40701 

Fatal Error? 

What would you say if a friend asked 
you to wrap a bare wire around your 
wrist and then plug the other end into a 
wall outlet? I'm sure the answer 
wouldn't be printable here. 

Well, in the article "Cheaper Up- 
grade," author Richard Tucker sug- 
gests just that. Although he does specify 
the grounded side of the outlet, I would 
hate to think of the results from a poor- 
ly wired outlet or deteriorated wiring. A 
quick check with a ground fault indica- 
tor would help, but I think a smart move 
would be to clamp the wire to a water 
pipe. Other than that small (but possi- 
bly fatal) error I enjoyed the article. 

Michael Janke 

20620 Gulfstream Road 

Miami, FL 33189 

TRSDOS 1.3 Zaps 

I would like to provide the following 

zaps to TRSDOS 1.3 for the Model III. 

To provide a 30ms track stepping rate 



DRS RB Existing byte New byte 

OB 
OB 
IB 
OB 
OB 
OB 
IB 
5B 



Table I 



2 


9F 


OC 


3 


AE 


oc: 


3 


DC 


1C 


13 


9D 


oc: 


35 


30 


oc 


35 


63 


oc 


36 


49 


1C 


38 


6A 


58 



you must change the nine bytes listed 
below. Following Apparat's Superzap 
format, the disk relative sector (DRS) is 
in decimal and the relative byte (RB) of 
the sector is in hex (see Table 1). The 
zaps can be applied using Superzap or 
the debug facility of TRSDOS. 

While making zaps, you might want 
the error messages printed on the screen 
instead of the error code and then hav- 
ing to ask for the error message to be 
printed. All it takes is a one-byte zap. 
On DRS 304, RB 2C you will find the 



byte to be 20H. Zap this to 18H. 

If we do not want to input the date or 
time on power up, it will take a six-byte 
zap— three bytes for the date and three 
bytes for the time. On DRS 12, begin- 
ning at RB 70H, you will find 21 3B 51. 
Change this to C3 2E 4F. This takes 
care of the date. For the time, at DRS 
12, relative byte BA, you will find 21 54 
51. Zap this to C3 2E 4F. 

Tom Ash 

P.O. Box 584 

Oak Harbor, WA 98277 



You must vaporize the pests with and begin a relentless assault on 

your laser and pesticide bombs, your ship. AVENGER is joystick 

Pest control is a never-ending task compatible, 

in this space simulation. Be quick AVENGER is available for the TRS 



a wave of pests, the AVENGER 
appears and homes in on your 
PestiCraft. 

A random Vengence Encounter 
throws you into a world with droid- 
filled birds. You have to destroy 
them, but every time they burst, a 
myriad of droids are released 



IflBHMaMflHlEHalHa 



software dealer. MasterCard & Visa 
orders accepted. $19.95 tape, $1 .50 
shipping and handling charges. 

The Corfisoft Group 

6008 N. Keystone Avenue 
Indianapolis, IN 46220 (317) 257-3227 



•JlgSttii!£&!&ggSiS 




Hi j. Hi j. Bm. Su. 
HflH 




TRS 80* Color Computer is a registered trademark of the Tandy Corporation.;' 
AVENGER copyright 1982 The Cornsoft-Group 



• See List of Advertisers on Page 435 



80 Micro, January 1983 • 29 



DEBUg 



Thanks Mr. B. 

After reading my article "The 
Colorful Computer — Part II," Alex- 
ander Benenson kindly called an error 
to my attention. The Draw command 
could only produce a restricted number 
of angles (eight). The following is a 
short program suggested by Mr. 
Benenson to illustrate the further ca- 
pabilities of Draw. 

10 PMODE 3,1: PC1S : SCREEN 1,1 
20 DRAW "BM 128,96 M + 12, -16 
M + 12, + 16 L25" 
30 GOTO 30 

This draws an equilateral triangle 
near the center of the screen. Draw be- 
comes even more powerful than I real- 
ized. Mr. Benenson also suggested a 
technique I was not aware of. Instead 
of using DRAW "BM" + STR$ (X) 
+ "," +STR$(Y) + S$ where X and 
Y are the coordinates of the starting 
point, the following can be used in- 
stead: POKE 200, X : POKE 202,Y : 
DRAW S$. 

My thanks to Mr. Benenson. 

Franklyn D. Miller 
8871 Falmouth Drive 
Cincinnati, OH 45231 



Escape from the Maze 

Daniel Phillips wrote in the May In- 
put column that he couldn't get out of 
Roy Green's "SuperMaze" (80 Micro, 
March 1982, p. 148). I had the same 
problem until I changed line 960 as 
follows: 960 IF X = A(101) AND D = 2 
THEN 1100. 

Roger Bury 

Box 1404 

Ukiah, CA 95482 



Wiping Up Halloween 

After typing and editing Mike 
Keller's "Trick or TRS-80" program 
(80 Micro, October 1982) I found that 
moving the face toward the left of the 
screen leaves a trail of blanks from the 
lower right corner of the mouth. Not 
wanting my ghoul to drool, I began to 
search for the demon that haunted my 
program. A thorough examination of 
the program solved the mystery. 

To cure Jack's salivations, add one 

30 • 80 Micro, January 1983 




additional asterisk to line 470, and 
change the following lines to read: 

490 FOR X = START TO START + 217: 
READ CHAR: POKE X, CHAR: NEXT X 
760 MIS = RIGHTS (F$, 62) 

Phillip C. Funderburk 

513 Longleaf Road 

Summerville, SC 29483 

Missing Delete 

I forgot to include the delete func- 
tion when I wrote my Do-It-Yourself 
Data Base. I wish I could say it hap- 
pened in the 80 Micro editorial offices 
but it evidently slipped into the bit 
bucket under my own desk. My apol- 
ogies to all — especially to those who 
wrote to me asking "Where is it?" 

Insert lines 5000-5030 into the 
program. 

5000 INPUT "ENTER RECORD 
NUMBER TO BE DELETED.";SN 
5010 IF SN = -1 THEN RETURN 
5020 DA(SN,0) = "D" 
5030 GOTO 5000 

Operation consists of entering the 
record number to be deleted each time 
the prompt appears. The record 
number to be deleted comes from a 
print of the records. When all records 
have been deleted, enter -1 to return to 
the menu. 

Karl L. Townsend 

103 Knoll wood Drive 

Lansdale, PA 19446 

16K Screen Veil 

Mike Keller's "Screen Veil" program 
(80 Micro, September 1982, p. 286), 



written for a Model I, states, "The 
NEWDOS80 calls are compatible with 
the Model III." This is true, except 
for one call; line 00141 of his listing 
should read: 

447B 00141 INSERT EQU 447BH; 

instead of: 

4410 00141 INSERT EQU 4410H; 

Also change the ORG address in line 
121 to FB00H (64256). This makes the 
entire routine usable by 16K machines. 

David Rinaman 

P.O. Box 7127 

Buena Park, CA 90620 

Graf trax Fix 

As an Epson MX-80 owner, I was ex- 
cited about Thomas McNamee's 
"Graftrax 80" (80 Micro, September 
1982, p. 190). After entering the pro- 
gram listings, certain bugs appeared 
that can be traced to the way the Model 
I and Model III handle certain print 
codes. I have no doubt that the program 
works just fine on a Model III, but the 
following revisions should be made to 
Program Listing 1 to correct for the 
Model I hanging up on LPRINT 
CHR$(0), CHR$(10), CHR$(11), and 
CHR$(12): 

530 LPRINT CHR$(125);" ";CHR$(27) 
"L";:POKE 14312,CC:LPRINTCHR$(8); 
540 FORT = lTOCC: IFG(T) = OR 
G(T) = 10 OR G(T) = 11 OR G(T) = 12 
THEN POKE 143 12,G(T) ELSE LPRINT 
CHR$(G(T));: NEXT 

Program Listing 2 should also be 
modified as follows: 

50 LPRINTCHR$(27)"K"CHR$(L);: 

LPRINTCHR$(8); 

80 1FA = OORA=100RA = 110RA = 12 

THEN POKE14312.A ELSE LPRINT 

CHR$(A); 

These changes correct the hang-up 
problem. 

For those with disk drives who don't 
like to type endless lines of data state- 
ments, sending the array G(T) to an ap- 
propriate sequential access file (OPEN 
4t O",l, "DATA/DAT": PRINT 
#1, CC - 1: FOR T=l TO CC: 
PRINT#1,G(T): NEXT T : CLOSE) 
permits the use of the data directly in 



and Save. 



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The Trouble with TRS-DOS. 

Although TRS-DOS is an excellent operating system, it 
has one major disadvantage. When compared with CP/M, 
TRS-DOS locks you into a limited and possibly dead-end 
course. When you are ready to upgrade to a new computer, 
it is likely that none of your present software will run on 
the new machine. All of the time and money you have 
invested in TRS-DOS software will be lost. 

CP/M for the TRS-80. 

Converting to CP/M offers the TRS-80 owner many advan- 
tages. The TRS-80 immediately becomes capable of run- 
ning twice the software of any other computer on the 
market. Perhaps more importantly. CP/M permits soft- 
ware portability. Unlike TkS- DOS programs, CP/M pro- 
grams can be directly transferred to your next computer. 
The savings in time and software costs can be Quite sig- 
nificant. CP/M conversion can easily pay for itself with the 
money saved on one or two software purchases. The sooner 
you convert to CP/M. the more you stand to save. 

CP/M Acquires Unprecedented Support. 

Over the past year, a number of powerful competitors 
have introduced new microcomputers. Most people will 
instantly recognize the names of Xerox, IBM, Hewlett- 
Packard. Digital Equipment and Zenith. The Japanese 
companies, Sony. NEC. Sanyo, Toshiba and Sharp, are 
equally well-known. Together, these companies have com- 
mitted over a billion dollars to compete effectively in the 
micro market. TRS-80 owners should be aware that every 
one of these companies has chosen CP'M for their stan- 



Plan Ahead. 

The Omikron "Mapper" offers the ideal step to upgrading 
to a newer, more powerful computer. With the "Mapper, 
your TRS-80 can run both CP/M programs and TRS-DOS. 
With CP/M, you can build a software library that's fully 
compatible with the newest CP/M business computers. 
All of the time and money you spend on selecting, pur- 
chasing, and learning CP/M software can be considered 
an investment in the future. In addition, your old TRS-80 
can gain a new lease on life as a fully compatible back-up 
unit. Consider all these points carefully. The Omikron 
"Works" package offers the best solution for protecting 
your investment in the TRS-80. By choosing the "Works? 
you can purchase a "Mapper" and also receive over $1,000 
worth of top-quality CP/M software. Value, Utility, per- 
formance — Omikron offers you more than ever before. 



COUGAR . . . OmiVron's Users Group. 

CP/M has always been the standard for business and pro- 
fessional use. This market has always demanded high 
quality and high performance. The high prices for CP/M 
programs reflect the additional effort required to develop 
top-quality software products. To help our customers afford 
CP/M software, Omikron has formed Cougar, our official 
users group. Through Cougar, Omikron can purchase 
software products in large volume. This allows us to offer 
our customers some of the best CP/M software in the 
industry at greatly reduced prices. 



dard operating system. Over the next few years, these A«.2L-^« a„#. it All ■k»„«»l«,« 
companies will sell millions of CP/M computers. Consid- vnHKron fUTS If All together. 



iput 
ering these facts, it is clear that CP/M is the operating 
system of the future. 

Apple and Commodore Offer CP/M. 

In a recent press conference, the Apple Computer 
Company stated, "The largest installed base CP/M system 
in the world today is the Apple II with the Z80 card from 
Microsoft'.' In a recent full page ad in the Wall Street 
Journal, Apple announced CP/M for the Apple III. 
Commodore, refusing to be left behind, has recently 
announced their "Emulator" series of computers that sup- 
port CP/M. There are even rumors that the new Tandy 16 
will support a version of CP/M. 



Omikron has sold more CP/M conversions than all of our 
competitors combined. Omikron was the first in the mar- 
ket with a CP/M conversion. Omikron has continued to 
lead the market for one simple reason — our total commit- 
ment to our customers. Only Omikron offers a "Works" 
type introductory package. Only Omikron has a "Cougar" 
type users group for long-term savings. Our hardware has 
always been designed with reliability first. Our software 
is well designed, complete, and bug free. Our technical 
hot line assists those with problems. Finally, our exchange 
policy has enabled our customers to upgrade to our new 
designs for much less than the cost to new customers. 
When you buy from Omikron, you buy from a company 
with a proven record of dedication and success. 



OMIKRON 



Products that set Precedents 

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TRS-80™ Radio Shack/Tandy Corporation 



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DEBUg 



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NEW TITLES ADDED MONTHLY 



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DUNZHIN (MED) 
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PANIK J (FANTASTIC) 
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SKY SWEEP (SSM) 
STAR FIGHTER (Al) 



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J - JOYSTICK COMPATIBLE 



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DYES, I WANT MY FIRST GAME, PLUS MICRO-TRADERS MEMBERSHIP AT 
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GAME PRICE 

D CHECK D VISA/MC ACCT. NO. EXP.DATE _ 

SIGNATURE DMOD I DMOD III D32K D48K 



a 



I'D LIKE MORE INFORMATION, ENCLOSED IS $2 FOR CATALOG, APPLICABLE 
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NAME 



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ADD $2.25 FOR SHIPPING 8c HANDLING. VA RESIDENTS ADD 4% SALES TAX. NO COD. 
PRICES SUBJECT TO CHANGE WITHOUT NOTICE. MEMBERSHIP FEE REFUNDABLE IF NOT 
FULLY SATISFIED. TRS-80 IS THE TRADEMARK OF THE TANDY CORPORATION. ^ 416 



another program without having to 
enter the data. Note that the first item 
in the file is the number of characters 
(CC-1) so appropriate DIM G(CC-l) 
statements can be made. 

Peter Chamalian 

Contest Software 

P.O. Box 1188 

Burlington, CT 06013 

Survey Fix 

I've made some corrections and im- 
provements to my "Survey" program 
(80 Micro, June/ July 1982). In the 
loader program LOADFILE/BAS, 
page 252, change line 170 to 170 IF EOF 
(1) THEN N = 1 : GOTO 210. 

In lines 230, 290, and 470, change the 
variable N to (N-l). Be sure to include 
the extra set of parentheses. Finally, in- 
sert the line 415 IF F = 1 then 430. These 
changes correct the count for the 
numbers entered. 

In the main program "Survey" (page 
249), change line 460 to 460 
INPUT"(N)EXT, (S)TOP, OR 
(ENTER) TO PLACE CALL";A$. 
Add the following line to allow a grace- 
ful exit: 475 IF LEFT$(A$,1) = "S" 
THEN PUT #1,NN: CLOSE:END, and 
add 485 IF LEFT$(TN$(X),3) = " " 
THEN TN$(X) = RIGHT$(TN$(X),7) 
to allow seven-digit calls to be placed 
correctly. 

Rodger Wells 

1008 Kehoe Drive 

St. Charles, IL 60174 



^ 



MEMOREX 

FLEXIBLE DISCS 



WE WILL NOT BE UNDER- 
SOLD!! Call Free (800)235-4137 

for prices and information. Dealer 
inquiries invited and CO.D.'s 
accepted 

VISA 




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^207 



32 • 80 Micro, January 1983 



SUPER PRICES 



COMPUTERS 





Complete MODEL III COMPUTER 

Model III with 48K memory. 2 disk 

drives, 370K storage, and ready to run with 

TRSDOS 1.3 and manual. 120 day Simutek warranty parts and 

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Model III with 48K, 2 double sided 40 track disk drives with 750K 
storage. Comes with MULTIDOS and manual. 120 day Simutek war- 
ranty parts and labor. Compatible with Radio Shack software. Com- 
plete and ready to run 

MODEL III INTERNAL DISK DRIVE KITS 

If you can use a phillips screwdriver, you can easily install 
Simutek's Model III disk drives and controller in less than an hour. 
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market today. We've tried others and found J & M's the finest and 
easiest to install. We warranty the J & M controller for 120 days 
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ONE 40 TRACK TANOON DISK DRIVE WITH 185K STORAGE, and J 
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TWO 40 TRACK TANDON DISK DRIVES 370K STORAGE, with J & M 
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PRINTERS 



DAISY WHEEL PRINTERS: 

NEW SMITH CORONA DAISY WHEEL 12 CPS 

NEW BROTHER DAISY WHEEL 16 CPS 

TRACTOR FEED FOR BROTHER 

C-ITOH STARWRITER II F-10. 40 CPS 

C-ITOH STARWRITER III F-10 55CPS 

TRACTOR FEED FOR STARWRITERS 

HIGH QUALITY DOT MATRIX: 

C-ITOH PROWRITER I 8510A .2K BUFF. . .PRL. ONLY 

C-ITOH PROWRITER I 8510ACD...2K BUFF. SER/PRL 

C-ITOH PROWRITER II 1550.. .15 INCH. . .3K BUFFER 

EPSON MX-80WITH GRAFTRAX 

EPSON MX-80/FT WITH GRAFTRAX 

EPSON MX-100 

OKIDATA MICROLINE 80. (80 CPS) 

OKIOATA MICROLINE 82A (125 CPS) W/TRACTOR 

OKIDATA MICROLINE 83A (125 CPS) W/TRACTOR 

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PRINTER CABLE FOR MOD I EXPANSION INTERFACE OR MODEL 
III (SPECIFY) 

PROWRITER RIBBONS 

EPSON MX-80OR FT RIBBONS 

OKIDATA RIBBONS...(80.82A.83A) 



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1-800-528-1149 ~ 

WE ACCEPT AMERICAN EXPRESS, VISA and MASTERCARD. NO 

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SORRY, PERSONAL CHECKS REQUIRE 4-5 WEEKS TO CLEAR. 



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FREE SHIPPING 



MODEL I DISK DRIVES 

ONE TEC DISK DRIVE 40 TRACK DISK DRIVE with 5ms track to 

track access time, with power supply chassis, extender cable and 

shipping for TRS-80. One year warranty on parts and labor. Ten day 

money back guarantee. 

Model I or III 

ONE TEAC 40 TRACK DISK DRIVE, 30 ms track lo track, with P/S 
and chassis, ready to run as drive 0-4. 10 day money guarantee. 
One year warranty 

ONE TANDON 40 TRACK DISK DRIVE. 5 ms track to track, with P/S 
and chassis, ready to run as drive 0-4 or Model III external. 10 day 

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ONE 2 DRIVE cable for Model I or III. (Specify) 

ONE 4 DRIVE cable for Model I only 



$279.00 

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C.O.D.S S5.00 EXTRA. NO C.O.D.S FOR MODEL III COMPUTERS OR PAR- 
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• 164 
TRS-80 TM of Radio Shack a Tandy corp. 



SIMUTEK 



Computer Products Inc. 

4897 E. SPEEDWAY BLVD., TUCSON, AZ S5712, (602) 323-9391 



AID 



Computer Credit Unions 

Our company is considering buying 
hardware and software for an off-line 
microcomputer to supplement our on- 
line mini. We want to use the micro for 
spreadsheets, word processing, and 
data-base management. 

Does anyone know of any credit 
union software available for TRS-80s? 
We would like a spreadsheet already set 
up with the proper income/expense 
categories that credit unions use; or ac- 
counting software set up for credit 
unions. 

Scott Daniels 

9 Joval St. 

East Lyme, CT 06333 

Smith-Corona and Scripsit 

I have a Model I and am thinking of 
buying the new Smith-Corona TP-1 
printer as the letter-quality output for 
my Scripsit system. I tried the printer 
on a similar system at the dealer and 
found that the line-spacing command 
(>LS = 2) did not work. The printer ig- 
nored the command and did not print 
the text double-spaced. I like the printer 
and would like to buy it. Does anyone 
know the cause and cure for this 
problem? 

K. Rallapalli 
3184 Linkfield Way 
San Jose, CA 95135 

Pen Pal Wanted 

I have a Model I Level II and am in- 
terested in voice synthesis. Has anyone 
found a way to synthesize speech with- 
out a voice synthesizer? If you know 
how to do this in Basic, please write. 

Is there anyone under 15 who would like 
a computer pen pal? I am 12 years old. 

James Waese 

644 Huron St. 

Toronto, Ont. 

Canada M5R 2R9 



Needs Patch 

We use Radio Shack's VisiCalc (Cat. 
#26-1566) on our Model I, Level II 48K 
with two Radio Shack 35-track disk 
drives and a keyboard modified for true 
lowercase operation. We have an Epson 
MX-80 printer (connected to the printer 




port on the Expansion Interface). Elec- 
tric Pencil runs perfectly. 

Much of our work requires column 
and row labels. Does anyone have a 
patch or program to allow upper and 
lowercase output to the printer and 
screen? We have NEWDOS80 and 
NEWDOS PLUS as well as TRSDOS. 

Jay Combe, Executive Director 

U.S. Association of House Inspectors 

126 Bala Ave. 

Bala Cynwyd, PA 19004 

Governmental GL 

I am in search of a governmental 
general-ledger program for our small 
city's three disk Model II. All available 
GL programs are business-oriented 
with sales, cost of sales, and so on. 

Governmental accounting deals with 
budget revenue, expense, cost centers, 
and nonrelated fund groups. I am reluc- 
tant to attempt to translate a business- 
oriented program to this governmental 
requirement; I might end up with an 
unusable product. 

Is there anyone who can help me with 
this problem? 

M. M. Gantar 

Village of Golf 

Golf Road 

Palm Beach County, FL 33436 

Orchestrating Language 

I have a Model I and an Orchestra-80 
board. Does anyone know how to use 
this board directly with Assembly 
language? 

Mark Hickenbottom 

1165 Ricardo Court 

Seaside, CA 93955 



Study at Home 

I have a Model III with two disk 
drives and would like to find individual 
disk or cassette programs for my chil- 



dren to practice math by grade levels for 
home use (grades 5-12 not inclusive). 

Does anyone know where I can find 
this kind of software? 

Frederick P. Hoffman 

287 Ball Road 

Grass Valley, CA 95945 

LEX 11 Schematic 

I purchased a LEX 1 1 modem, made 
by the Lexicon Corp., Miami, FL. I 
wrote to Lexicon requesting a sche- 
matic, which was rejected. The reason 
for the rejection, they just don't supply 
any information. 

I can understand not supplying sche- 
matics while in warranty, but the unit is 
out of warranty and requires modifica- 
tions I cannot make without a 
schematic. 

Can anyone help me find a 
schematic? 

Francis A. Stengel Jr. 

349 Stony Road 

Lancaster, NY 14086 

Network Aid 

We have just installed two Network 3 
systems with 18 Model Ills, and are 
interested in compiling a list and com- 
municating with other educators using 
the Network 3. 

We would also like to know if there is 
a Pascal compiler capable of working 
with this configuration. As usual, not 
enough information is available on 
NBasic, which is part of the system. 
Any information on NBasic would be 
appreciated. 

LeRoy Price 

Benton Community School 

Van Home, IA 52346 

Needs a Password 

I would like to get a copy of the 1793 
Floppy Disk Controller Manual (about 
the 1793 FDC in the Model III) by 
Western Digital. 

Also, what is Basic's password in 
TRSDOS 1 .2 or 1 .3 for the Model III? I 
would like to write programs that in- 
teract with Basic, but need to disassem- 
ble it first. 

V.S. Gavande 

3005 W. Terrace 

Austin, TX 78731 



34 • 80 Micro, January 1983 





** 3 in '83! "\ 

d to celebrate we've published a special 
ANNIVERSARY ISSUE, 



containing 

all new articles & programs. 

over 500 pages of the same high 80 MICRO quality. 

dozens of games and programs for your computer. 

exclusive articles by well-known authors. 

the most in-depth coverage of the Color Computer yet. 

tutorials on having peripherals and software. 

page after page of specials from 80's advertisers. 

a 3-year 80 MICRO index — annotated and cross-referenced 

PLUS 



THE FIRST 3D 

STEREOSCOPIC COLOR 

COMPUTER GRAPHIC 



That's 

That number again 

That's 



This amazingly versatile Anniversary Issue can go anywhere* with 
you. Fits easily in your briefcase or your purse. Lies flat in your 
knapsack. Rolls up to fit snugly in your glove compartment. Stores 
on any bookshelf. Looks great on any coffee table. 

You can also get the amazing Special Edition LOAD 80 Companion to 
the Anniversary Issue. All those games and programs, just waiting for 
you to load. No more keyboarding. No more debugging. No more 
hassles. 

You'd expect special editions of this quality to cost you hundreds of 
dollars. (Well, maybe dozens.) But for a limited time only, you can get 
the 80 MICRO ANNIVERSARY ISSUE for only $5.95. That's 
right- $5. 95. And the LOAD 80 Companion is just $9.95 for cassette 
$19.95 for floppy disk. 

Note: This is an extra issue and will not be included as part of your 
regular subscription. So call today and order your very own 
Anniversary Issue and LOAD 80 Companion. Or give them as gifts. 
Just fill in the attached reply cards and drop them in the mail. Or call 
toll free— 1-800-258-5473. 








Operators are standing by (during business hours, of course). 
MasterCard and Visa accepted. (American Express, too.) 

Please allow 6-8 weeks for delivery. 

* Use of this product in the shower is not recommended by the publisher. 




80 Micro, January 1983 • 35 



mmmti* 






.. i r 








he Evolution of Low-Cost 
Electronic Communications 

We believe AceMail is 
probably the most powerful, auto- 
mated two-way message system a\ 
able for anywhere near the price. But don't 
let the price fool you. 

The Automated Computer Electronic Mai 
software offers some unprecedented clout in com- 
munications across the phone lines. From a complet« 
unattended TRS-80, AceMail can look up a phone numb 
dial it, log/on to the system, upload and download ASCII 
log/off and wait until later to call another computer. You may also 
call AceMail from a remote location and exchange information. 

A world of information is at your fingertips as AceMail offers speed and account- 
ability in accessing branch office correspondence, sales reports, data banks and tih. 
sharing systems nationwide. 
^B The multifunctional system is easy to use and comes with a complete users manual allowing even 

the inexperienced user to send and receive electronic mail in minutes! 

If your TRS-80 is due to evolve in the world of electronic mail, then choose the communications 
system with ease and power— AceMail. 

Written exclusively for the Hayes Stack Smartmodems and the TRS-80 Model l/lll 48K with disk. 

rvlail operates on NEWDOS/80 or DOSPLUS and comes supplied on liny' DOSPLUS ready to run. 
Hayes Stack Smartmodem 1200-$619.00 
Hayes Stack Smartmodem 300-$239.00 
ACEMAIL 1200 Software-$1 19.00 
ACEMAIL 300 Software-$79.00 

*••!» ace computer products of florida, inc. „*, 

1640 n.w. 3rd street, deerfield beach, florida 33441 voice (305) 427-1257 data (305) 427-6300 

ORDER TOLL FREE 1-800-327-2283 



COMMANDER 



by Jake Commander 



(Jake Commander, 80 Micro's 
technical consultant, is visiting his 
native England after a two and one half 
year absence.) 

When the TRS-80 Color Computer 
hit the U.S. market in 1980, you could 
buy it for less than $400. Not so when 
it hit the British market. Those curi- 
ous chieftains at Tandy UK decided to 
foist it on a destitute populace for 
£439— about $750. 

But, Tandy doesn't have the market 
to itself any longer. There's a toy firm 
called Mettoy based in Wales, see. And 
this clever entrepreneur named Richard 
Wadman convinced them to look at the 
possibility of manufacturing a 6809- 
based computer. They looked. They 
liked. 

Mr. Wadman was not a dullard. He 
knew that the 6809, being a Motorola 
chip, would be in its element in a setup 
involving other Motorola chips, such as 
a color video display generator. And 
wouldn't it work oh so well with a 
Motorola synchronous address multi- 
plexer? 

Mr. Wadman didn't stop there, 
either. How about having Microsoft 
take care of the extended Basic in 
ROM? No problem. How about mak- 
ing the cartridge pinout the same as the 
TRS-80 color machine? Of course. 
How about 32K as standard? Naturally. 
And a real keyboard? And plenty of 
software? And a parallel printer out- 
put? And a price of £200 (about $360)? 
Bye-bye Tandy Color Computer. 

The name of this little giant killer of a 
color computer might strike fear into 
the hearts of many executives in Texas. 
It is called The Dragon, which is the na- 
tional symbol of Wales, where 1 ,500 of 
these beasts are cranked out every week. 

Come on, computer experts. You 
should see a pattern emerging here. The 
situation is remarkably similar to one 
that existed a few years ago. 

In 1976, you could go to a Radio 
Shack store in the United States and buy 
a wonderful new gadget called a 4K 
Model I Level I TRS-80 for $400. You 
could get away with an el cheapo 
cassette recorder for storage, and it 
wasn't too difficult to get an electronics 
nut to convert the portable TV to a TV/ 
monitor. Up and running for $400 — 
not a bad deal. I'm convinced that 
Radio Shack owes its success with the 
TRS-80 to this relatively painless way of 




■■•■-' ■ ■■■*. w w ' 



% 



A dragon 

threatens 

Tandy 



getting hooked into microcomputing. 

Meanwhile, what was happening on 
the other side of the pond, back in the 
United Kingdom? Not a lot. While 
America was devouring all it could get, 
Tandy UK was preparing for its part in 
the TRS-80 success story. Unfortunate- 
ly, it seems that Tandy UK management 
wasn't using its brains. 

Instead of giving the less affluent 
British people a chance to buy a micro 
for .£200 (the exchange rate at that 
time), Tandy hit Joe Public smack in 
the face with a bill for about £500. 

Importing that American technology 
must have been costing Tandy UK a lot 
of money. Or, more likely, Tandy UK 
was making a fortune. 

In the UK, the system came complete 
with a Tandy monitor and a Tandy 
cassette recorder whether you liked it or 
not. Just to rub it in, the cassette 
recorder was the type that left magnetic 
glitches on your program or data when- 
ever you stopped it with the remote 
on/off. 

Good deal, eh what? Commodore 
proceeded to wipe the floor with Tandy, 
and that blasted PET machine became a 



dominant force in a large part of 
Europe. 

Tandy should have learned from the 
experience, but it didn't. Here comes 
the TRS-80 Color Computer (a year 
late), and I'm already getting a sense of 
deja vu. As the PET did a few years 
ago, The Dragon could also leave the 
Tandy management with its mouth 
hanging open. 

I'm not saying Tandy UK will have 
its nose rubbed in it yet again. I don't 
have to, do I? It's going to happen 
whether I say it or not. Tandy is already 
doing the usual things — dropping the 
price and introducing a more aggressive 
marketing campaign. Tandy will no 
doubt rip The Dragon to pieces, accuse 
Mr. Wadman of stealing their design, 
and try to sue him. 

I've met Mr. Wadman, and, as I've 
said, he's no idiot. He used the 
Motorola setup as used in the TRS-80 
Color Computer, designed his own in- 
put/output circuitry, and placed it in his 
own box with 32K and a high-quality 
keyboard. The Dragon will withstand 
any scrutiny Tandy cares to give it. 
Sorry boys, you'll have to try harder. 

Just in case the boys at Fort Worth 
are feeling sorry for their British 
counterparts, I can gleefully tell them 
that The Dragon will be in America at 
the start of 1983. I've been told the 
target price is $350 for the U.S. market. 
Mr. Wadman wouldn't divulge where it 
will be sold, but he said it will be in a big 
chain store that "has a big catalog." 

The Dragon is likely to scorch some 
profits at Tandy, whether UK or 
stateside. I can't wait to watch the 
feathers fly. (See related story on page 
370.) 

Escaping Depression 

Gloom. Gloom and despondency 
seem to be the operative words here. 
More than 3 million people unemployed 
in a nation of 55 million. Unemploy- 
ment continues to climb. 

From the gathering gray clouds 
overhead to the dwindling gray crowds 
at the pub, there's a gloomy acceptance 
of the whole situation. Statistics from 
major breweries show that people aren't 
buying as many drinks as they used to. 
If the British are staying away from the 
pubs, something has to be exceptionally 
wrong. 

However, microcomputing seems to 

80 Micro, January 1983 • 37 



TRS-80® 
MOD. Ill 



FINALLY 



TRS-80® 
MOD. I 



80x24 VIDEO DISPLAY 
PLUS! 112 K AND CP/M® 



Others offer you CP/M or 80x24. 
We give you what you've been 
waiting for. 




SPRINTER™ 

"Double Your Speed" 

Speed-uR cuts computer operation time for 
accounting, word processing, etc., in half. 
Saves Time and Money. 

• Automatic Slow-down for disk I/O 
(defeatable). 

SPRINTER III (MOD. Ill) $99.50 

SPRINTER I (MOD. I) $99.50 

"DOUBLE DENSITY ADAPTER $129.50" 

• Run 5'/4 or 8" drives 

• Adapter utilizes new technology for high 
performance at a lower price. 

"MODEL III Disk Controller" 

• Double density with full features 8" drive 
capacity. Board only (DX-3D) $189.95 

SPECIAL!!! 

HOLMES EXPANSION 

INTERFACE SYSTEM (Mod. I) $399.00 

• Includes: Double Density Disc Controller 
(DX-2D), RS232 w/32K RAM (RX-232M), 
Metal enclosure (MF-1). 

The Holmes System surpasses other interfaces 

in quality and technology. 

"Model I and III controllers and double 

density adapter include state-of-the-art LSI Data 

Separators which require NO adjustments and 

do not "drift" out ot alignment. 

Double Density Disk Controller 

w/8" drive capacity (DX-2D) $189.95 

RS232 (RX-232) $119.50 

RS232 w/32K 

(RX-232M) $199.50 

Case/power supply — tor 

4 plug-in boards (MF-1) $99.50 

Case — for 

2 plug-in boards (MF-2) t 



VID 80™ 

"80 Character Video" 

• Adds all the extra ram and logic necessary to 
convert to an 80 character, 64K or 112K 
CP/M system. 

• Functions in 80x24 or 64x16 character mode. 

• Contains same video controller as IBM 
personal computer and TRS-80 Model II. 

• Software patches available for many 
programs. t 

• Reverse video (full screen). 

• Improved graphic resolution. 

• Easy plug-in installation inside case. 

• Two models available: 
Model III (VX-3) and 
Model I (VX-1) 

• CP/M system requires purchase of Holmes 
CP/M package. 

• VX-1 requires upgraded monitor for 80x24. 

• VX-1 requires purchase of MF-1 or MF-2. 

VID 80 (VX-3,VX-1) $279.95 

VID 80 plus 64KCP/M 

(Holmes package) $399.00 

VID 80, Holmes CP/M package 

and 64K added memory 

(112K total) $499.00 

"48K MEMORY 
WITHOUT AN INTERFACE" 

• Adds memory INSIDE keyboard up to 48K 

IM-2w/16K (32K total) $119.50 

IM-2 w/32K (48K total) $139.50 

tCall or write for price 




engineering inc. 

Peripherals Division 
3555 South 3200 West 
Salt Lake City, Utah 84119 
(801) 967-2324 



*- 153 



DISTRIBUTORS: 

Bi-Tech, 

Bohemia. NY (516) 567-8155 
Level IV Products, 

Livonia, Ml (800) 521-3305 
M & M Micro Mart, 

Montreal. Canada (514) 731-9486 

DEALERS: 

Laguna Hills, CA (714) 779-0467 
Oceanside, CA (714) 757-4849 
Oceanside, CA (714) 749-0299 
Pasadena, CA (213) 681-6797 
San Diego, CA (714) 275-4243 
Ventura, CA (805) 499-2619 
Aurora, CO (303) 693-8400 
Denver, CO (303) 741-1778 
Dearfield Beach, FL (305) 427-1257 
Titusville, FL (305) 267-6414 
Dunwoody, CA (404) 396-0034 
Chicago, IL (312) 782-9750 
Ceneseo, IL (309) 944-4111 
Indianapolis, IN (317) 898-0331 
Pittsburg, KS (316) 231-3670 
Shawnee, KS (913) 631-2029 
Bremen, KY (502) 754-5313 



Framingham, MA (617) 872-9090 
Medway, MA (617) 533-8433 
Roslindale, MA (617) 327-6831 
Detroit, Ml (313) 538-1112 
Carden City, Ml (800) 521-6504 
Lansing, Ml (517) 482-8270 
Midland, Ml (517) 631-3090 
Pontiac, Ml (313) 673-2224 
Plymouth, Ml (313) 397-3126 
Columbia, MO (314) 474-6064 
Columbia. MO (314) 449-5346 
St. Louis. MO (314) 962-1638 
Fort Benton, MT (406) 622-5651 
Wycoff, N| (201) 891-6380 
Albuquerque, NM (505) 256-9708 
Yaphank, NY (516) 924-9229 
Cleveland, OH (216) 579-0648 
Euclid, OH (216) 951-6502 
Lancaster, OH (614) 653-1329 
St. Paris, OH (513) 663-4558 
Eugene, OR (503) 484-2834 
Phoenixville, PA (215) 933-3441 
Dallas, TX (214) 339-5104 
Houston, TX (713) 455-3276 
Houston, TX (713) 444-5405 



San Antonio. TX (512) 349-9741 
Portsmouth, VA (804) 484-6636 
Portsmouth, VA (804) 397-9636 
Wytheville, VA (703) 228-5800 
Bellevue. WA (206) 747-3495 
Lynnwood, WA (206) 775-6944 

FOREIGN DEALERS: 

Laval, Canada, (514) 387-2609 
Victoria, B.C., Canada 382-1344 
Laurie Shield Software. 

Wingerworth. England 
Luxulyan, Bodmin, England (0726) 850821 
Victor Saleh, 

Wembley. England 
Craphie France, 

Paris, France 
Consultora Pscio Industrial, 

Guatemala 
Asp Microcomputers, 

East Malvern, Australia 
Computerware, 

Koeln, West Germany 
Computer Service, 

Buerstadt, West Germany 
Scotland (041) 883-1189 



TRS-80 is a registered trademark of Tandy Corporation. CP/M is a registered trademark of Digital Research. 



One year warranty on all products. Add Shipping/Handling — MF-1, MF-2, $9.00 U.S., $15.00 Canada, 
Overseas $30.00. Other products add $5.00 U.S. & Canada. All others add 15%. Prices subject to change 
without notice. DEALER INQUIRIES INVITED. FOR INFORMATION SEND SELF ADDRESSED STAMPED 
ENVELOPE. Reader service takes 8 weeks. 



COMMANDER BO 



be alive and well. Software sales in a 
couple of stores in Birmingham have in- 
creased an unbelievable 1,000 percent 
over last year, with hardware sales trail- 
ing miserably at 500 percent. 

Not only are microcomputers doing 
well, but the video industry's growth 
has been exponential since I was last 
here. (The two industries aren't as 
unrelated as you might think— they 
both involve the sale of hardware and 
software.) Every other hardware store is 
running its own video library, causing 
fierce competition on High Street with 
many overzealous traders going broke. 
But, all in all, the video business has 
blossomed, and a video recorder is 
almost as common a household item as 
a color TV. 

Why are these two industries growing 
so rapidly amidst all the financial depres- 
sion? Well, I've formed a little theory. 

We might be going back to the caves 
— in a high tech way, of course. Back to 
the three-bedroomed, semi-detached 
suburban retreat equipped with TV, 
video equipment, and, in a healthy 
number of cases, a microcomputer. 

After all, who wants to brave the 
gloom when all this perfectly harmless 
technological escape exists? All you 
have to do is while away the hours in 
electronic wonderment and the cold 
harsh realities of a recession disappear 
into the English fog. Just keep up the 
mortgage on the cave and the escape re- 
mains secure. ■ 



38 • 80 Micro, January 1983 



Data Acquisition 

and Control for the TRS-80* 

$230 ppd. 

The STAR8UCK-8882 is a complete eight channel 
data acquisition and control system plug 
compatible with the Model I Level n TRS-80 it 
includes 8 protected analog inputs (0-5 Vdc with 
8 ± 1 bit accuracy). 8 protected digital inputs 8 
optoisolated digital outputs and two joystick 
ports Interrupt-dnven software package allows 
simultaneous data acquisition and storage while 
using the TRS-80 lot any othe' purpose 1 
Application manual covers home security, energy 
monitoring, weather station use appliance 
control, graphics and games Price includes 
case, power supply, extra expansion card edge 
connector cable, complete software package and 
detailed applications manual Manuals only are 
available lor $5 00 ppd Model III version $250 
ppd To order write or call 

STARBUCK DATA CO. 

P0 Box 24. Newton MA 02162 

617-237-7695 ^205 

Massachusetts residents add 5% sales tax 'TRS-80 
is a trademark of Tandy Corp. 



MAILING LIST 
SYSTEM $119.95 

FOR TRS-80 (Tandy Trademark) Model I and III 



WHAT SETS OUR SYSTEM APART?... 

• Our system is configured specifically for large mailing lists 
(or small) on floppy disk drives. Some other major systems 
run on floppies but are really intended for use on hard disk 
drives. Such a system assumes that you have vast amounts of 
on line disk storage capacity. ..the continuity of the data is 
limited to what you can have on line at one time. To get the 
real benefit of such a system, one usually has to purchase 
expanded track/density floppy disk drives and even then the 
problem occurs when all the drives are filled with data. We 
have neatly solved this problem by allowing all your data 
disks to be maintained in continuous order. ..even though, 
due to the limitations of your drives, the list may be too large 
to all be "on line" at one time. Thus our system accomodates 
extremely large lists using your existing drives and yet avoids 
the "segmented" data problems of the hard disk approach. 

• While it is fashionable to advertise all-machine-code systems, 
our system is primarily written in BASIC. ..with embedded 
machine code for the speed sensitive areas. What this means 
is that our system is easy to modify, yet extremely fast. This 
is very important since many users like to have custom modi- 
fications made (either by them or us) so as to fit some unique 
requirement. Our manual has a section devoted exclusively 
to such modifications. ..Remember all-machine-code systems 
are extremely difficult to modify. 

• Continuity of the ordered data (even data spanning many 
disks) is not limited to a "session", but is permanent. 

• Optional "backing up" of your data as-you-go is an integral 
part of the system and is not restricted to the end of a session. 
This is true even for deletions. 

• The length of our data fields are more than adequate to 
accomodate even your longest names/addresses. 

• Adjusts to a 32K memory although full use is made of a 48K 
memory. ..Can be used with any DOS including TRSDOS. 

• The program disk does not have to stay on line, thus freeing 
more space for data storage. 

• Load and scroll through entire entries or selected fields. Edit 
as you scroll or go directly (takes about 2 sec.) to a specific 
entry and edit or delete. 

• Our automatic repeat feature allows often used names/ 
addresses to be entered with a single key stroke. 

• Each disk entry optionally "remembers" how many mailings 
have been made for that particular entry ...Can be tied in with 
purge/select. 

• Continuing expert support just a phone call away. You will be 
able to discuss your problems/modifications with the authors. 

• Money back guarantee if not fully satisfied. 

ADDITIONAL FEATURES: 

• Simple to use, even for the novice. ..menu oriented. 

• Permits 2260 names "on-line" with 40 track double density 
drives and almost 5000 names with 80 track drives. The older 
35 single density drives permit 1025 on-line entries. ..made 
possible with our unique data compression techniques. 

• Super fast sort by alph. or zip order (8 sec. for 1000 entries). 
Both orders can exist simultaneously on disk. 

• High speed recovery of entries from disk. ..speed of sort is 
meaningless if retreival from disk is slow. Ours pulls in over 
11 per sec! 

• Master list printout of your list in several formats (not just a 
rehash of labels). ..extremely useful. 

• Zip order is "sub-alphabetized". 

• Less than 5 digit zips have leading 0's appended. 

• Supports 9 digit zips, Canadian zips, and foreign abbrev. 

• Optional second address line. 

• Optional reversal of names about commas. This permits disk 
storage in last-name-first order to facilitate meaningful order- 



ing while the printout will be in "natural" order. 
Permits telephone, account, and/or serial numbers, etc. 
Prints on envelopes or labels 1 , 2, 3 or 4 across. 
Can print individual labels at time of creation or editing. 
Test label/envelope printing allows you to make vertical and 
horizontal adjustments with ease... 

Transfers old files to our system. -^■■■■B LOOK! 

Selective printout by specific zips or zip ranges. 
Plenty of user defined fields with provisions for simulta- 
neously purging and/or selecting the printout. ..even allows 
for inequalities. ..Powerful and easy to use. 
Editing is simply and fast. ..direct access or automatic 
search. ..Batch transfer or edited entries to backup disks. 
Optionally provides for duplicate labels. 

Deleted entries have "holes" on disk filled automatically and 
alph. order is still maintained! 

All labels optionally support an "Attn." line with provisions 
for multiple entries. This permits mail to be sent to several' 
people at given addresses. ..conserves disk space. 
All 0's are replaced by easier to read 0's in addresses. 
Continuous display of number of labels/envelopes printed. 
Extensive use of error traps. ..even recovers from a power 
failure during a printout. 

Extensive assortment of extra cost options for customized 
master list printout (in addition to the standard one mentioned 
above), transfer of entries between disks, summary reports, 
and "publisher's" type multiple list label printouts. 
Hardware requirements. ..32K, printer, and 1 or 2 drives. 



FORM LETTER (Use with Mail List System) $39.95 

Create letters and store on disk with provisions for later retreival 
and additions. Then print your letters using your mailing list. 

• Same select and purge features as mailing list system. 

• Select either continuous fanfold or "cut sheet" paper. 

• Selectable tabing, test printing, and paging. 

• Allows regular or legal size pages. 

• Greetings are selectable by codes on mailing list. Options 
include Mr. /Mrs., First/Last Name, global, or user defined. 



SUPER CALENDAR (Supplied on tape only) $19.95 

Prints out calendars of individual months of years ranging from 
1583 to any time in the future. Standard banker's holidays are 
noted. ..Additionally prints out large "graphics" type wall 
calendars with memos under each day. ..Use as a planning 
calendar with optional disk storage. .. Requires 16K and a printer. 

Loan Amortization (Supplied on tape only) $29.95 

Achieves pin point accuracy with a built in calendar. ..This 
sophisticated program produces an exceptionally professional 
looking printout that includes yearly summaries as well as 
"totals-to-date"... Several options for calculating interest includ- 
ing one that pushes the payment date ahead to the next business 
day if the regular pay date falls on a weekend or holiday. 



FOOTBALL SCOUT (diskoniy) $89.95 

Charge local schools up to $1000 per season for these sophisti- 
cated reports. Analyze the tendancies of opposing teams... 
Equivalent to that used by the pros. 

'■ ■ 




^See List ol Advertisers on Page 435 



80 Micro, January 1983 • 39 



The GAMER'S CAFE 



by Rodney Gambicus 



-tO- 



One step 
beyond the 
neon glow 



When we left Eugene and headed 
south on Route 5, 1 had visions of 
San Francisco dancing in my head. We 
would set up the Cafe somewhere in 
Berkeley, bask in the sun, and rake in 
the dough. So when I woke up one 
morning to find ourselves in the middle 
of a God-forsaken desert, I was under- 
standably upset. 

Mad Max had been driving for 36 
consecutive hours and when I looked in- 
to his eyes and saw little white rabbits 
hopping around, I knew we were in 
trouble. "Neon," he whispered. "Neon 
and phosphor. Microcosmic oneness. 
Hey Stella, put back those ash trays. Hit 
me, hit me, hit me. . . " 

He paused, and stared wildly at 
the vast sandy wasteland that threat- 
ened to swallow us. Then he screamed, 
"Blackjack!" 

And I knew where he was taking us: 
Las Vegas. 



***** 



I was about to voice my objections 
when suddenly a hitchhiker appeared 
from nowhere on the side of the road. 
Max swung the van over and the fellow, 
dressed in a three-piece suit and carry- 
ing an umbrella, hopped in. 

"Hi," he said. "I'm Jackson Dott, 
marketing coordinator at Microcom- 
puter Games, a division of Avalon Hill. 
Want some information on our latest 
games?" 

"Gee, I guess so," I said. 

He then proceeded to tell us all about 
Fredericksburg, Close Assault, and 
Diplomacy, all due for release this 
month. 

Fredericksburg is a two-player Civil 
War game, giving Generals Ambrose 
Burnside and Robert E. Lee a rematch 
to see whether Burnside can avenge the 
famous Union defeat. Close Assault is a 
one- or two-player World War II game, 
featuring hand-to-hand and infantry 
combat and other war -like stuff. Both 
are actually board games, with the com- 
puter handling combat resolution. 

Diplomacy is a whirl of pre-WWI al- 
liance-forming and backstabbing. I said 
it sounded like you needed a diabolical 

40 • 80 Micro, January 1983 




*oh*r*- z?uu e ffez. 



mind to play it. Dott agreed. Max mere- 
ly gurgled. 

"By the way," I said. "Have you 
guys gotten any negative feedback on 
V.C., that microcomputer game of op- 
erational-level combat in Vietnam?" 

"Not at all," he replied. "If you play 
the game, you'll find out it portrays any 
type of guerrilla warfare. And the idea 
is to make friends with civilians, not to 
kill. Say, can you pull over here? This is 
where I get off." 

We stopped and he climbed out. 

"Thanks for the lift, fellas," he said 
as he started to walk into the desert. 






Winthrop had been sulking ever since 
Eugene, when Mad Max came aboard 
and cleaned Winthrop 's clock in Sea 
Dragon. He'd taken to playing endless 
games of Black Death on our PMC 
Model 1/2, sucking on oolong tea and 
eating dry Cap'n Crunch. I was worried 
about his teeth, which were beginning 
to grow moss. 

It happened shortly after we pulled 
into Las Vegas (or Lost Vagrants, as 
Max calls it). Winthrop booted up Sea 
Dragon in a final desperate attempt to 
overtake Max. Unfortunately, he didn't 
know that I'd accidentally spilled some 
Milk of Magnesia on the disk, creating 
several horrendous bugs. Suddenly, 
Winthrop 's torpedoes were bouncing 
off ships and attacking his subs. When 
he surfaced for air, his supply de- 
creased. Every time he hit the down ar- 
row, his sub blew up. The final straw 
came when the nuclear reactor turned 
into a smile face and started whistling 
the theme song to "Leave It to Beaver. " 
Winthrop fled the van screaming. We 
chased him into Caesar's Palace, pick- 



ing up his clothes as we went along. We 
finally caught him at one of the crap ta- 
bles, but not before he'd swallowed the 
dice and thrown everybody's chips all 
over the room. Needless to say, the po- 
lice took him away in a rubber truck. 

Well, it turned out that the city attor- 
ney owned a Model I, and we were able 
to strike a deal. We gave him all our Big 
Five games, and he agreed to put Win- 
throp in the Prairie Sunset Rest Home 
instead of the slammer. And that's 
where he is now, pushing the nurse call 
button and yelling, "Dive! Dive!" 






A short time later, I was at the poker 
table looking at a straight flush I didn't 
have when a waiter came up with a tele- 
phone. It was Soft Sector Marketing 
calling to tell me about three new games 
they've got scheduled for release this 
month. 

Sneak Thief is Larry Ashmun's first 
totally original arcade game. You de- 
fend the gold treasure on an alien planet 
(as most of them are), zapping aliens 
(what else?), or dragging them off to 
jail (no rest homes here). Vexus is a 3-D 
arcade game from Factory Program- 
ming in which you pilot a spaceship 
through a tube in the sky, shooting 
down aliens as they approach. And Ral- 
ly, also from Factory Programming, 
simulates driving a race car through 
a graphics maze, picking up flags and 
being pursued by "villainous cars" 
(their words). All three are Alpha or 
TRSSTICK joystick-compatible. 

The folks at Soft Sector also want ev- 
erybody to know that Color Computer 
versions of Alien Defense and (proba- 
bly) Caterpillar are on their way. 

When the waiter came to take the 



phone, I noticed something suspiciously 
familiar about him. 

"Say," I said, "Aren't you the 
former Boston Red Sox second base- 
man Pumpsie Green?" 

"No," he said, and walked away. 
***** 

When I got back to the van, I knew 
immediately that something was wrong, 
because the van wasn't there — only 
Mad Max, our two Pocket Computers, 
and the PMC. It took a while to get the 
truth from Max, who was air-guitaring 
to Jimi Hendrix's "Voodoo Child" 
wafting from a GTO waiting at a stop 
light, but it turned out that he'd lost the 
van in a crap-shoot with the head nurse 
at Prairie Sunset. 

Well, we had enough money for 
a cheap motel room, and one sole 
remaining disk with Galaxy Invasion 
on it, so we figured that life could 
be worse. We could be in San Fran- 
cisco, soaking up the sun and mak- 
ing lots of money. Who needs that 
kind of aggravation? ■ 



70 INCOME TAX PROGRAMS 

(For Filing by April 15, 1983) 

For TRS-80* Models I and III 



FEATURES:— 

1. Menu Driven. 

2. 70+ Tax Programs. 

3. Basic; Unlocked; Listable. 

4. Name/SS No. /FS carried 
over. 

5. Inputs can be checked. 

6. Inputs can be changed. 

7. I. R.S. approved REVPROC 
format. 

8. Prints entire Form/Schedule. 

9. Calculates Taxes, etc. 

10. On std. 35-track, Mod. I 
format disk. 

11. CONVERT for Model III. 

12. Use GREENBAR in triplicate 
— don't change paper all 

season! 

13. Our 4th Year in Tax 
Programs. 

14. We back up our Programs! 



Helpful programs to calculate and print the many Tax 
Forms and Schedules. Ideal for the Tax Preparer, 
C.P.A. and Individual. For just $24.75 per disk, post- 
paid (approx. 60 grans per format disk). 

Programs are designed for easy-use, with check- 
points to correct parts as needed. Results on screen 
for checking before printing. 

In all, there are more than 70 individual Tax Programs. 
These include Form 1040, 1040A, 1040EZ, 1120, 
1120S, 1041 and 1065. Also Schedules A, B, C, D, E, 
F, G, R, RP and SE. And, Forms 1116, 2106, 2119, 
2210, 2440, 3468, 3903, 4255, 4562, 4797, 4835, 
4972, 5695, 6251 and 6252. 
And, we have a disk we call "THE TAX PREPARER'S 
HELPER" which has programs for INCOME STATE- 
MENTS, RENTAL STATEMENTS, SUPPORTING STATE- 
MENTS, IRA, ACRS, 1040/ES, ADD W-2'sand PRINT 
W-2's. 

TRY ONE DISK AND SEE FOR YOURSELF. ONLY S24.75 
POSTPAID. 

First disk is TR#1, and includes Form 1040 and 
Schedules A, B, C, D and G. $24.75 POSTPAID. 






Write:— 
GOOTH TAX PROGRAMS 

931 So. Bemiston • St. Louis, Mo. 63105 

"T.M.Reg, by Tandy Corp. Ft. Worth, Tx. 



• 236 



v/SA m 




Ability: 
Library Commands 

1 . All of TRS-DOS comman 

2. Lower case options 

3. Varible track support 
(35-80) 

I 4. Plus many more . . . 
itility Command 
1 . All of TRS-DOS commands 
2. Purge all files not needed 
3. Terminal control as to 
communication with 
another terminal 
4. Plus many more . . . 

Languages 

1 . Extended basic 

2. Edtasem - Editor Assembly 

3. Plus many more . . . 

Write or call us now for the best 
investment of your life. 
POSMODELI. II. and III .$85.00 





UNDER THE SUN 

All application program provide introductory 
discount - 20°o off. 



'S is truly the operating 
stem that has the other DOS 
beat in price and ability. 

Other available Software for 
MODI, II, and III 

1 . A R Osborne $35f 

2. A P Osborne $351 

3. G L Osborne $350. 

4. PR Osborne $400. 

\ ACT I - A R. A. P. 

G L $850 

6. ACT II - A R. A P. 
G L, PR 120( 

7. Inventory Control I . $150. 

8. Inventory Control II . $250. 

9. FM (creates 
programs) $80. 

10. Wordit (mailing list and 
word processing) . $150. 

1 1 . Letterit (word 
processor) $35 

12. Sort $45. 

13. And much more .... Call 



As an introductory offer you can try POS for 10 days for only $25.00. If your not 
satisfied, return the Diskette and manual for a refund, or send $60.00 for the Master 
Diskette which can be backed up. 

10 day trial Diskette w/manual $25 

Master POS $60. 

Or just pay $85. 



USAGE SOFTWARE GROUP 



SOFTWARE with SUPPORT 

1008 Shadow Run Drive 

Lakeland, FL 33803 

(813)-644-2038 



• 509 



-See List of Advertisers on Page 435 



80 Micro, January 1983 • 41 



32 FLAVORS 

IN LOW COST COMPUTERS 




CP/M 64K 

The Mod III Plus CX 140 system is an 
exciting new personal and small busi- 
ness computer that is both CPM & 
TRS-DOS compatible. 

• 80 x 24 Display for CP/M 

• 64K Bytes RAM Memory 

• Microsoft BASIC language in ROM 

• Internal Z80 ROM Diagnostic 

• Z80 processor, 2MHz 

• 4MHz speed up option 

• 64 x 16 screen-TRS-DOS-.DOS+ 

• Cooling system 

• Parallel printer interface included 

• Anti-glare screen 

• Cassette interface 

• 2 Internal 40tk Disk Drives 

• Compatible with TRS-80® Model III 
— RS-232 serial interface option. 

CPM applications software such as 
Wordstar, Datastar and Mailmerge 
launch this computer system into the 
small business and word processing 
marketplace. Includes DOS PLUS 3.3 
operating system. 



;/K"--:::;:..: 



z:::™:;m::zzmzz;:::::,,;i./*i£& 



$2699 



Optional CP/M2.2 Operating System Available 



MOD III PLUS 140 

Computer consists of 48K bytes 
memory and a double density, 
dual disk drive system. The sys- 
tem is fully compatible with the 
Radio Shack® DOS and periphe- 
rals. Get 1 78,000 bytes of memory 
storage per disk. 



PRICE TOO 

LOW TO PRINT 

& 

INCLUDES 

DOS PLUS 3.3 



MOD III PLUS 240/280 

Double or Quadruple your stor- 
age capacity to 700 or 1.4 mega- 
bytes. These machines have all of 
the features of the MOD III PLUS 
140 and expanded storage. The 
240 has double headed 40 track 
drives, while the MOD III PLUS 
280 has double headed 80 track 
drives. 



PRICES FROM $ 1899 



MOD III PLUS B/140 

Especially designed for Business applications. 
Same as Model 140 and includes anti-glare 
screen, speed-up enhancement, RS-232 inter- 
face cooling unit and more. Also includes FREE 
business software package. 

WORD PROCESSING 

We are also offering a discount certificate enti- 
tling the purchaser to NEW SCRIPT by Pro Soft 

FREE SOFTWARE 
ACCOUNTING PACKAGE 

' ACCOUNTS RECEIVABLE • INVENTORY/SALES • GAMES 
» ACCOUNTS PAYABLE ANALYSIS • EDUCATION SOFTWARE 

' GENERAL LEDGER • PAYROLL • DOS PLUS 3.3 

• INCLUDING AUDIO SELF- 
LEARNING CASSETTE 



WINCHESTER HARD DISK 

Our desk top business computer system, with 
approximately 5.7 megabytes of on line storage. 
The system includes a 5 megabyte Winchester 
hard disk drive for ultra-fast business require- 
ments. An 80 track dual head disk drive is used 
for backup and for conventional floppy disk oper- 
ation. 



$4399 



42 Microcomputing, December 1982 



32 FLAVORS 

IN ADD-ONS AND KITS 



MTI DOES IT. Our CP/M 64K turns your 
TRS-80 Model III into two computer sys- 
tems, with memory upgrade to 64K and an 
80" x 24" column video card, you will convert 
your computer to a CP/M base machine. 

LIKE THE BIG BOYS. That means you can 
access the single largest body of microcom- 
puter software used by companies like Xer- 
ox, Osborne, Eagle, Apple, Cromenco etc. 
What is better, is that you can switch back 
forth between TRS-DOS and CP/M modes, 
and our own Z-80 diagnostic monitor. 

SIMPLE INSTALLATION. The CP/M 64K 
system plugs directly into the TRS-80 CPU 
board. You are ready to go! 
HUNDREDS OF APPLICATIONS. You have 
available literally hundreds of programs writ- 
ten for many mini and micro computers un- 
der CP/M operating system. 



CP/M-64K 



CP/M 2.2 
$119 



Optional CP/M 2.2 Operating System Available 




ADD-ON WINCHESTERS 




Add 5.. 7.5, or 11. megabyte hard disk 
drive to any Model III. The complete self 
contained unit includes a Winchester 
drive, controller, power supply cooling 
system and cables in an attractive en- 
closure. 



From $ 1899 



INTERNAL DISK 
DRIVE KITS 



$ 459 





A new low cost internal disk kit is available to 
expand your storage capability. With this kit. 
you may expand your 16K TRS-80* Mod III 
computer. Includes: 1-MTI 40 track, double 
density disk drive, power supply, controller, 
cables and DOS PLUS operating system. 



EXTERNAL DISK DRIVES 




Add-on disk 
drives for the 
Model I and III 
are available in 
40 and 80 track, 
single and dou- 
ble head confi- 
gurations. 
Contact MTI or 
a local authoriz- 
ed dealer. 



From $ 289 



Fairbanks, AK (907) 456-2281 

Anniston, AL (205) 236-6396 

Mesa, AZ (602) 833-8949 

Phoenix, AZ (602) 241-1865 

Phoenix, AZ (602) 866-3233 

Tempe. AZ (602) 831-5376 

Anaheim, CA (714) 773-0240 

Burbank, CA (213) 841-4210 

Camarillo, CA (805) 987-1633 

Covina, CA (213) 332-4088 

Goleta. CA (805) 967-7628 

Lancaster. CA (805) 948-9807 

Mission Viejo, CA (714) 495-3782 

Montclair, CA (714) 626-4813 

Orange. CA (714) 771-0880 

Placerville, CA (916) 622-4640 

San Diego. CA (714) 275-4243 

San Jose. CA (408) 946-1265 

Santa Monica, CA (213) 393-5785 

Studio City. CA (213) 763-3425 

Walnut. CA (714) 594-9760 

Groton, CT (203) 445-5166 

Washington, DC (202) 363-9797 

Wilmington, DE (302) 762-0227 

Mary Esther. FL (904) 243-5793 

Panama City. FL (904) 769-8093 

Tampa. FL (813) 961-5269 

West Palm Beach, Fl (305) 689-1200 

Norcross, GA (404) 449-8982 

Tifton, GA (912) 386-8367 

Bettendorf, IA (319) 355-2641 

Buckingham, IA (319) 478-2826 

Sioux City. IA (712) 255-8892 

Belleville, IL (618) 277-2354 

Collinsville, IL (618) 345-5068 

Decatur. IL (217) 429-8510 



OVER 100 AUTHORIZED SALES AND 

SERVICE CENTERS 

CALL 714-979-9923 

for the center nearest you 



fia 



MICROCOMPUTER TECHNOLOGY INC. 

3304 W. MACARTHUR. SANTA ANA. CA 92704 
(714) 979-9923 

^247 
U.S. PRICES FOB. SANTA ANA 
CALIFORNIA AND MAY VARY BY AREA 
CP/M is a registered trademark o( Digital Research Inc. 
TRS-80" is a registered trademark of Tandy Corp. 
MT I is a registred tradomark ol Microcomputer 
Technology. INC. 



Mundelein. IL (312) 362-3440 

Shreveport. LA (318) 865-7189 

West Monroe, LA (318) 322-6479 

Hopkinton. MA (617) 435-4457 

Springfield. MA (413) 737-4562 

Baltimore, MD (301) 944-0200 

Beltsville, MD (301) 953-9600 

Towson, MD (301) 337-3808 

Anoka, MN (612) 427-5783 

Minneapolis, MN (612) 869-3245 

Cameron. MO (816) 632-6528 

Columbia. MO (314) 874-3216 

Marshall. MO (816) 886-6823 

Slater, MO (816) 529-3444 

St. Louis, MO (314) 241-7393 

Bozeman. MT (406) 586-0511 

Missoula, MT (406) 549-9715 

Raleigh. NC (919) 755-1175 

Fargo. ND (701) 280-0580 

Paramus. NJ (201) 342-2284 

West Milford. NJ (201) 728-8080 



Las Vegas, NV (702) 870-4138 

Jericho, NY (516) 333-2266 

Lake Grove, NY (516) 724-4490 

Rome, NY (315) 336-0266 

Syracuse. NY (315) 474-1442 

Troy. NY (518) 273-8411 

Utica. NY (315) 446-1028 

White Plains, NY (914) 761-9283 

Mayfield Height, OH . . . .(216) 449-4030 

Toledo, OH (419) 535-5897 

Portland. OR (503) 281-7640 

Salem, OR (503) 581-8056 

N. Charleston. SC (803) 747-5773 

Lubbock, TX (806) 763-5100 

Longview, TX (214) 759-2922 

Missouri City, TX (713) 499-5241 

San Angelo, TX (915) 658-3573 

Falls Church, VA (703) 536-5040 

Reston. VA (703) 471-0305 

Anacortes, WA (206) 293-5154 

Bellingham. WA (206) 647-1814 

Spokane, WA (509) 624-3203 

Cheyenne. WY (307) 632-9132 

FOREIGN DEALERS 

Argentina (54) 132-1858 

Australia 657-8023 

Belgium 1663-2452 

Burnaby, Canada (604) 522-9877 

Ottawa, Canada (613) 741-7937 

Helsinki, Finland 9064-4116 

France (341) 773-5493 

Holm, Germany 4103-7393 

Tel Aviv, Israel 325-8535 

Capetown, S. Africa 2145-1047 

Papeete, Tahiti 2-5447 

Bangkok, Thailand 314-1161 



^See List ol Advertisers on Page 435 



80 Micro, January 1983 • 43 



Convert your TRS-80* 
into a World Class Computer 










AND DOESN 








. . .with LSI's new Replacement CRT. . . 



The black & white "TV Screen" CRT (picture tube) which came with your TRS-80*model II or III is an inexpensive 
rapid "P4" Phosphor CRT intended for TV use. The display is actually strobing 60 times a second. No amount of "green 
plastic" will stop this strobing or eliminate the eye fatigue it causes. But a news< ™ CRT display lube with a slower 

decaying, colored Phosphor will. 

• Available in slow-decay green (similar to new IBM* and APPLE lll*monitors) or medium decay "European 
Orange" (easy on the eyes, elegantly beautiful, and the standard for CRT displays in Europe) 

• Leaded glass stops X-ray emission 

• Optional Anti-Glare Frosted Glass available to reduce eye strain from glare 

• Easy installation — tube comes with pre-mounted hardware 

• 30-Day Money-Back Guarantee 

• Ideal for Word-Processing & Programming, fast enough for Games & Graphics 

• Finest quality double-dark glass and phosphor fields make the letters seem to be coming out of black space 



Try This Test: 



A 



LSI's new ; T — CRT 



Turn the brightness control on 
your TRS-80*all the way up. Wave 
your hand up and down in front 
of the screen. See how jerky it 
seems? Just like in front of a 
strobe light! That's because the 
screen actually is strobing at you. 
A slower-phosphor CRT will 
reduce that troublesome strobe 
effect. That's why most of the 
newer monitors, from IBM* to 
Apple III* are using the new 
slow-phosphor CRT's. 

•IBM*. APPLE 



TM 

LSI SYSTEMS CRT's: 

□ #GN42 Green Phosphor $79.95 

□ #GN42G Green Phosphor with anti-glare $89.95 

□ #OR34 Orange Phosphor $89.95 

D #OR34G Orange Phosphor with anti-glare $99.95 
ADD $7 FOR PACKAGING AND UPS SHIPPING 



*-462 

80M-183 



>%Langley-St.Clair 



Instrumentation 
Systems, Inc. 

1 32 West 24th Street, New York, N.Y. 10011 212-989-6876 



To Order Call: 

1-800-221-7070 

Dealer Inquiries Invited 



and TRS-80* are trademarks of IBM, APPLE Computer & TANDY Corp. 



REVIEWS 



edited by Janet Fiderio 




• ••• 

Pac-Droids 
Programmer's Guild 
P.O. Box 66 

Peterborough, NH 03458 
Color Computer 
$19.95 

by Kerry Leichtman 

If a game clone is to be successful, 
it must imitate the original's good 
points, and add a few new twists of its 
own. Pac-Droids does just that. This 
new Programmer's Guild game is the 
best Pac-Man clone I've seen for the 
Color Computer. 

The object of play is the same as the 
original game; you run around a maze 
gobbling up dots, energizer pellets, and 
drones. Rather than being a smiley 
face profile, you command a blue 
spaceship. Your enemies, the red 
drones and a blue drone robot, attempt 
to converge upon your ship until you 
eat an energizer pellet. Then they 
become scarce. 

The game is more difficult than Pac- 
Man, and as a result more fun. The 
blue drone robot occasionally leaves 
dangerous droppings, called mines, in 
the maze. Running into one of these 
droppings will destroy your ship, as 
will taking on the powerful blue drone 
robot itself. 

You are supplied with a weapon to 
use against these killers — the super 
bomb. Used properly, the super-bomb 
will destroy the blue drone and its 
mines. But the super bomb is not all 



that discreet — it will also blow away 
your energy pellets. The super bomb 
will destroy everything in its path until 
hitting a force field (maze wall). So, if 
within one corridor you are faced with 
a charging blue drone, one of its mines, 
and your last energy pellet, close your 
eyes and take your fate. If you super- 
bomb your last energy pellet, you've 
also super-bombed your only hope in 
fighting the red drones. 

You start the game with three ships 
and three super bombs. You can use all 
three super bombs with any one ship, 
but I don't recommend it. According 
to the documentation you get an extra 
ship and an additional super bomb for 
every 10,000 points. You also get a new 
maze for every 10,000 points, with a 
maximum of four different mazes. I 
can't verify that first-hand for reasons 
I'd rather not discuss. But I do know 
that if you use all three super-bombs, 
say, with your first ship, and then that 
ship gets destroyed, your next ship is 
likely to encounter a rejuvenated blue 
robot drone and its mines — with no 
super bombs to defend itself. 

Charles Forsythe's use of the Color 
Computer's main attribute, color, is to 
be applauded. The monitor is alive 
with color, especially the title page. 
While I was researching (playing) for 
this review, many people stopped to 
watch the display (and laugh at my in- 
eptness). The sound is less exciting. In 
fact, I kept turning the volume down to 
lessen the barrage. 

A minor complaint is the seemingly 
slow reaction time when opting for 
keyboard input rather than joysticks. 
Your ship is more likely to be tracked 



Review Contents 

Pac-Droids .44 

Bits 'n Bites About Computing: 
A Computer Literacy Primer. 45 
C.C. Mailer and C.C. Merger. 45 

Chatterbox 48 

Trashman 53 

Options-80 54 

Log Electronic Notebook .... 57 

Incoprop 58 

The Information Society 

As Post Industrial Society. . .61 

Black Death 62 

Tiny Compiler 63 

The Grafyx Solution 65 

SuperScripsit 69 

Review Digest 72 



Our reviewers use a five-star rating system. 
One star represents the low end of this sped rum, 
while five stars represent the spectacular and high 
end of the spectrum. 



down by the enemy when using the ar- 
row keys than when directing move- 
ments with a joystick. 

Another complaint, less minor, is 
that you only get three attempts before 
the game is over. Now I can under- 
stand the greed of arcade machines 
when they limit your play to three 
chances for a quarter. I remember get- 
ting five balls for a dime on pinball 
machines and three plays for a quarter. 
(And my father remembers the nickel 
movie.) But the point is, if no one is in- 
terested in machine turnover, why not 
allow for more than three plays a game? 

For little kids the three-tries- 
you're-out is okay, because they take 
the time to master the play. But for an 
aging editor like me who didn't practice 
by dropping $20 a week into Pac-Man, 
three tries is too few to get anywhere. 
I'm sure I'll never see the other three 
mazes. My highest score was 7,400. 
10,000? Bah, humbug! 

Complaints aside, Pac-Droids is one 
of the better games available for the 
Color Computer. ■ 

80 Micro, January 1983 • 45 



*•• 

Bits '« Bytes About Computing: 
A Computer Literacy Primer 
by Rachelle S. Heller & 
C. Dianne Martin 
Computer Science Press 
11 Taft Court 
Rockville, MD 20850 
Hardcover, 174 pp. 
$17.95 

by Mary Gasiorowski 

As you read this page, stop for a 
moment and think about those 
who can't read — the illiterate — those 
who can't deal with the written word. 

There are many more who can't deal 
with or understand computers — the 
computer illiterate. At a time when our 
lives are becoming increasingly com- 
puterized — from our alarm clocks, 
washing machines, and automobiles to 
our businesses — it is increasingly im- 
portant that people understand what 
computers can and cannot do, how to 
use them, and the implications of com- 
puter use on our society. Bits 'n Bytes 
About Computing: A Computer Liter- 
acy Primer addresses this problem. 

Bits 'n Bytes was written for the 
classroom teacher to serve as a source, 
and perhaps as a textbook. It covers a 
broad range of topics: what is com- 
puter literacy, where did computers 
come from, how do computers work, 
what computers can do for us, and 
how computers will affect our lives. 
Each chapter is organized into content, 
a list of key ideas (vocabulary words), 
a set of activities (including informa- 
tion on the purpose of the activity, and 
the materials and time required for 
each), and a list of related readings for 
teachers and students. In addition, an 
appendix includes a software evalua- 
tion checklist to help teachers evaluate 
educational programs for the comput- 
er. An extensive index aids in relocat- 
ing specific topics or other references. 

Computer literacy is a topic that can 
be introduced (to a varying degree of 
depth) at any age. However, there are 
few books that can be used at the 
elementary level. Bits 'n Bytes is one of 
those few. As a source book, it pro- 
vides background material for the 
teacher, who can then decide how 
much to present to the students. 

The broad range of activities can be 
used from elementary through junior 
high-school classes. The activities and 

46 • 80 Micro, January 1983 



related readings are the best features of 
the book. The lists of related readings 
at the end of each chapter are extensive 
and varied, covering all aspects of 
computers, their history, and their use 
and misuse, and are clearly marked as 
to their intended audience (teacher, 
student, or both). 

Some sample activities from the 
book include: 

• making a scrapbook of the materials 
you collect about computers; 

• writing a short story or poem that 
describes how you feel about computers; 

• making a history time line showing 
the important events in computing 
history; 

• making your own simple calculator 
using three wooden gears; 

• preparing an oral report and poster 
about the use of computers in some area 
of life; and 

• collecting want ads to see what 
computer-related jobs are being offered 
and what the qualifications are. 

Bits 'n Bytes does not cover a specific 
programming language, as many intro- 
ductory books do. The authors feel 
there are already many good program- 
ming books available, and more impor- 
tantly, they did not want to commit 
their book to a particular language. 
This leaves the choice of a language — 
Basic, Pascal, Logo, or any other — to 
the discretion of the teacher or the situa- 



tion of the system available. 

Computer literacy has been defined 
by the National Science Foundation 
and the Minnesota Educational Com- 
puting Consortium as knowing how 
computers work, the step-by-step tech- 
nique for problem solving, social 
implications, being aware of computer 
applications, having a historical 
perspective on computers and future 
trends, and a person's attitudes toward 
computers. Bits 'n Bytes was written to 
address these topics. The authors ad- 
mit, however, that on some topics they 
present a byte (a larger unit) of infor- 
mation, while on other topics, only a 
bit (the smallest unit). Don't expect to 
teach from this book alone! 

Computer literacy is becoming a 
critical issue, and two important 
aspects of teaching the subject need to 
be summarized here. Computer litera- 
cy must be addressed to all ages. Bits 'n 
Bytes, as a source book, meets that 
challenge because it includes material 
for all ages and it leaves the presenta- 
tion to the teacher. In addition, there is 
much to learn about using computers 
effectively and avoiding their misuse. 
It would be nice to have all that infor- 
mation in a single book; but that book 
does not yet exist. Bits 'n Bytes, with its 
thoughtfully prepared list of activities 
and related readings, is a very good 
place to start. ■ 



• • • • 

C.C. Mailer and C.C. Merger 

Trans Tek 

194 Lockwood 

Bloom ingdale, II 60108 

Color Computer, 16-32K cassette 

or 32K disk systems 

C.C. Mailer, $20; with 

C.C. Merger, $35 



by Scott L. Norman 



C.C. Mailer and C.C. Merger are 
convenient, inexpensive programs 
for Color Computer owners who pre- 
pare "mass" mailings of moderate size. 
C.C. Mailer is a stand-alone program 
that allows the user to maintain address 
files for the preparation of mailing la- 
bels. C.C. Merger is used to combine 
such files with text files created by Trans 
Tek's C.C. Writer word processor. The 



package contains all the options neces- 
sary to sort address lists for selective 
mailings, and to customize form letters 
with properly formatted inside ad- 
dresses and salutations. 

C.C. Mailer 

This is the heart of the system. 

While C.C. Mailer is available on 
cassette, disk systems are far superior 
for the file manipulation required by 
this sort of program. Although dual 
disk drives give you even more freedom, 
most of my comments will specifically 
relate to single-disk operation. 

C.C. Mailer is menu driven, and 
leads you through the process of enter- 
ing data for your files in a very painless 
fashion. Up to 11 data fields are avail- 
able, including two different code fields 
that can be used for sorting. Disk sys- 
tem records are limited to a total length 
of 128 characters; 720 such records can 
be accommodated by a 32K disk system. 
This is misleading, though. If only one 



the Color Computer Word Processor 



3 display formats: 51/64/85 

columns x 24 lines 

True lower case characters 

User -friendly full -screen 

editor 

Right justification 

Easy hyphenation 

Drives any printer 

Embedded format and 

control codes 

Runs in 16K, 32K, or 64K 

Menu-driven disk and 

cassette I/O 

No hardware modifications 
required 



THE ORIGINAL 



Simply stated, Telewriter is the most powerful 
word processor you can buy for the TRS-80 
Color Computer. The original Telewriter has 
received rave reviews in every major Color 
Computer and TRS-80 magazine, as well as 
enthusiastic praise from thousands of satisfied 
owners. And rightly so. 

The standard Color Computer display of 32 
characters by 16 lines without lower case is 
simply inadequate for serious word processing. 
The checkerboard letters and tiny lines give you 
no feel for how your writing looks or reads. 
Telewriter gives the Color Computer a 51 
column by 24 line screen display with true 
lower case characters. So a Telewriter screen 
looks like a printed page, with a good chunk of 
text on screen at one time. In fact, more on 
screen text than you'd get with Apple II, Atari, 
TI, Vic or TRS-80 Model III. 

On top of that, the sophisticated Telewriter 
full-screen editor is so simple to use, it makes 
writing fun. With single-letter mnemonic 
commands, and menu-driven I/O and 
formatting, Telewriter surpasses all others for 
user friendliness and pure power. 

Telewriter's chain printing feature means that 
the size of your text is never limited by the 
amount of memory you have, and Telewriter's 
advanced cassette handler gives you a powerful 
word processor without the major additional 
cost of a disk. 



...one of the best programs for the Color 
Computer I have seen... 

— Color Computer News, Jan. 1982 



TELEWRITER-64 



But now we've added more power to 
Telewriter. Not just bells and whistles, but 
major features that give you total control over 
your writing. We call this new supercharged 
version Telewriter-64. For two reasons. 



64K COMPATIBLE 



Telewriter-64 runs fully in any Color Computer 
— 16K, 32K, or 64K, with or without Extended 
Basic, with disk or cassette or both. It 
automatically configures itself to take optimum 
advantage of all available memory. That means 
that when you upgrade your memory, the 
Telewriter-64 text buffer grows accordingly. In 
a 64K cassette based system, for example, you 
get about 40K of memory to store text. So you 
don't need disk or FLEX to put all your 64K 
to work immediately. 



64 COLUMNS (AND 85!) 



Besides the original 51 column screen, 
Telewriter-64 now gives you 2 additional high- 
density displays: 64 x 24 and 85 x 24!! Both 
high density modes provide all the standard 
Telewriter editing capabilities, and you can 
switch instantly to any of the 3 formats with a 
single control key command. 
The 51 x 24 display is clear and crisp on the 
screen. The two high density modes are more 
crowded and less easily readable, but they are 
perfect for showing you the exact layout of 
your printed page, all on the screen at one 
time. Compare this with cumbersome 
"windows" that show you only fragments at a 
time and don't even allow editing. 



RIGHT JUSTIFICATION & 
HYPHENATION 



One outstanding advantage of the full-width 
screen display is that you can now set the 
screen width to match the width of your 
printed page, so that "what you see is what 
you get." This makes exact alignment of 
columns possible and it makes hyphenation 
simple. 

Since short lines are the reason for the large 
spaces often found in standard right justified 
text, and since hyphenation is the most 
effective way to eliminate short lines, 
Telewrifer-64 can now promise you some of the 
best looking right justification you can get on 
the Color Computer. 



FEATURES & SPECIFICATIONS: 



Printing and formatting: Drives any printer 
(LPVII/VIII, DMP-100/200, Epson, Okidata, 
Centronics, NEC, C. Itoh, Smith-Corona, 
Terminet, etc). 

Embedded control codes give full dynamic access to 
intelligent printer features like: underlining, 
subscript, superscript, variable font and type size, dot- 
graphics, etc. 

Dynamic (embedded) format controls for: top, 
bottom, and left margins; line length, lines per page, 
line spacing, new page, change page numbering, 
conditional new page, enable/disable justification. 
Menu-driven control of these parameters, as well as: 
pause at page bottom, page numbering, baud rate (so 
you can run your printer at top speed), and Epson 
font. "Typewriter" feature sends typed lines directly 
to your printer, and Direct mode sends control codes 
right from the keyboard. Special Epson driver 
simplifies use with MX-80. 

Supports single and multi-line headers and automatic 
centering. Print or save all or any section of the text 
buffer. Chain print any number of files from cassette 
or disk. 



File and I/O Features: ASCII format files — 
create and edit BASIC, Assembly, Pascal, and C 
programs, Smart Terminal files (for uploading or 
downloading), even text files from other word 
processors. Compatible with spelling checkers (like 
Spell 'n Fix). 

Cassette verify command for sure saves. Cassette auto- 
retry means you type a load command only once no 
matter where you are in the tape. 

Read in, save, partial save, and append files with disk 
and/or cassette. For disk: print directory with free 
space to screen or printer, kill and rename files, set 
default drive. Easily customized to the number of 
drives in the system. 

Editing features: Fast, full-screen editor with 
wordwrap, block copy, block move, block delete, line 
delete, global search and replace (or delete), wild card 
search, fast auto-repeat cursor, fast scrolling, cursor 
up, down, right, left, begin line, end line, top of text, 
bottom of text; page forward, page backward, align 
text, tabs, choice of buff or green background, 
complete error protection, line counter, word counter, 
space left, current file name, default drive in effect, 
set line length on screen. 

Insert or delete text anywhere on the screen without 
changing "modes." This fast "free-form" editor 
provides maximum ease of use. Everything you do 
appears immediately on the screen in front of you. 
Commands require only a single key or a single key 
plus CLEAR. 



. . . truly a state of the art word processor. . . 
outstanding in every respect. 

— The RAINBOW, Jan. 1982 



PROFESSIONAL 
WORD PROCESSING 



You can no longer afford to be without the 
power and efficiency word processing brings to 
everything you write. The TRS-80 Color 
Computer is the lowest priced micro with the 
capability for serious word processing. And 
only Telewriter-64 fully unleashes that 
capability. 

Telewriter-64 costs $49.95 on cassette, $59.95 
on disk, and comes complete with over 70 
pages of well-written documentation. (The step- 
by-step tutorial will have your writing with 
Telewriter-64 in a matter of minutes.) 
To order, send check or money order to: 



Cognitec 

704 Nob Ave. 

Del Mar, CA 92014 



^ 121 



Or check your local software store. If you have 
questions, or would like to order by Visa or 
Mastercard, call us at (619) 755-1258 
(weekdays, 8AM -4PM PST). Dealer inquiries 
invited. 

(Add $2 for shipping. Californians add 6% slate tax. Allow 2 
weeks for personal checks. Send self-addressed stamped 
envelope for Telewriter reviews from CCN, RAINBOW, 
80-Micro, 80-U.S. Telewriter owners: send SASE or call for 
information on upgrading to Telewriter-64. Telewriter- 
compatible spelling checker (Spell 'n Fix) and Smart Terminal 
program (Colorcom/E) also available. Call or write for more 
information.) 

Apple II is a trademark of Apple Computer, Inc.; Atari is a 
trademark of Atari, Inc.; TRS-80 is a trademark of Tandy 
Corp; MX-80 is a trademark of Epson America, Inc. 



TRS-80 T 

TRSDOS™ 



' MODEL II 
1.3 Users 



Super-DIR 1.3 

SDIR a directory maintenance and display 
program enhancing present commands and 
allows unlimited access to your disk and disk 
files. Not recommended for those who need 
to be protected from themselves. 

Among its many features: 

SDIR run under TRSDOS 1.3. 

SDIR abbreviated (horizontal or vertical) or 

super expanded listing with scrolling. 
SDIR graphic diskette map with areas 

marked by file type. 
SDIR map showing location of any file. 
SDIR single stroke commands. 
SDIR list files a granule at a time. 
SDIR sort by name, extension, size, starting 

location or back as it was. 
SDIR rearrange order for special needs. 
SDIR most modifications either temporary 

or permanent. 
SDIR create, kill, rename, change attributes 

or reposition files. 
SDIR reduce number of extents, speed up 

direct file handling. 
SDIR change any byte on disk. 
SDIR pack out holes in disk space. 

Comes complete with manual which also 
describes the directory. How to add your 
name to boot message, substitute SDIR for 
DIR, backup protect your files like Scripsit™ 
and many many more. 

Price $59.95. Send check or money order to: 



SMS Products 



^499 



1117 32nd. Ave.SE 

™ trademark of TANDY CORP. 



Albany, OR 97321 



TRS-80" 



WOBOS™ I 



Basic Operating System 

WOBOS I is a menu driven, prestructured program in BASIC thai 
provides access to over 30 utility functions during development or 
actual use of a program. Its unique layout allows you to develop 
your programs within a well organized environment that provides 
a very strong foundation to build upon. You always had to start 
from scratch before but now. after loading WOBOS I, you'll start 
with over 11 K of subroutines and system utilities. Imagine what 
this can do for your productivity! WOBOS I is not an accessory 
to your program. It actually becomes its foundation! 




Illustrated above is the Primary Menu of WOBOS I for Model III. 
In addition to the features shown, the DEVICE I/O generates a 
separate 9-choice menu that will allow you to compile, update, 
sort and output your data files. It also Includes a utility that will 
save both the DATA and WOBOS I on tape and or disk. 
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REVIEWS 



drive is available, capacity will be re- 
duced because of the need to reserve 
space for the operation of the sorting 
option. 

A fresh disk contains four programs: 
Mail, a short loader; C.C. Mailer itself; 
SORTCOM, the sorting routine; and 
Copy2, which is used to copy files in a 
two-drive system. C.C. Merger is an op- 
tional fifth program on the disk. 

The user's first task is to make a 
back-up for a working copy. Since file 
control is manual, with the data file 
name being defined in the program, you 
have to make a fresh back-up disk for 
every address file. As far as the program 
is concerned, all data files are called 
CCMA1LER/DAT. 

You begin by running the Mail pro- 
gram. If there is a data file on the disk, 
it is automatically loaded at this point; 
if not, you will be prompted for a title 
for your new file. This will be displayed 
on subsequent listings and data re- 
quests. You are also asked to specify the 
date; C.C. Mailer keeps track of the last 
update, a rather professional feature. 
At this point, the main menu comes up: 



(U) UPDATE THE FILE 
(P) PRINT A FILE REPORT 
(L) PRINT LABELS 
(S) SORT THE FILE 

(E) EXTRACT FROM THE FILE 

(F) UPPER/LOWERCASE CONVERSION 
(Q) QUIT AND RETURN TO BASIC 



The U option is used to build a file 
and to add, change, or delete records. A 
second-level menu guides you through 
the options. The data-entry/change 
screen identifies the fields by number. 
The 1 1 fields are: 

• Title: limited to six characters, so 
MR&MRS will just fit. 

• First Name and Middle Initial: 15 
spaces. 

• Last Name: 20 spaces. 

• First Line of Address: 25 spaces. 

• Second Line of Address: 20 spaces. 
Two lines are handy for specifying 
apartment numbers, company names, 
and so on. If this field is not used, it will 
print as a blank line on mailing labels, 
but C.C. Merger will delete it in the ad- 
dress portion of a form letter. 

• City: 13 spaces, two positions al- 
lowed (e.g., New York can be written 
with a space). 

• State: Use the two-character abbre- 
viations. 



• Zip Code: Use the old five-digit 
codes. A nice feature is the disk pro- 
gram runs a consistency check on the 
zip code and the state abbreviation, and 
notifies you if there is a mismatch. You 
can ignore the message and proceed, 
which is handy for preliminary storage 
of data when you may not know the zip 
and want to leave the field blank. 

• Telephone Number: 12 spaces, so 
you can't use parentheses around the 
area code. I use a single hyphen to sepa- 
rate it from the exchange. 

• Code Field 1 : Five spaces, with each 
treated as a separate one-character field 
for selection purposes. 

• Code Field 2: Five spaces, treated as 
one field. 

Data entry is easy; the command line 
prompts you for each field in turn. You 
can backspace and correct the field 
you're working on, but once it is en- 
tered, you must complete work on the 
record before the option to change any- 
thing becomes available again. 

When using the Change or Delete 
suboptions of Update, you can identify 
the record in question by last name, or 
by one or both code fields. The codes 
are also used in doing selective printing, 
and generally add to C.C. Mailer's 
power and flexibility. 

Code field 2 is pretty simple; think of 
it as a five-character, free-form key- 
word. You can search for any substring 
in this field, provided it is at least two 
characters long. To paraphrase an ex- 
ample from the documentation, if C.C. 
Mailer is used to maintain the member- 
ship list of some organization, then 
code field 2 might contain the month 
and year when each member joined, 
perhaps in the form MM/YY. If you 
wanted to identify everyone who be- 
came a member in 1980, you could just 
search for the substring /80. 

Code field 1 enables you to encode 
status information about five catego- 
ries, each having a distinct position in 
the field. When you specify the 
"mask" — the pattern — for searches on 
this field, you can indicate a "don't 
care" condition for any position with 
characters you know would not appear 
in the actual codes. For example, each 
position in code field 1 of our hypothet- 
ical membership list might contain ei- 
ther an A or an I to indicate active or in- 
active status in five specified activities. 
Should you wish to identify members 
participating in activities one and four, 
regardless of their other interests, then 



48 • 80 Micro, January 1983 







Time Runner- 1 962 by Funsoft, Inc. TRS-80 is a trademark of TANDY/RADIO SHACK 



REVIEWS 



the search mask might be A**A*. 

As I mentioned above, every time 
you employ the code fields for a search, 
you are given the option of specifying 
whether a match should be found on ei- 
ther field, or both. That is, you can 
AND or OR the search criteria. 

It is a good idea to sort the file when- 
ever records have been changed or add- 
ed. The sort option invokes a two-level 
reverse ripple sort that works on last 
names within each zip code. The pro- 
gram asks if there is a scratch disk on 
drive 1, but it will work on single- 
drive systems; it just requires more 
space on the disk. A nice, chatty rou- 
tine, it gives you a running commentary 
as it loads the sorting and merging pro- 
grams and goes about its business. 

Printed Output 

You can request a complete or partial 
printout of a C.C. Mailer file with the 
main menu's P option. The left side of 
the printout contains the four lines of 
name and address data for each record, 
formatted as they would be for labels. 
The telephone number and the two code 
fields are printed at the right of this 
material. Printouts of this kind are use- 
ful for archival purposes. 

The real payoff is in the preparation 
of mailing labels. The L command gets 
you started. You are given the usual se- 
lection options, and can also ask for a 
trial print of a dummy label. This is to 
help you get your tractor-feed labels 
properly aligned in the printer, which is 
set up for one-inch-high labels, six- 
lines-per-inch feed. A final option is the 
treatment of the code fields. You can 
delete them from the actual labels, or 
have them printed. If you choose the 
latter, the codes will appear on the top 
line of each label, indented to comply 
with postal regulations. 

C.C. Mailer's F command is impor- 
tant for professional-looking labels. 
The output options I've already dis- 
cussed treat all text as uppercase. If you 
use the F command before printing, 
though, your labels and form-letter sal- 
utations will have proper capitalization. 
To be specific, F leaves the first letter in 
each alphabetic field a capital. Each 
succeeding letter is converted to lower- 
case unless it follows a blank, or a char- 
acter whose ASCII code is less than 65; 
this takes care of punctuation marks. 
One result is that each half of a hyphen- 
ated name will be properly capitalized: 
Smith-Jones. MR&MRS is properly 
50 • 80 Micro, January 1983 



converted to Mr&Mrs, and the name of 
the XYZ Corp. will come out Xyz un- 
less you insert spaces: XYZ Corp. The 
state abbreviation is left as two capital 
letters. 

One more option, Extract, is used to 
copy data into a new file without code 
fields. The primary application is C.C. 
Merger; the extracted file is used for the 
inside address and salutation. The F op- 
tion can be used before E, too. When E 
is invoked you are given the usual op- 
portunity to specify search fields, and 
are then asked for a file name. With a 
single-drive system, you might as well 
be lazy and let the program assign its de- 
fault name of CCMAILEX. If you 
have multiple drives, however, you can 
keep your extract files on a specific 
drive and designate this in the file name. 

C.C. Merger is used to prepare form 
letters with individualized inside ad- 
dresses and salutations. It requires an 
extract address file from C.C. Mailer, 
and a text file prepared with C.C. Writ- 
er. The text file has to have the proper 
embedded command to link with the 
address file, but that's easily accom- 
plished; when preparing the letter, just 
omit the address/salutation section and 
replace it with the command /ms. 
When the program is run, it will print 
the proper inside address (three or four 
lines), skip two lines, and then print a 
salutation in the form "Dear TITLE 
LAST NAME," using the data from 
each extract record in turn. Note that 
suffixes such as Jr. or III will not appear 
in the salutation. 

The /ms command can be stacked 
with other C.C. Writer commands. For 
example, to skip two lines before print- 
ing the inside address, use the combina- 
tion /s2/ms. If you are preparing a se- 
ries of letters with a common salutation 



such as Dear Friend, put the salutation 
in the text file and precede it with /m. 
The individual inside addresses will still 
be printed. 

The mechanics of running C.C. Merg- 
er are pretty simple. Assuming the two 
files are on hand, you just enter "RUN 
CCMERGER." You are prompted for 
the address file name, the text file name, 
and then the program takes off on its 
own. (By the way, that prompting order 
is the reverse of what the manual 
claims.) 

File chaining is not supported by 
C.C. Merger, so you'd better not write 
anything like a 20-page form letter. If 
you must, you could take the manual's 
suggestion and run just the first page 
under C.C. Merger. Also, at this time 
the program will not allow you to insert 
a variable field in the middle of a letter 
to pick up a last name for personalizing. 
Bill Dye of Trans Tek says that the logic 
is all there, but he has not implemented 
this feature in order to keep a rein on 
the size of the package. 

He also advises that C.C. Mailer 
owners insert LW=0: at the beginning 
of program line 13 10 in order to proper- 
ly handle the case of a blank Title field. 

The two programs work well with 
each other and with C.C. Writer. The 
documentation accompanying my re- 
view copies had a few rough spots, 
mostly the result Of the programs' rapid 
evolution. Bill Dye has a record of sup- 
porting his products, though, and I'm 
happy to report that recent supplements 
to the manual have cleared up the ear- 
lier problems; there should be no dif- 
ficulty with material being shipped 
now. If you are involved with an organ- 
ization that has to produce bulk mail- 
ings, the Trans Tek package can be of 
great assistance. ■ 



• ••• 
Chatterbox 

VoiceTech Industries 
P.O. Box 499 
Fort Hamilton Station 
Brooklyn, NY 11209 
$24.95 

How to Make Your Computer 
Talk for Under $50 

by Earl Savage 



If you have a little electronics know- 
how, the inexpensive VoiceTech 
method can give your machine the abili- 
ty to talk back to you. 

The manual title, How to Make Your 
Computer Talk for Under $50, de- 
scribes its contents very accurately. 
Even if you purchase every component 
at the local Radio Shack, you can build 
this synthesizer for $49.51 , including an 
edge-card connector and ribbon cable. 

The Manual 

The 38-page manual is well written. It 
contains an explanation of human 



.«*£& 







v^ VV. 0<« 






P^>_>' 



#-* 




VC^IvvxO' 



The Black Hole, Apple Panic, Bable Terror, and Mad Mines, copyright 1 982 by Funsoft TRS-80 is a trademark of TANDY/RADIO SHACK. 



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MOD III 

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— DISK III 
TRSDOS & 
Manuals 

$1775 





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for MOD I 

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80 TK or 2 sided $395 

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Optional HD III: 

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Paper 14'/, x 11 (Green Bar) 
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Printer Cable 


5.95 
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Tractor 


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VR-RS232 
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52 • 80 Micro, January 1983 



Call Toil-Free 

800-345-8102 

ALL VR DATA PRODUCTS CARRY A 120-DAY 
WARRANTY INCLUDING PARTS & LABOR 

Published prices reflect cash discount. All prices are subject 
to change without notice. TRS-80 and TRSDOS are trademarks 
ol Tandy Corp. DISK III is a trademark of VR Data Corp. 
8:30AM-7PM EST. Mon.-Fn.. Sat. 10AM-3PM 
CABLE ■■VRDATA" TELEX 845-124 



REVIEWS 



speech and synthesizing methods suffi- 
cient to form a foundation for later 
computer programming. Without get- 
ting too deeply into the complex subject 
of phonemes and allophones, you get 
enough background to make your ini- 
tial efforts useful. 

Phonemes are the constituent sounds 
of a language; allophones are the 
acoustic signals/sounds of the pho- 
nemes. There are about 64 phonemes in 
English and the VoiceTech synthesizer 
uses a group of 64 allophones to cre- 
ate words. 

This part of the manual emphasizes 
that programming speech uses the 
sounds involved — not the letters used to 
spell the words. The available allo- 
phones are listed with illustrations of 
their sounds and hints for their uses. 

Another section of the manual gives 
programs for the Model I, the Model 
III, and two other computers. The pro- 
grams are annotated, and include a 
thorough explanation of their features, 
using examples. 

The manual also contains the parts 
lists and schematics of synthesizers for 
each of the computers it can be used 
with. One synthesizer connects to the 
printer port of the Model III or Model 
I. Another synthesizer connects to the 
expansion port of the Model I. 

If you own a Model I, you can con- 
struct the printer port version; it is 
simpler because it needs no address de- 
coding. Both versions operate identically. 

The Kit 

The contents of the starter kit depends 
upon what version of the synthesizer 
you decide to build. For all versions, 
you get a 3.12 MHz clock for timing 
control and the speech synthesizer inte- 
grated circuit, a 28-pin DIP switch. 

To complete the printer-port version, 
you need 11 capacitors, four resistors, 
one potentiometer, one audio amplifier 
IC, and a speaker; all these components 
are readily available. 

You can tap into your computer for 
the single operating voltage required (5 
volts), or you can follow the manual di- 
rections and use an AC adapter and a 
voltage-regulator IC. 

I found only two typographical er- 
rors in the manual. The data list of 
allophones contains an error (EH2 
should be DH2 in line 52). The other 
is an unmarked capacitor in the sche- 
matic. Fortunately, it's not critical (a 
.lmfd works fine). 



Be advised that the hardware section 
of the VoiceTech manual does not con- 
tain step-by-step directions for con- 
struction. Construction of the voice 



"Be advised. . . 

the hardware section 

of the VoiceTech manual 

does not contain 

step-by-step directions 

for construction. " 



synthesizer is not too difficult. If you 
are new to electronics, find an experi- 
enced friend to give you advice and 
assistance. 

Using the Synthesizer 

With the program keyed in and the 
synthesizer connected, you're ready for 
some serious fun. The synthesizer needs 
no attention beyond turning it on and 
adjusting the volume. You will have 
speech right away because the program 
has a built-in message: "Welcome to 
VoiceTech, my name is Chatterbox." 

When you are tired of hearing that 
message, you can program any words 
you wish. Keep the table of allophones 
handy when you key them in and edit 
them if you don't like the way the word 
comes out. Fortunately, the program 
makes editing easy. 

The VoiceTech program is slow 
handling arrays and doesn't save the al- 



lophones for the words that you gener- 
ated. This program, however, is easy to 
use and understand. The algorithm can 
be easily adapted to your own needs. 

The program generates a single-di- 
mension array of the allophones' ad- 
dresses you used to create your words. 
Just select and enter the allophones; the 
computer does the rest — finds the ad- 
dresses, forms the array, and sends it to 
the synthesizer. You can modify the 
program to save or print out the arrays 
so that you can use the same words 
again later. 

You can even add sound to your own 
programs — original or your modifica- 
tions of existing programs. Just put the 
address arrays in your program and 
send them through a short talk sub- 
routine when you want the computer 
to speak. 

Summary 

VoiceTech Industries has a good 
thing here. Where else can you get a 
quality synthesizer for such a small out- 
lay of money and effort? Off-the-shelf 
synthesizers have been beyond the reach 
of most of us. 

If you happen to be all thumbs and 
have no electronics assistant, write to 
VoiceTech. They have announced a 
completely assembled version. The 
price is unknown at this writing, but I'm 
sure it will be less than the current mar- 
ket prices. 

The people at VoiceTech say they are 
working on the other half of synthe- 
sized speech: text to speech. I look for- 
ward to the time when my computer can 
read aloud in plain English what I typed 
into it!H 



• • • Vi 

Trashman 

Prosoft Software 

P.O. Box 839 

N. Hollywood, CA 91603 



Model I, II, or III 
$39.95 

by Richard C. McGarvey 



Trashman is a small, invisible ma- 
chine-language utility for the Model 
I and III that increases program speed 



by cleaning up vacant, or trash, string 
locations. It uses only 578 bytes of 
memory, plus two bytes for each active 
string, and it reduces string compression 
time by 95 percent or more. 

Trashman to the Rescue 

Trashman oversees Basic programs 
and does a high-speed clean-up routine 
when needed. The result is that trash 
collection delays are reduced by 95 per- 
cent or better. Obviously, there will not 
be a noticeable increase in the speed of a 
program with relatively few strings. But 
in those programs that use hundreds of 
strings and especially string arrays, the 
time saved is outstanding. Table 1 
shows the sample savings listed in the 

80 Micro, January 1983 • 53 



OMNITERM 

The ULTIMATE TRS-80 
Terminal Package 

What is OMNITERM? 

OMNITERM is a professional communications 
package for the TRS-80that allows you to easily 
communicate and transfer files or programs 
with almost any other computer. We've never 
found a computer that OMNITERM can't work 
with. It's a complete package because it in- 
cludes not only the terminal program itself, but 
also conversion utilities, a text editor, special 
configuration files, serious documentation and 
serious support. 

Why do I need it? 
You need OMNITERM if you need to communicate 
efficiently with many different computers, or if 
you want to customize your TRS-80 for use with 
one particular computer. You need OMNITERM to 
SOLVE your communications problems once and 
for all. 

What do I get? 
The OMNITERM package includes the OMNITERM 
terminal program, four conversion utilities, a 
text editor, and setting files for use with popular 
computers such as CompuServe, the Source, 
and Dow Jones —just as samples of what you 
can do for the computer you want to work with. 
The package includes six programs, seven data 
files, and real documentation: a 76-page manual 
that has been called "the best in the industry." And 
OMNITERM comes with real user support. We 
can be reached via CompuServe, Source, phone, 
or mail to promptly answer your questions 
about using OMNITERM. 

What do I need to use OMNITERM? 

A Model I or Model III TRS-80, at least 32K of 
memory, one disk, and the RS-232 interface, or 
Microconnection modem. OMNITERM works with 
all ROMs and DOSes, and will work with your 
special keyboard drivers. 

What will it do? 
OMNITERM allows you to translate any char- 
acter going to any device: printer, screen, disk, 
keyboard, or communications line, giving you 
complete control and allowing you to redefine 
the character sets of all devices. It will let you 
transfer data, and run your printer while con- 
nected for a record of everything that happens. 
OMNITERM can reformat your screen so that 80, 
32, or 40 column lines are easy to read and look 
neat on your TRS-80 screen. It even lets you get 
on remote computers with just one keystroke! 
The program lets you send special characters, 
echo characters, count UART errors, configure 
your UART, send True Breaks and use lower 
case. It accepts VIDEOTEX codes, giving you full 
cursor control. It will even let you review text that 
has scrolled off the screen! Best of all, OMNI- 
TERM will save a special file with all your 
changes so you can quickly use OMNITERM for 
any one of many different computers by loading 
the proper file. It's easy to use since it's menu 
driven, and gives you a full status display so 
you can examine and change everything. 
"OMNITERM has my vote as the top TRS-80 
terminal program available today" Kilobaud 
Microcomputing, June 1981, pages 16-19. 
OMNITERM is $95 (plus shipping if COD) Cail for 
24 hour shipment. Manual alone $15, applied 
toward complete package. Visa, M/C, and COD 
accepted. MA residents add 5% tax. Dealer 
inquiries invited. 

Also available OMNITERM for the TRS-80 
Model II and IBM personal computer. 
Contact Lindbergh Systems for details. 

Bindtbergh Systems 

41 Fairhill Road, Holden, MA 01520 
(617) 852-0233 „, 35 

Source TCA818 CompuServe: 70310267 TRS-80 is a '" of Tandy Corp. 



REVIEWS 





Seconds Delay 


Percent 


Number of Strings 


Normal 


Trashman 


Improvement 


250 


11.8 


0.7 


94% 


500 


45.8 


1.6 


96.5% 


1,000 


179.6 


3.5 


98% 


2,000 


713.2 


7.8 


98.9% 



Table J. Trashman Sample Savings 



documentation for Trashman. My tests 
bear out these figures within reasonable 
limits (different TRS-80s run at slightly 
different speeds — my tests were a bit 
faster across the board). 

Trashman is simple to operate and in- 
tegrate, and it is virtually invisible. 
There are some special features to 
Trashman that can be used in normal 
operation. You have the option to deac- 
tivate Trashman at any time by simply 
issuing the command DEFUSR = 
ADDR: PRINT USR (-1). Trashman 
remains inactive until the above line is 
issued again and the last command is 
changed to USR (0). Trashman can also 
be totally removed by issuing the above 
command with USR (-2). Be sure you 
want Trashman gone before you use 
that one because there is no recovery. 

Trashman can cause out-of-string- 
space and out-of-memory error mes- 
sages. These errors come from Basic 
and are the result of specifying too 
much string space for Trashman. Low- 
ering the value of bytes will correct the 
problem. Do not overestimate the 
string-space requirements. Even if you 
don't get an error message, you will not 
be getting optimum performance from 
Trashman. Granted, the compression 



time will still be reduced, but it won't be 
as fast as it could be. A little experi- 
mentation on already-written programs 
and a little planning on new programs 
will help. 

There is one additional error that can 
occur, but will not present an error 
message (at least not a written one). 
Failure to specify a minimum of two 
bytes for each active string will cause 
Trashman to step aside and let normal 
compression occur. The signal for this 
error is the lack of improvement in 
compression time. 

The documentation for Trashman is 
short and simple. This goes for the op- 
eration of Trashman as well. All you 
need is a Basic program that uses a lot 
of strings and has delays as a result of 
cleaning up after those strings. As a 
programmer's tool, Trashman is indis- 
pensable. No need to sit and stare at a 
CRT while the computer is sweeping 
out the cobwebs. Trashman cleans your 
attic before it becomes an all-day job. 
Trashman has little or no visible effect 
on program time when only a few 
strings are used. If, on the other hand, 
string compression delays have been 
plaguing you, it's Trashman to the 
rescue! ■ 



• • • • Vi 

Options-80 
Box 471 

Concord, MA 01742 
Models I & III 
$125, disk 

by Frederick Goldstein 

Options-80 helps investors analyze 
the profitability of various options 
transactions based on the investors' con- 
victions of how the stock will perform. 
The program was written by Patrick 
N. Everett and Timothy J. Everett, 
who, after achieving success with the 
program, decided to market it. It comes 



with an extensive instruction manual in- 
cluding a book list for supplemental 
reading. This review is based on tests 
performed on a TRS-80 Model I. 

Before discussing this program I will 
review some basic options concepts. A 
call option buyer pays a premium to ac- 
quire the right to call stock away from 
the seller of the call (the option writer) 
at a specified price (the striking price) 
for a limited period of time. A put buy- 
er pays a premium so he can put stock 
to a put seller (or writer) at a specified 
price for a limited period of time. 

Option prices and the price of the un- 
derlying stock usually move in tandem. 
If an underlying stock increases in price, 
the call option probably will too, since 



54 • 80 Micro, January 1983 



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Basic Compiler $179.95 

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MX 80 Bronze .... $29.95 MX 80 Bronze .... $15.95 
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• VISION FRIENDLY • 

Vision Friendly is an eye exercise package for the Model III which 
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RIBBONS 

ZIP BOX RELOADS Vz Dz. Dz. 

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Strike Force 14.50 

Voyage of Valkyrie 31.95 

Bounceoids or Sp. Castle. 14.50 

The Institute 17.95 

Fortress or Alien Def 14.50 

Any Big 5 Program 14.50 



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TO ORDER 

CALL OR 

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146-03 25th Road 

Flushing, N.Y. 11354 

(212)445-7124 



PHONE HOURS: 

Mon.-Fri. 

10 AM-9 PM 

Sat. 

is? 10AM-5PM 



ORDERING INFORMATION 

No credit cards at these low prices. Add $2.00 on all COD orders. Certified CWMO/COD 
shipped immediately. Please allow 2 weeks for personal checks. For extra fast service 
phone in your COD order. Free shipping within Continental 48 states via UPS ground. For 
Canada, Hawaii, Alaska, applicable shipping and insurance charges apply. Prices subject to 
change without notice. New York State residents please add appropriate sales tax. 
The items listed above are a cross-section of our product line. We carry the full line of most 
companies listed in this ad. plus much more. SEND FOR YOUR FREE CATALOG. 



^See List of Advertisers on Page 435 



80 Micro, January 1983 • 55 



DOUBLE YOUR MONEY 
EVERY MONTH??? HA! 



F HE TOLD YOU YOU COULD DOUBLE YOUR NȣY 
EVERY HONTH, YOU MOULD CALL US LIARS. 
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REVIEWS 



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56 • 80 Micro, January 1983 



the call buyer can purchase the stock at 
a predetermined price. Likewise, if a 
stock drops in price, call prices also 
decline, because the right to purchase 
the stock is less valuable. 

Put prices move in the opposite direc- 
tion to call prices. As a stock declines, 
puts increase in value because the put 
buyer is guaranteed a specific price for 
his shares, regardless of the current 
market value. As stocks rise in price, 
puts decline in value since the right to 
sell stock at a lower price becomes less 
valuable. 

The magic of options is leverage — the 
ability to invest in more shares than you 
could with an outright purchase of 
stocks. A call buyer makes a much 
larger percentage gain than an outright 
investor in stock. While the stock buyer 
must fund the full price of the shares 
either with cash or by borrowing, the 
option buyer funds only the premium, a 
much smaller amount. The percentage 
gain is based on a smaller investment, 
the option premium, rather than the full 
cost of the stock. Commensurate with 
the higher reward is the risk that the op- 
tion will be worthless when it expires. 
You can use many types of investment 
strategies involving the buying and sell- 
ing of stocks and their related put and 
call options, and you can project the 
profitability of these transactions in 
several ways. Since these methods in- 
volve time-consuming calculations, the 
computer comes in handy. 

Options-80 analyzes a broad range of 
option-related trades involving puts and 
calls. The program has two types of 
analytical output, a chart and a table. 
Both present a projected percent gain or 
loss that will be realized if the underly- 
ing common stock increases or de- 
creases by a range of percentages. 

The program is easy to use. It pro- 
vides prompts and menu choices to go 
from one feature to the next. Its error 
trapping is good; the only way to stop 
the program is to hit break or pull out 
the plug. 

The method used for entering option 
prices is nice. A chart is presented that 
looks like the option page of most news- 
papers. The cursor shows you where to 
enter the next price. Unfortunately, if 
you make an error during data entry or 
if you want to change a price you must 
start over. A letter J is entered rather 
than price data to instruct the program 
to jump to the beginning of the chart. 
However, rather than re-entering each 



field, you can hit enter to accept what 
was there before and keep hitting enter 
until you reach the field to be changed. 
Once the data is entered, you can store it. 

In addition to handling dividends, 
the program provides a table of user- 
modifiable parameters. By including 
these factors in the calculations, the 
program attempts to make its projec- 
tions as realistic as possible. 

The first item in the parameter table 
is called a trading adjustment. Most op- 
tions investors know that the prices 
quoted in the newspapers represent ac- 
tual trades rather than the bid or offer. 
They also know that the bid is lower 
than the offer, and if you are a buyer 
you must pay the offer or wait with 
your bid. If you are a seller you will re- 
ceive the bid or wait with your offer. To 
account for the difference between bid 
and offer prices, the program bases its 
calculations on the newspaper prices 
plus or minus the trading adjustment. 
As a result, the program simulates pric- 
ing conditions that would prevail if the 
stock and option trades were placed 
with a broker as a market order. 

A commission adjustment and a com- 
mission rate are two of the other items in 
the parameter table. The commission 
adjustment is used as a per-share charge 
for a transaction and the commission 
rate is a flat percentage of the total trans- 
action cost. These two items are added 
to approximate the brokerage fees. 

Other fields in the parameter table in- 
clude a factor for the cost of money, ex- 
piration date (for the trading month) of 
the option, and the scales to be used 
for plotting both the horizontal and ver- 
tical axes. 

The program calculates a projected 
annualized rate of return on an invest- 
ment as a function of anticipated an- 
nualized percent change in share value. 
After the program is loaded, it asks if 
you want to retrieve data from a file. If 
you do, the program displays the names 
of the stored securities along with the 
respective dates of the data. 

At the completion of the file loading 
(or immediately, if no file is entered) the 
Call Transaction menu is displayed. It 
offers you many choices. If data was 
not loaded from a file, then you should 
select Enter Call Prices. 

After the data is entered, one of the 
analytical choices is made. These are 
buying a call or the underlying shares, 
writing a call versus stock, opening a 
spread, selling a previously purchased 



REVIEWS 



call early, closing a write early, or clos- 
ing a spread early. Other choices on the 
menu provide for changing parameters, 
saving or loading data, and the ability 
to go to the Put Option Transaction 
menu. The put menu is similar to the 
call menu in that it includes outright 
purchases, put writing, as well as the 
early reversal of these positions. 

Each of the analytical routines works 
in a similar fashion. The bottom half of 
the screen displays a request to enter a 
maximum of three expiration months 
and strike prices. The system then 
analyzes them and plots a chart for each 
option series and strike price chosen. 

The value of the system lies in its 
ability to graph several profit-and-loss 
curves on the same chart. According to 
the program developers, this feature 
helps you decide if option transactions 
on a security are likely to be profitable, 
as well as which option transaction 



should be the most profitable. 

As mentioned, in addition to the 
graphics displays on the screen, the pro- 
gram provides a numeric table of pro- 
jections. You can only print graphs on 
printers with graphics capabilities. Un- 
fortunately, my machine, the Line 
Printer IV, can't handle graphics, so the 
only printout I could get is the numeric 
table. However, the documentation tells 
you how to modify the code for printers 
with graphics. 

I highly praise this program. It is easy 
to use, and it's hard to make it fail. The 
program has a built-in self-checking/ 
teaching feature. If you hit break and 
then GOTO 3, sample data will be pro- 
jected for testing purposes. 

Option trading can be risky and mar- 
ket prices can be quite volatile. If you 
use this program, you should understand 
its output before making any financial 
commitments based on its data. ■ 



• *• 

Log Electronic Notebook 

KSoft 

318 Lakeside Drive 

Brandon, MS 39042 

$44.95 Model I 32K or 48K, disk 

$49.95 Model III 32K or 48K, disk 

by Michael E. Nadeau 
80 Micro staff 



Log is an interesting cross between a 
data-base manager and a word pro- 
cessor, yet it performs a task neither 
does very well. 

Advertised as an electronic note- 
book, Log lets you store data in an un- 
formatted, page-by-page form. This 
method is good for applications where 
the field method used by most data-base 
programs is too restrictive, but requires 
a more specific form than word proces- 
sors can offer. 

The first use that came to my mind 
was to put notes for some research I had 
done on Log. These notes are on 5-by-9 
index cards and hold excerpts from var- 
ious references. Log seemed ideal for 
this application. And it was. . .almost. 

Those index cards are awkward to 
work with when you sit down to write a 
paper. You end up with a dozen or so 
piles for a dozen or so categories, and 
you often forget some key data, or 
worse, lose it. Log, with its search func- 

^See List of Advertisers on Page 435 



tion, solved the problem, but with a few 
limitations. 

I could copy my data to Log in vir- 
tually the same format as on the cards, 
thanks to a handy tab feature. How- 
ever, Log has no word-wrapping; i.e., if 
a word is too long to fit on a line, it is 
broken off and continued on the next 
line. Most word processors support 
word-wrapping, and it would have 
made my task a little easier. 

You can put up to 1,024 characters 
on a page, adequate for the types of 
chores you would use this program for. 
KSoft has allowed for unlimited back- 
ups of Log, so if you break up the data, 
you can put a large data base on multi- 
ple disks. For my purposes, this was a 
minor nuisance as I had a lot of cards. It 
should cause no problem for most other 
uses, though. 

My biggest complaint is I can't call 
up my notes and write at the same time 
unless I use a typewriter (or buy another 
computer). I could print out the data, 
but that defeats my purpose for using 
the program. The idea of being able to 
call up a reference just by typing in a 
key word is tempting enough to write on 
a typewriter, though. If this program 
could be coresident with a word proces- 
sor, it would be a great boon for any 
writer who uses extensive notes. 

One other complaint is that although 
you don't need a printer to use Log, its 
usefulness diminishes without one. If 
you use it to keep track of appoint- 




If you use a Word 
Processor, you need 

QRAMMATlk 

Beyond Spelling Checking 

Grammatik can find over 15 
different kinds of common errors 
missed by simple spelling 
checkers alone, including 
punctuation and capitalization 
errors, overworked and wordy 
phrases, and many others. Use 
Grammatik with Aspen Software's 
spelling checker Proofreader, 
featuring the Random House 
Dictionary®, or with your current 
spelling checker for a complete 
document proofreading system. 

Read what the experts say: 

"The perfect complement to a 
spelling checker." 

Alan Miller, Interface Age. 5/82 

"A surprisingly fast and easy tool for 
analyzing writing style and 
punctuation." 

Bob Louden, InfoWorld. 12/81 

"Anyone involved with word 
processing in any way is encouraged 
to get this excellent program." 

A. A. Wicks, Computronlcs, 6/82 

"A dynamic tool for comprehensive 
editing beyond spelling corrections." 

Dona Z. Meilach, Interface Age, 5/82 

"A worthy and useful addition to your 
word processing software." 

Stephen Kimmel. Creative Computing, 6/82 

Works with CP/M®, 
IBM-PC®, TRS-80® 

Grammatik $75.00 
Proofreader $50.00 

Order directly from Aspen 
Software, or see your local dealer. 
Specify your computer system 
configuration when ordering! 
Visa, Mastercard accepted. 



Random House is a registered trademark of Random 
House. Inc. Other registered trademarks: CP/M: Digital 
Research -- TRS-80: Tandy Corp. — IBM: IBM -- 
Proofreader, Grammatik: Aspen Software Co. 



Hspen Software Co. 

P.O. Box 339 Tijeras, NM 87059 

(505) 281-1634 ^ gg 




80 Micro, January 1983 • 57 



REVIEWS 



ments, important dates, or other simple 
tasks suggested by the documentation, a 
printer isn't as necessary. But if you 
keep programming or research notes on 
it, you will eventually want to print out 
all or part as a permanent reference. 

You also need a printer to print out 
the documentation. Log does come 
with a check sheet that lists the com- 
mands, but it doesn't say much on how 
to use them. The documentation, 
though, is easy to follow. This isn't a 
very slick way of handling the matter, 



but it beats some of the Xerox-of-a- 
Xerox abominations I've seen. 

Log is very easy to use, and this is its 
strongest point. If it weren't, many of 
the tasks for which it is intended could 
be done better by pencil and paper. Its 
ease of use makes you want to find 
more and more jobs for it. Finding, ma- 
nipulating (no block moves, though), 
and formatting data require few key- 
strokes, and the commands are easy to 
remember. 

As it comes, Log is ready for transfer 



to a TRSDOS 1.3 or 2.3 disk. Patches 
available for use with NEWDOS Plus, 
LDOS 5.1, DBLDOS, and TRSDOS 
(1/c) cost $10 for the first and $5 for 
each additional one. These patches are 
not provided by KSoft, but by the indi- 
vidual who wrote them, John T. Blair. 
KSoft includes the order sheet with each 
package. 

I like Log, and I'm sure I'll find more 
uses for it. It's a little overpriced, but as 
far as I know, there's nothing else like it 
available. ■ 



*•* 



Incoprop Rental Property 
Investment Program 
E-Z Software 
P.O. Box 591 
Novato, CA 94948 
Models I & III, $120 
Model II, $145 

by Leslie E. Sparks 

Although computers are useful tools 
for investment decision analysis, 
there are few programs available to take 
advantage of this ability. Available in- 
vestment software generally deals with 
forecasting stock prices. This is only a 
first step in analyzing an investment. 
The final step, the one that counts, an- 
swers the question, "If everything goes 
as I forecast, will I make money with 
the investment?" And the answer to 
this question requires consideration of 
the time value of money. Incoprop is a 
software package that will help you 
with this last step for analyzing the 
returns from an investment in rental 
real estate. 

The program uses the concept of in- 
ternal rate of return (IRR), also called 
the discounted cash-flow rate of return, 
as the figure of merit for the invest- 
ment. The internal rate of return is the 
discount rate that reduces all the future 
cash flows from the investment to the 
value of the initial investment. In other 
words, if you deposited the initial in- 
vestment in the bank at the interest rate 
equivalent to the internal rate of return, 
you would get the same amount of 
money as you get from the investment. 
You want to select investments with 
high internal rates of return. 

There are a few theoretical and prac- 
tical problems with the internal rate of 
58 • 80 Micro, January 1983 



return method of ranking investments. 
One of the most important is that some 
investments can give two values of the 
internal rate of return. This is especially 
likely when the investment has both 
positive and negative cash flows over its 
life. Generally, the false value is higher 
than the true one. Thus any program 
based on internal rate of return must be 



"The program uses 

the concept of internal 

rate of return (IRR). . . 

as the figure of merit 

for the investment. " 



protected to ensure that the correct 
value of the internal rate of return is 
always returned. 

Unfortunately, it is impossible to de- 
termine, at least from the documenta- 
tion and an examination of the Basic 
code, if Incoprop has the required pro- 
tection. Each sample problem I ran with 
the program returned the correct 
answer. But this doesn't prove that the 
program is protected. I would feel more 
comfortable with the package if this 
problem was explicitly dealt with in the 
documentation. 

The first step in using the program in- 
volves filling out a worksheet. This 
worksheet is where you put your fore- 
cast information on rental and other 
income and expenses for the rental 
property. You are also asked to provide 
estimates of the expected appreciation 
of the property. The worksheet requests 
information on depreciation and your 
income-tax situation. The worksheet is 
a good idea because it forces you to con- 



sider all the necessary information. 
Much time, thought, and care went into 
the development of the worksheet and 
the data requirements for the program. 
An example of this completeness is the 
provision for capital additions to the 
property any year in its life. 

You'll find that it will generally re- 
quire much work to get all the informa- 
tion needed for the worksheet, but if 
you don't want to do the work, you 
should not invest. The only problem I 
have with the worksheet idea is that 
once you have all the necessary infor- 
mation, you still must work to get the 
information in the format necessary for 
the computer. You will have to do some 
tedious calculations to get the data into 
the correct form. The program could 
provide some help in this area. 

Data entry and editing are not handled 
very well. The data is entered one item 
at a time. If you make a mistake and 
don't catch it before you press enter, 
you cannot go back and correct that 
single item. You must go back to the 
beginning and review and correct each 
item. It is a workable method of han- 
dling data entry, but not up to the state 
of the art. 

After all the data is entered, it is 
stored on a disk file and the computa- 
tion program is loaded. You can supply 
your own file name or use the built-in 
default. As soon as the computation 
program is loaded, it asks for the file 
name, loads the file, and completes the 
computations. 

The results of the computations are 
displayed on the CRT and a printout 
option is provided. The results show the 
various cash flows for each year of the 
investment and the internal rate of re- 
turn for the investment under the as- 
sumption that the investment is sold at 
the end of the year. The information is 
complete and is presented in a conven- 
ient form. This printout is the heart of 



me ummaTe games 




"rs. 









STRIKE FORCc 

STRIKE FORCE is the ultimate challenge In arcade action - bent on 

destroying your concepts about game software! Skill, cunning and 

lightning fast response and a keen sense of strategy are not just 

important -they're imperative to your life and the lives of millions 

of city dwellers! 

Armed with rapid-fire missiles, long range radar and incendiary star-shells 

you'll need breathless speed , just to survive. 

STRIKE FORCE, stretching your skills and imagination beyond this planet. 

is undoubtedly the fastest and most complex game you will ever see! 

Strike Force is joystick compatible and Includes a 

color booklet. Available as: 

16K TRS Model l/lll cassette 26542 $15.95 

32K TRS Model l/lll protected diskette 26734 $19.95 




ACTuaif !(!$«>• scr«n 

"Penetrator is a state-of-the-art game. You are the sole survivor of a fighter 

squadron whose mission is to make It through four defense rings and 

blow up an illegal cache of neutron bombs. The landscape Is as 

treacherous as your enemies. ..this is where the best feature of Penetrator 

comes in: You make custom landscapes to suit your ability. ..remove 

difficult areas and add or subtract missiles and radar bases. 

"Another good feature is the training mode... The sound Is great... 

Penetrator is a very well done game program and worth the 

asking price."' Review, 60 Micro September 1982. 

Penetrator Is joystick compatible and Includes a 

color booklet. Available as: 

16K TRS Model l/lll, two-cassette pack 26518 $24.95 

32K TRS Model l/lll protected diskette 26710S24.95 



5&! 



Please add $2 per order for shipping, foreign orders add $6. Residents of AR, CA, KY. MD, NC. TN, please add applicable sales taxes. 
Visa, Mastercard accepted -write In with card no. and expiration date or order by phone (615) 361 3738. 
Dealer oraers only call TOLL FREE (800) 251 5900 -ask for a Melbourne House operator. 



Melbourne House Software inc., De P t.cs. 347 Redwood Drive. Nashvme.TN 37217. 



t TRS Is a trademark ol the Tandy Corporation. 



^250 




A LITTLE 
BIT OF "GREEN" 

GOES A LONG WAY!!! 



FREE 

SHIPPING 

0n a" Pre pa(d 
c «h orders 
rover $ 50 



COMPARE OUR PRICES. . Call (216) 481-1600 



DISKiTJH 

MODEL III DISK UPGRADE 

Features: 

• Uses Micro Main Frame Finest Disk Controller 

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• 40/80 Track Supported 

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• All Hardware and Cables for Two Disk Drives 

• 1 Hour or Less tor Installation 

• 100% Compatible 

• No Soldering Needed 

• 180 Days Warranty on Controller 

DISKIT III W/O Drives S279.00 

DISKIT III W/ONE Tandon 

100-1 40 Track Drive $479.00 

DISKIT III W/TWO Tandon 

100-1 40 Track Drive $699.00 

OEALER INQUIRIES WELCOME 
DISKIT III is a trademark ol MDS 

PRINTERS 

NEW LOWER PRICES 

Epson MX-80 SCALL 

Epson MX-80FT w/Grattrax SCALL 

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Okidata Microline 83A SCALL 

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Prowriter 8510 SCALL 

Smith Corona TP-1 $629.00 



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848-2 Dual Side $499.00 

APPLE Add-On Disk Drive $359.00 



MODEMS 

UDS 103 LP Direct Connect SI 75.00 

UDS 103 JLP AUTO ANS $209.00 

Hayes Micromodem II (APPLE) $299 00 

Hayes 100 Model (S-100) $325 00 

Hayes Smart Modem (RS-232) $249.00 

MICROBUFFER 

MBP-16K Parallel $149.00 

MBS-8K Serial S149 00 

INTERFACE CARDS 

8141 (RS-232) S75.00 

8150 (2K Butter RS-232) S150 00 

8161 (IEEE 488) $55.00 

8131 (Apple Card) $85 00 

8230 (Apple Cable) $25.00 

8220 (TRS-80 Cable) $25 00 



DISKETTES 

PARAGON MAGNETICS GOLD. Soft-Sectored. 
Single-Sided. Double-Density 5V5 inch diskettes 

with reinforcing HUB-RINGS $23.95 

VERBATIM-Soft-Sectored Diskettes 

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5'." 15/DDen 10-Sector (MD525-10) $26.95 

5'A" 2S/ODen 10-Sector (MD550-10) S39.95 

5%" 2S/4Den 10-Sector (MD557-10) $51 50 

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HUB RING KIT for 5V." disks $10.95 

HUB RING KIT for 8" disks $12.95 

REFILLS (50 Hub Rings) S 5.95 

CLEANING KIT for 5'A" drives $24 95 

5'A" Diskette Case S 3.50 

8" Diskette Case $ 3.95 

5 V File Box for 50 diskettes $24.95 

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(Prices FOB S.P ) 

9% x 1 1 18 lb. WHITE 3.000 ct $27 95 

14^x11 18 lb WHITE 3.000 ct $37.95 



BOOKS 

OTHER MYSTERIES 

TRS-80 DISK $19.95 

Microsoft Basic Decoded $24.95 

The Custom TRS-80 $28 95 

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The Custom Apple $28.95 

1001 Things To Do With 

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Choosing A Word Processor $15.95 

CP/M Primer $15.95 

I Speak Basic TRS-80 $12.95 



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Model III w/1 Tandon 48K $1599 00 

Bom units come with 120 flay warranty Irom MDS 
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LNW 

LNW-80 Computer $1595.00 

LNW-80-II Computer w/cpm 96K $1995.00 

SYSTEM EXPANSION II S 349.00 

LNDOUBLER 5/8 Board $ 149.00 



SOFTWARE 

TRS-80 Model I & III 

***** SPECIAL ***** 
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any DISKIT III $30.00 VALUE! 

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NEWDOS 80 2.0 $139.95 

DOSPLUS 3.4 Model I $ 89.00 

DOSPLUS 3.3 Model I $ 69.95 

♦NEW* Electric Pencil $79 95 

ELECTRIC WEBSTER 

50.000 Word Spelling Checker $ 79.95 

Correcting Feature $ 59 95 

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REVIEWS 



the analysis and if correctly inter- 
preted, will tell you everything you need 
to know about the profitability of the 
investment. 

The program has a provision for 
handling taxes, a necessity for any in- 
vestment program. The program will 
also help you figure your marginal tax 
rates. This is one of the better features 
of the program, although the program 
does not have the latest tax -law changes 
built in. But the documentation does 
provide a fairly good discussion of the 
impact of the 1981 tax law. They'll soon 
have to revise the discussion to handle 
the 1982 tax increase. 

The printout includes most, but not 
all, of the input data. I wish that the 
printout had all the input data in the 
same format as the worksheet; this 
would make checking for errors in the 
data easier. When you have money on 
the line, you want to be sure that the cal- 
culated results are based on ac- 
curate data. 

The documentation for the program 
is helpful at telling you how to run the 



program. There are several figures 
showing how the screen should look as 
you enter the data. And there are also 
examples of the printout. 

Unfortunately, the documentation 
does a very poor job of telling you how 
to use the program. You are left on your 
own as far as interpreting the results of 
the program. This is a major deficiency 
of the package. The documentation 
should contain a lucid discussion of the 
internal rate of return method, its 
advantages, disadvantages, and all the 
assumptions implicit in its use. (The as- 
sumptions are discussed, but the discus- 
sion lacks structure and completeness.) 
I would prefer to see the documentation 
divided into three or four sections: The 
first section would be an overview of 
what you can expect; the second section 
would show you how to run the pro- 
gram; the third section would show how 
to use the program. It should almost be 
a minicourse on the topic. 

Any fourth section should contain 
examples showing the use of the inter- 
nal rate of return method. The ex- 



amples should concentrate less on 
showing how to run the program and 
more on how to use it. Examples of a 
good investment, a marginal invest- 
ment, and a poor investment should be 
included. The examples should contain 
a complete discussion pointing out what 
makes the various investments good, 
bad, or marginal. With these additions 
the package would be superior. 

The program accomplishes about 90 
percent of the task. It is a useful tool 
that provides information essential for 
making intelligent investment decisions. 
Unfortunately, the missing 10 percent is 
in the areas most obvious to the 
user — data entry and documentation. 
Data entry, though useful, is somewhat 
elementary. The documentation is the 
serious deficiency. It doesn't provide 
nearly enough help at getting the most 
from the program. 

If you purchase the program, be sure 
you get a good book on investment 
analysis so that you can understand 
what the program is doing and what the 
calculated results mean. ■ 



The Information Society as 
Post Industrial Society 

Yoneji Masuda 
World Future Society 
4916 St. Elmo Ave. 
Bethesda, MD 20814 
Softcover, 171 pp. 
$12.50 

by John P. Mello Jr. 
80 Micro staff 

Computopia. What is it? What will it 
be like? When will we know we are 
there? Those are some of the questions 
Japanese futurist Yoneji Masuda sets 
out to answer in The Information 
Society. 

Masuda, a world-reknowned author- 
ity on computers and the future, details 
how the social structure created by the 
Industrial Revolution will be trans- 
formed by the Information Revolution. 

Technology's role during the Indus- 
trial Revolution, Masuda explains, has 
been to reduce physical labor. During 
the new age, it will be to reduce intellec- 
tual labor. 

He proposes that transforming tech- 
nology's role will transform people's 



basic wants. Intellectual creativity will 
be more important than material con- 
sumption. Self-realization will tran- 
scend the demand for durable consumer 
goods. 

The symbol of industrialized soci- 
ety — the factory — will be replaced by a 
new totem — the information utility. 

Coercion will be reduced, Masuda 
maintains. Voluntarism and coopera- 
tion will be important components of 
the new age. 

Sound rosey? 

Many people are aware widespread 
dependence on computers presents an 
awesome potential for social manipula- 
tion. Masuda knows this potential ex- 
ists, but he does little to explain why 
Computopia 1984 won't develop. 

He gives two reasons why his infor- 
mation Fat City won't become a poli- 
tical Greasy Spoon. Neither will calm 
the palpitations of compuphobes. 

Information science, like nuclear 
energy, is ultimate, he contends, ul- 
timate in the sense that it "will bring im- 
measurable benefits to humanity if 
wisely used, but. . .could lead to de- 
struction if used wrongly." 

Why won't computers be used 
"wrongly?" Masuda says because 
"There is only one choice for us — the 



road to Computopia. We cannot allow 
the computer, an ultimate science, to be 
used for the destruction of the spiritual 
life of mankind." But what if we're not 
consulted on the disposition of this ulti- 
mate technology? After all, how many 
of us were consulted on how nuclear 
energy should be used? 

Masuda' s answer to that is tied to his 
second reason for optimism. Changing 
the industrial society to the information 
society will be spearheaded by citizen 
action. This action will be "goal- 
oriented," he contends. He suggests 
those goals won't result in a repressive 
society. 

Although Masuda's view of the fu- 
ture is stimulating, his prose is not. 
Much of his material becomes repeti- 
tious and appears vague. His writing 
style is a cross between a bureaucratic 
white paper and a report from a local 
school committee. 

The book contains numerous charts, 
which are helpful in understanding Ma- 
suda's views. A glossary and index are 
also valuable accessories to the book. 

Despite its assets, however, The In- 
formation Society remains one of those 
books you're constantly thumbing to 
the end to find out how many pages are 
left to read.B 

80 Micro, January 1983 • 61 



REVIEWS 



• • • 



Black Death 

Krell Educational Game Pak 

Krell Software 

21 Millbrook Drive 

Stony Brook, NY 11790 

$39.95 

by Eric Maloney 
80 Micro staff 

Never mind the spelling errors and 
sloppy screen displays. Ignore the 
wretched graphics and lethargic pace. 
Black Death is a gem of garage-punk 
programming. 

This is the kind of software Stephen 
King might write after eating a spoiled 
tuna-fish sandwich. It's a Blue Oyster 
Cult album played backwards, Gahan 
Wilson on a full moon, Hunter Thomp- 
son through a quart of fermented cactus 
juice. 

Most delightfully of all, Black Death 
is part of what the manufacturer calls 



an education package. Either the people 
at Krell have a weird sense of humor, or 
some very strange ideas on education. 

Black Death places you in a city — 
represented by a 10-by-13 grid — struck 
by the plague. Your job is to save as 
many people as possible, through either 
inoculation or quarantine. You start 
with 130 zeros, which change to l's as 
your city's residents become visibly ill. 
The numbers increase with the stages of 
the disease, until they finally turn into 
cute little graveyard crosses. 

People get sick only if they're next to 
someone who has already been afflict- 
ed. Thus, your best bet is to build a wall 
of inoculation around the outbreaks. 
But since plague diseases tend to be 
highly contagious, this strategy doesn't 
always work. It's wise to have the char- 
nel wagons lined up and ready to go. 

The game doesn't reach its potential 
until you play with someone else (as 
many as six can join the fun). Each per- 
son gets his own rat-infested city, and 
whoever emerges with the fewest 
deaths — uh — wins. The game can get 



pretty exciting as you come down the 
stretch, matching your opponent corpse 
for corpse, looking for that one key in- 
oculation that will bring you victory. 

Black Death could be enhanced con- 
siderably with some imaginative sound 
routines and graphics. For instance, 
each time you lose a few victims, a 
death wagon could roll across the 
screen, accompanied by the sound of 
clopping horses and wailing mothers. 
Perhaps the game could end with a 
church bell tolling for the deceased. A 
few such touches would do much to liv- 
en up the program. 

You have to buy the Krell Education 
Game Pak to get Black Death. This is 
unfortunate, because the other six 
games are awesomely mediocre. They're 
poorly designed, and full of spelling er- 
rors and typos. The entire package 
looks like it was thrown together in the 
back seat of a taxi, without so much as a 
cursory proofreading. Such shoddy 
merchandise does not speak well of a 
company that also sells a College Board 
SAT Prep Series. 



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62 • 80 Micro, January 1983 



REVIEWS 



But Black Death is another story. Go 
play a few rounds with your 8-year-old 
sister, and then take her to see Night of 
the Living Dead. She'll never be 
the same. ■ 



Tiny Compiler 
Aardvark-80 
2352 S. Commerce 
Walled Lake, MI 48088 
Color Computer, 16K 
$24.95, tape or disk 



by Scott L. Norman 



Aardvark-80's Tiny Compiler is an 
attempt to give Color Computer 
owners a taste of high-speed compiled 
languages. It is written in Extended Col- 
or Basic and accepts a subset of the 
same language as source code. The ma- 



chine-language object code can be exe- 
cuted immediately or saved and run at a 
later time. Options available at compil- 
ation time let you control the location 
of the object code in memory, which 
can be helpful when interfacing to other 
program segments. 

The documentation is the strongest 
point of the entire package. It goes to 
unusual lengths to discuss the function 
of each block of program statements, 
and includes a listing of the entire com- 
piler — nearly illegible, unfortunately! 

Operation is fairly simple. After en- 
tering a PCLEAR1 command to free 
the maximum amount of memory, load 
the compiler and type in your source- 
code statements. Since the compiler 
uses line numbers 8000 and above, 
make a practice of including the line 
7999 END in all source code. This 
allows you to test the code under the 
Basic interpreter without running into 
the compiler section. As a practical 
matter, I found it simplest to incor- 
porate this line into my working copy of 
the compiler. 



As received, the compiler limits the 
source code to 50 lines. The manual in- 
dicates the changes needed to increase 
this, however. Once the source code is 



"The documentation 

is the strongest point 

of the entire package. s 



entered, it can be run and debugged just 
like any other Basic program. Then it is 
time to compile. 

The compiler is invoked with the 
command RUN 9000. You are asked to 
supply starting addresses for the object 
code and the variable table (which 
should be at least 2K higher). How do 
you choose them? Well, the program 
displays the highest address used by the 
Basic code, and the manual advises you 



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80 Micro, January 1983 • 63 



REVIEWS 



to leave about 1.5K free between the 
highest address and the starting address. 
There are also defaults: Since typical 
short source programs will wind up 
below location 12500 (decimal), the 
compiler suggests 14000 for the start ad- 
dress of the object code. Similarly, the 
variable table location defaults to 
16000. 

The video display is misleading con- 
cerning these locations. For one thing, 
you are asked to supply addresses in 
hex, which is unnecessary; also, the var- 
iable table default is listed as 160000. 
Your final choice is whether or not you 
want to compile the program in one lo- 
cation and later move it to another, i.e., 
relocate the code. 

After these three questions have been 
answered, the compiler goes into ac- 
tion. The address corresponding to the 
beginning of each line of source code is 
displayed as compilation proceeds. At 
the end of the process, you receive in- 
formation about the last address occu- 
pied by the object code (necessary for 
subsequently saving the code), and a 



table of transfer addresses for GOTO 
and GOSUB statements. At this point, 
the compiled program can be executed 
by pressing Z. 

If you choose to run such a test, the 
complete variable table will be printed 
following execution. However, you will 
have to recompile before saving the ob- 
ject code. Should you wish to dispense 
with a test run and save the code imme- 
diately after compilation, press the 
enter key instead of Z. This returns you 
to the command mode, and you can ex- 
ecute a SAVEM or CSAVEM using the 
starting address that you supplied and 
the ending and transfer addresses fur- 
nished by the compiler. 

However, major problems arise from 
the extremely limited set of Basic com- 
mands and words that the compiler can 
handle. To begin with, you must use 
fixed-point arithmetic; both variables 
and constants are restricted to positive 
integers, 0-64K. Although the four ele- 
mentary mathematical operations are 
supported, there is no way to compile a 
program containing exponentiation, 



trigonometric functions, INT, and so 
forth. The syntax of allowed commands 
is also extremely quirky. For example, 
the following versions of a For state- 
ment are legitimate (A and B are vari- 
ables, nnn is a constant): 

FOR I = A TO B 

FOR I = A TO B STEP nnn 

FOR I = nnn TO B 

Note that you cannot use constants 
for both upper and lower limits, and 
you cannot use a variable for the step 
size. Even worse, you do not have the 
freedom to write a statement like FOR I 
= B TO nnn; the constant can only be 
the lower limit, as in the third example 
above. 

There are many other examples. A 
statement like A = B - 125 is permitted, 
but A = 125 - B is not! Only one math- 
ematical operation is allowed in any 
given statement, although you can have 
multiple statements per line. Dimen- 
sioned variables cannot be used as 
divisors or subscripts. Because of the 



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64 • 80 Micro, January 1983 



REVIEWS 



EHEE33! 



fixed-point arithmetic, strict limits must 
be placed on the size of numbers in mul- 
tiplication and division operations. 

The result of these shortcomings is 
that the Tiny Compiler Basic cannot be 
used for any program involving serious 
computation. What is it good for? My 
first thoughts were that it could be used 
to write fast sorting or graphics 
routines. After all, it does support 
PEEKs and POKEs, and the limits it 
places on numerical quantities should 
not interfere with the computation of 
video memory locations. Any such ef- 
forts must contend with a major 
stumbling block, however: There are no 
Input or Read statements. In other 
words, there is absolutely no convenient 
way to get data into any program that is 
to be compiled by this product. There 
are DEFUSR and USR statements, but 
it seems unreasonable to require Basic 
users to use these (or a series of PEEKs) 
just to scan the keyboard. 

Tiny Compiler has to contend with 
the fact that it must coexist in memory 
with the Color Basic ROMs and the 
source code, and therefore can't include 
every conceivable feature. Other Color 
Computer language packages have the 
same problem. 

Any compiler unable to handle the 
most fundamental I/O operations is of 
value only as the basis for further do-it- 
yourself work, at best. There comes a 
time when any advantage in program 
speed just isn't worth it. ■ 



• ••• 

The Grafyx Solution 
Micro-Labs Inc. 
902 Pinecrest Drive 
Richardson, TX 75080 
Model III 
$299.95 

by Harley Dyk 

The Grafyx Solution consists of a 4- 
by-5-inch circuit board that can be 
installed in a 16K (or more) Model III in 
about an hour. The complete installa- 
tion consists of taking two ICs from 
your CPU board, plugging the Grafyx 
Solution board into these sockets, and 
placing the two ICs from the CPU 
board in the Grafyx Solution board. 
Next, you connect a 14-pin connector 
and nine micro-clips, and cut one trace 

sSee List ol Advertisers on Page 435 



• ••• BEST BUY ON DISKS •*•* 

BASF has taken one of the best disks and made it even better. The quality is so good that BASF 
guarantees each disk for not one year, not five years, but for LI FE. If anything ever goes wrong you 
can return it to us or to BASF and it will be replaced at no charge. 

BASF's FlexyDisk is cut from the finest, prestressed polyester, and the oxide coating is of the 
superior quality and smoothness you have come to expect from the inventor of magnetic tape. 
Each disk is burnished toeliminate drag and any potential dynamic stresses. And, to insure ultimate 
surface smoothness and hardness, BASF applies a special surface treatment to each FlexyDisk. 
This treatment greatly diminishes wear to the FlexyDisk and its drive's in-contact head. 

Can you believe MAJOR brand name, LIFETIME guarantee, FAST shipment and at these prices. 

Th« following comi in ipscial Computer Stack |ucki|ln| 

35/40 Track Double Density 2 sides $29.95 

77/80 Track Double Density 1 side $25.95 

77/80 Track Double Density 2 sides $29.95 



35/40 Track Single Density 1 side $1 9.95 

35/40 Track Double Density 1 side $21 .95 

35/40 Track Double Density Flippy $29.95 



All of the above come in Boxes of 10 with BASF labels, hub rings and Tyvek sleeves. All 
disks have one write protect notch and one read hole, except the Flippy^ which have two. 

Disk Savers (vinyl sleeves) 20 for $6.00 

Colored Disk box (holds 1 disks) $2.95@ 

5 Colored Disk boxes (red, blue, green, yellow, and brown asst. colors) $1 4.50 



E BASIC 



ZDOS 



There are five major Dos's on the market all have 
there good points. Some folks like one, some like 
another, but every single reviewer has said that 
MULTIDOS had the BEST BASIC. Some would 
stop here, but not Vernon Hestor. He now brings us 
EBASIC, a new innovative state of the art basic. It 
makes Graphics and Sound EASY. This will give 
the basic programer more power than ever! Here 
are some of the new basic commands: print (a.b), 
input (a,b), line input (a,b), prints, call, sort, labeling, 
array read, array let, cound, shape, circles, cubes . . 
All of this and you still have over 38K for your basic 
programs. EBASIC is only $29.95 for MultiDos 
owners 



Z Dos the Dos for the person who does not 
want to spend a hundred dollars or more for an 
improvement over TRS-DOS. For only $39.95 
you will double your fun. For only $39.95 you 
can get what reviewers in three different mag- 
azines said was the BEST BASIC for the TRS- 
80. 
MULTI DOS $99.95 



SUPERD0S 



MULTIDOS 



If you are using TRS-DOS, on the model III, you can 
now take out some of its biggest drawbacks. 
SUPERDOS will make a few automatic zaps to 
your copy of TRSDOS and it will boot up instantly! it 
will give you error messages in English. It has a 
short directory, and on the long directory it will 
pause to give you a chance to read the screen. 
Only $19.95 



MULTIDOS got bigger and better. New EASY ZAP, 
New TAPE/CMD, and the New DISKDRIVE TIMER. 
All of this and its still the cheapest full Dos 

going $99.95 

Buy MultiDos at the list price of $99.95 and you can take 20% oil of any or all ef the following 

E Basic $29.95 Super Directory $39.95 Aerocomp Doubler $1 49.00 



COLOR COMPUTER 



STARFIGHTER 

Still our favorite game . . Based on the arcade 
game Defender"" it has outstanding graphics, 
and sound routines. 
Tape $19.95 Disk $24.95 

PACDROIDS 

A great new version of the Pacman '" game. 
Has many interesting new features. You have 
mines and can even shoot the droids. 
Tape $19.95 

PHANTOM SLAYER 

New game from Med Systems you must chase 
the phantoms and kill them with your laser 
Tape $19.95 



KEYS OF THE WIZARD 

A great new adventure game from Spectral 
Software $19.95 

ASTRO BLAST 

A color Varriant of the space invader game. 
Best by far. Excellent Hi Res graphics and 
great sound. One or two players, all machine 
language and runs in 16K. 
Tape version $24.95 

Madness and the Minotaur 

A classic adventure game for the COCO by 
Spectral Associates $19.95 

KATERPILLAR 

A new game from Tom Mix software based on 
the arcade game Centipeed" $24.95 



COMPUTER SHACK , 

1691 Eason • Pontiac, Michigan 48054 
Info: (313) 673-8700 • Orders: CALL TOLL FREE: (800) 392-8881 

Master Charge and VISA OK. Please add $3.00 for shipping in the U.S.A. - $5.00 for Canada or 

Mexico - Proper postage outside of U.S. - Canada - Mexico. 

Dealers: We are distributors for all items in this ad. Write for our catalog and price list. 



80 Micro, January 1983 • 65 




REVIEWS 



Start with a Model II floppy system and 
grow into a hard disk. Since all P&T 
CP/M 2 systems are fully compatible, 
you will have no conversion worries. 
Special note: PST hard disk systems 
allow you the user to configure logical 
drive assignments to your specifications. 
Write for more details. 

PrepaidVISA, M/C, orCODorders accepted. 
All prices FOB Goleta and subject to change 
CP/M is a registered trademark ot Digital 
Research. TRS-80 is a trademark of Tandy Corp. 



PICKLES 
& TROUT 

P.O. BOX 1206 



(the second cut is optional — it improves 
the quality of the graphics during screen 
updates). If you put the RF shield back 
on the CPU board, cut the shield and 
bend it to fit over the installed board. 

The installation instructions are very 
detailed and well written. Installation 
requires no soldering. You might ques- 
tion the integrity of the nine micro-clip 
connections, but if you solder the nine 
connections (most of which are to IC 
pins), it makes removing the board 
more tedious. 

The board contains 17 ICs (plus two 
from the CPU board), and several ca- 
pacitors. Six of the ICs are 16K-bit 




Photo 1. The Grafyx Solution Circuit Board 



static memory chips giving 12,288 bytes 
of read/write memory. This 12K of 
memory does not use up any memory 
address space, but is organized into 12 
pages and accesses one page at a time 
using the same scan and address lines 
that normally drive screen memory. 
This is accomplished by bank selecting. 
A test program at the conclusion of in- 
stallation checks to see if all 12,288 
bytes of memory are alive, and if all 
connections have been properly made. 

Features and Use 

The Grafyx Solution gives a resolu- 
tion of 512 by 192, or 98,304 points, any 
of which can be set or reset. This is 16 
times as many points as the stock Model 
III, giving four times the horizontal and 
vertical density. Three other resolutions 
of 256 by 192, 128 by 192, and 128 by 96 
are also possible. 

When you turn on the computer, you 
must enable the hi-res board with a few 
simple commands if using cassette, or 
simply type DO GB48 in TRSDOS on a 
48K system. You can mix hi-res with the 
traditional 128 by 48 graphics and text; 
they exist independently of one another 
and you can clear the IK of regular 
video memory or just the hi-res mem- 
ory. This makes adding labels to graphs 
or mixing graphics and text easier than 
on an Apple computer. 

You can easily mix the four hi-res 
modes in any combination, since in any 
mode you still address the screen using 
0-511 horizontally and 0-191 vertically. 
When plotting lower resolution, the dif- 



GOLETA, CA 93116 T^jTr^fi fy 
(805) 685-4641 1 ROU 1 © 




Photo 2. The Grafyx Solution Circuit Board Installed in the Model III CPU Board 



66 • 80 Micro, January 1983 



REVIEWS 



ferent coordinates can address the same 
point or overlap other points. Since the 
hi-res picture overlaps (but is indepen- 
dent of) regular graphics and text, the 
hi-res display remains fixed even when 
scrolling graphics and text. 

For the casual programmer, GBasic 
(on disk or tape) provides 14 commands 
that let you use the hi-res board effec- 
tively and easily. It takes only a short 
time to understand the 14 commands. 
GBasic takes over 5K of RAM leaving 
more than 32K in a 48K disk system run- 
ning TRSDOS. Table 1 lists the 14 com- 
mands with a brief description of each. 

An eight-page section of the Grafyx 
Solution's reference manual addresses 
the experienced Assembly-language 
programmer. This section explains how 
to access any of the 14 GBasic com- 
mands with a machine-language call 
and how to load the parameters for the 
commands into registers. 

I've been using the Grafyx Solution 
for three weeks and find GBasic easy to 
use and powerful. 

The disk accompanying the hardware 
contains over 30 files to help you use the 
hardware. Several Basic programs are 
included to quickly demonstrate the hi- 
res graphics by displaying spirals, 
graphs, roses, sunsets, string art, and 
random art. (See Photo 3 and the 
figures.) 

The package also includes several util- 
ity programs. The first utility (the GTest 
program) checks to see if the hardware 
works properly. The SAVLOAD pro- 
gram lets you save any hi-res picture to 
disk or tape as a file and later load it 
back to the screen. 

I wrote a short program that let me 
draw and erase hi-res pictures (using the 
four arrow keys) and then linked it to 
the SAVLOAD program so I could cre- 
ate any design on the screen and save it 
to disk. The fact that the hi-res graphics 
and text were independent was a useful 
feature. As I developed the program I 
could start drawing the picture, get an 
illegal function call for plotting beyond 
511 in the X direction or 191 in the Y 
direction, fix the program, and run it 
again with the hi-res picture on the 
screen the entire time. 

COLM80 is a utility program that lets 
you display 16 lines by 80 characters on 
the Model III screen. The characters are 
software generated and use hi-res for 
display. You can set inverse video in the 
COLM80 mode and the 80-character 
display appears compatible with all ver- 
sions of DOS, EDTASM, and EDAS; 

sSee List of Advertisers on Page 435 



-COMPUTER SHACK- 



***** CHRISTMAS SPECIAL ***** 

We will try to fill all Christmas orders as soon as possible, normally within 24 hours! Call on 
our toll free number and we will tell you if the product is in stock and if we can get it out 
within 24 hours. 

CHIRSTMAS SALE 

If you order two games you get a 1 0% discount on both games you order 3 games you will receive a 
15% discount and lour or more games you will receive 20% off on ell four games. You must ask for 
this discount when the order Is placed. 



JOVIAN 

The latest game from Dunlevy and Frayer. This 
exciting game continues the unique WRAP AROUND 
G RAPH ICS" that they made famous with CYBORG. 
Jovian is a real time space arcade game where you 
battle the alien space stations, space ships and 
space mines. Exciting action, combined with arcade 
quality sound make this a best seller. . . (19.85/24.05) 

CYBORG 

This is the biggest blockbuster to come along since the first BIG 
FIVE games hit the market. A real TRS-80 Classic. The first gamef or 
the TRS-80 that features WRAP AROUND QRAPHICS". This exciting 
game occurs in a interstellar space station. This game features 
fantastic graphics that are superfast and move smoothly in all FOUR 
directions. Most games move from left to right but Cyborg takes the 
action up, down and left and right. CYBORG rated #1 three months in 
a row by our arcade experts (10.05/24.05) 



ARACHNID PLUS 

Three great arcade games from Computer Shack 
this is the best three pack ever put out. Arachnid 
could be sold as a stand alone but we have had 
many requests for a game pac so here it is. A real 
time arcade game, Arachnid. A fast machine lang- 
uage car race (like Turbo") game. And, a great 
strategy game Warzone ($10.95/24.05) 




JANUARY TOP TEN 



1.) CYBORG 

2.) DEMON SEED . . 

3.) JOVIAN 

4.) SEA DRAGON... 
5.) PENETRATOR . . 

0.) OUTHOUSE 

7.) ELIMINATOR . . . 
8.) ALIEN DEFENSE . 

0.) PANIK 

10.1 STRIKE FORCE 



. . . Computer Shack 

Trend Software 

. . . Computer Shack 

Adven. Int. 

. . Melbourne House 

Soft Sector 

Adventure Int 

Soft Sector 

Fantastic Software 
. . Melbourne H 



LEAPED 

A great new game by Cedar software. This is 
the best by far, FROGGER" type game available 
for the TRS-80 (15.05/10.05) 

DEMON SEED 

The greatest graphics effects yet in a real time arcade 
game for the TRS-80. Birds of various sizes drop 
down on you. A giant space ship must be destroyed. A 
great game based on the arcade game Phoenix". 
Only ($10.05/824.95) 



CRAZY PAINTER 

A new acrade game from Cornsoft. Different 

form most of the shootem up game. 

Only (1 5.95/1 9.95) 

KAIV 

The second is a series of three games by Med 
Systems is now available. This is similar to 
Dungeon Escape. If you like Dungeon Escape 
you will love KAIV (20.S6729.gB) 

OUTHOUSE 

The irst funny arcade game. You must zap 
assorted bad guys before they destroy or do 
other things to your outhouse. Highly rec- 
ommended (16,95/120,85) 




Below is a partial list of the games we have in stock for 24 hour delivery. If the game you want Is not 
listed here, call as we have many more that are. not listed. We carry all the BIG FIVE games. . . 
Oefenee Commend (15.85/10.05), Stellar Escort {1B.g8/10.05, Oelaxy Inveelon (15.95/10.05, Super Novo 
(15,05/10.05), Meteor Miction II (15.95/10.95). Most of the MED SYSTEM games... Laser Detente 
(16.95/10.05), Institute (10,06/24,06), Dunzhln (28,05/20.06), end Labyrinth (14.96/19.05). From 
CORNSOFT... Bounceolds (15,95/19.96), Crezy Pointer (18,05/10.95), Scarfman (15.95/19.96), and 
Frogger (15.95/19.95). From ADVENTURE INT. . . Armored Petrol (19.05/24.08), Sea Oregon (10.95/24.05) 
Start Ighter ( 1 0.05/24.06) , Eliminator (1 9,96/24.05), and Rear Ouerd (1 9.95/24.95). From SOFT SECTOR . . . 
Cataplllar (15.05/10.95), Outhouae (15.95/19.95), Allan Defenae (15.95/15.95) end Fortreaa (15.95/19.95). 
From FANTASTIC SOFTWARE... Panlk (18,95/24.95), Forbidden City (39.9B) and Forbidden Plenet 
(35.96). From COMPUTER SHACK... Dungeon Etcape (15.95/19.95), Breymoon (15.95/19.96), Baja 
(15.85/19,96), Warzone (15.95/19.95), Cyborg (19.95/24,06), Jovian (19.95/24.95) end Arachnid Plua 
(19.95/24.95) . . . From MELBOURNE HOUSE . . . Panetretor (19.85/24,95), Strike Force (15.95/19.95). 
Write for our free catalog . . . Contains a more complete description of our exciting games 



1691 Eason • Pontiac, Michigan 48054 
Info: (313) 673-8700 • Orders: CALL TOLL FREE (800) 392-8881 

Master Charge and VISA OK. Please add $3.00 for shipping in the U.S.A. - $5.00 for Canada or 

Mexico - Proper postage outside of U.S. - Canada - Mexico. 

Dealers: We are distributors for all items in this ad. Write for our catalog and price list. 



80 Micro, January 1983 • 67 



REVIEWS 



however, it is not compatible with 
Scripsit. 

The CHAREDIT utility used in 
conjunction with COLM80 allows you 
to create an entirely different character 
set (with up to 96 characters), any 
characters that you can form in a 5-by-9 
matrix. This lets you use the computer 
to display foreign languages as well as 
special characters. To use this utility 
you'll need a disk system. 

In addition to the utilities that come 
with the Grafyx Solution, Micro-Labs 
plans to sell additional software. Cur- 
rently available programs include 
Bizgraph, which plots graphs with data 
generated by Radio Shack's VisiCalc 
package, a Draw program for drawing 
pictures, a Mathplot program for 
graphing functions, and a 3DPLOT 
program. 

The Grafyx Solution is well built, 
beautifully documented, and performs 
as advertised. I find it difficult to believe 
that such a fine product can be pro- 
duced by a small company and that Ra- 
dio Shack hasn't offered such a feature 




Photo 3. Art Created with the Circle, Box, Line, and Fill Commands 



TRS — SO =>IBM ¥>C ! 

TRIX is an 8086 program which 
reads TRS-80 Model III disks 
and writes any -file to an IBM 
PC disk while Operating under 
PC-DOS on an IBM PC. Just put 
your Mod III diskette into an 
PC and copy your -files. 
TRS-80 BASIC programs 
run immediately on the 



IBM 

Many 

will 

PC! 

TRIX on PC DOS Disk S99.95 



BL I NK I NO ¥=■ I ELDS ! 

BLINKS- IT is a BASIC program 
which can easily be merged 
into any TRS-80 Mod I or III 
BASIC program. Using machine 
language it will blink any 
field or combination of fields 
on the TRS-80 screen at any 
rate from 1 to 30 times per 
second. BLINKS- IT on Mod I or 
III disk S49.95 

LAST CHANCE SALE ! CLOSE OUT ! : 

•yOpOOO WORDS ! 

WORD GRINDER is an ASCII dic- 
tionary in alphabetical order 
of 90,000 words. Great for 
proof-readers, word games, 
etc. Over 1 Megabyte of ASCII 
files. Distributed on various 
media. Supplied on 14 Mod I 
Disks or 7 Mod III disks. WORD 
GRINDER. From S125.00 

VISA JOE COMPUTER M/C 
22458 VENTURA BLVD. Ste. E 
WOODLAND HILLS CALIF. 91364 " 256 



&ON — Displays the contents of hi- 
res memory on the screen. 
&OFF — Clears hi-res from the 
screen but retains it in memory. 
&CLS — Clears the hi-res screen and 
memory without affecting standard 
text and graphics. 

&MODE(M), M= 1,2,3, or 
4 — Sets the resolution from a max- 
imum of 512 by 192 to a minimum 
of 128 by 96. 

&PLOT(X,Y,Q— Plots a point at 
point X,Y with color C where 
C = 0, 1 , or 2; clears the point, 1 sets 
it, and 2 complements it (turns to the 
opposite state). 

&POINT(X,Y)— Reads the status 
of point (X,Y) and returns if 
clear, 1 if on. 

&LINE(X1,Y1,X2,Y2,C)— Draws a 
line of color C between points 
(XI ,Y1) and (X2,Y2), color works as 
above, a color of three draws dotted 
lines, lines are drawn at over 2,500 
points/sec (over 5 lines/sec). 
&REV — Complements every point 
(changes it to the opposite state) on 
the screen. 

&LPRINT(P), where P = l,2,3,...,8 
— Sends a copy of the screen (in- 
cluding text) to the printer. It can 
handle 17 different printer models 
including Epson, Radio Shack, 

Table 1. The 



Okidata, and Integral Data Systems 
(printers must have dot-graphics 
capability). 

&BOX(Xl,Yl,X2,Y2,C)— Draws a 
box with opposite corners (X1,Y1) 
and (X2,Y2) with lines of color C. 

&CIRCLE(X,Y,R,C)— Draws a cir- 
cle of radius R with the center at 
(X,Y). R can be up to 511. Parts of 
the circle can go beyond the edge of 
the screen. C is the color of the 
circle — see above. 

&FILL(X,Y,S)— Colors in the shape 
around (X,Y), S = for shading, 
S = 1 for solid. 

&GET(Xl,Yl,X2,Y2,Z°7o(0))— 
Stores the contents of a rectangular 
portion of the screen determined by 
the opposite corners (XI, Yl) and 
(X2,Y2) in a single dimensioned in- 
teger array Z%. 

&PUT(X,Y,Z%(0),F)— Takes the 
contents of integer array Z% and 
places it on the screen starting at 
(X,Y) as the same size rectangle that 
existed when the &GET created the 
array. F = to complement every 
point in the rectangle, F = 1 to place 
the array contents on the screen, 
F = 2 to AND the contents of the ar- 
ray and screen, and F = 3 to OR the 
contents of the array and screen. 

14 GBasic Commands 



68 • 80 Micro, January 1983 



REVIEWS 



as an option. 

The Grafyx Solution does not work 
with a Model I, and Micro-Labs does 
not plan to offer this option. 

Please bear in mind, however, that 
the Grafyx Solution is not perfect. After 
I had installed the unit horizontal lines 
(which in any resolution must be made 
up of a series of short perfectly horizon- 
tal traces) still appeared to be stepping 
slightly up the screen. But, until 
l,000,000-by-500,000 resolution comes 
along, the Grafyx Solution appears to 
have the highest resolution in an af- 
fordable system. ■ 



• ••• 

SuperScripsit 
Tandy /Radio Shack 
Fort Worth, TX 76102 
Catalog #26-1590 
Models I and III 
$199 

by Jeffrey Hix 



The new features of SuperScripsit are 
exciting and make the Model III a 
serious competitor to the Model II for 
small business applications. The ability 
to preset 10 tab configurations, 10 user 
keys (commonly used phrases up to 127 
characters long), and 20 printer-coded 
commands (each one up to 11 com- 
mands long) is very useful. 

If more than 127 keystrokes are need- 
ed, one user key can call another user 
key. Documents longer than 11,821 
characters can be saved to disk. Super- 
Scripsit scrolls the disk as you edit the 
document and features file-compres- 
sion capabilities. This review was com- 
pressed from 123 sectors to 105 sectors. 
You can scroll through the text up or 
down by word, line, paragraph, screen, 
or page with any of the four arrows. In- 
dividual line sizes are easily set using the 
adjustable tab guide line setting at the 
bottom of the screen. An alignment tab 
for columns is greatly appreciated when 
several numbers are involved. 

The SuperScripsit Reference Manual 
is welcome documentation. You can 
find information by section or by index; 
overall, the documentation is complete 
and informative. 

Lessons 

SuperScripsit includes eight lessons 

sSee List of Advertisers on Page 435 



-COMPUTER SHACK- 



We at Computer Shack have decided not to stock many different kinds of printers. There are 
many good printers on the market and all have their good points. But considering everything, 
especially the print quality, we are only going to carry the best four dot matrix printers in the 
marketplace. The C. Itoh is best all around printer on the market. This is the same printer as the 
NEC but with a newer and better set Rom chips. This enables the printer to print at 1 20 cps(MX- 
80 is80cps, the NEC 100cps). It has print quality equal to or better than the MX-80 and three 
different styles of type. Then the PROWRITER has FRICTION FEED at no extra cost, REVERSE 
LINE FEED, true PROPORTIONAL SPACING, excellent dot addressable graphics and a 
replaceable print head. All the C. Itoh printers are guaranteed for 1 full year, that's 9 months 
longer than any other printer on the market. 

But the Epson is very close behing. The Epson series of printers have been the best selling 
printers in American History. There are millions out there. What else can you say for success. 

C. Itoh 1 inch dot matrix List $795.00 CS PRICE $409.95 

C. Itoh 1 5 inch dot matrix List $995.00 CS PRICE $799.95 

Epson MX-80 FT CS PRICE $529.95 

These two buffers will pay for themselves in time saved. Why tie up a $4000 computer waiting for 
the printer to finish the printout? 

Practiacal Peripherals Epson 1 6K buffer only $149.95 

The Compulink SuperSpooler with 16K memory, LED reaout, space compression and more. 
Write for a complete spec sheet. This is the Cadillac of print buffers for only $329.00 

SuperSpooler 62K memory option $139.00 

Compulink Is coming out with i now venion of ths SuporSpoolor. Call lor moro Information, prices 
and availability. 



SPACE AGE 
PRINTER STANDS 

3/16 X 9.375 X 13.5 X 8 PLEXIGLAS 
CLEAR $27.50 COLOR $29.95 




Printer Helper PH . , . 



PH is our new program for the Epson and TEC (Cltoh, NEC, Prowriter, and DMP-80) dot matrix 

printers. 

This is a great little program that will let you, from Dos or basic with 1 keystroke go into the 

emphised, large letters, condensed letters, change type modes, screen dump any graphics, and 

even PRINT STANDARD TRS-80 GRAPHICS BLOCKS IN ANY BASIC PROGRAM even with 

graphtrax plus and the TEC. It also has a special routine that lets you print a real fancy 

program print listing. 

Example: Normally to get the printer to print a emphised condensed letter from Dos you would 

have to go to basic and type in CHR$(27)CHR$(33)CHR$(81 ) on the TEC with PH you just type 

control E control C, two keystrokes. Throw your manual away happiness is here with PRINTER 

HELPER. 

Tape $24.95 Disk $29.95 



ITALICS FOR THETEC. A special program written for the NEC, Cltoh, and DMP-80 printers that allows 
them to print italics in proportional mode. There are three versions available now, one a stand 
alone version, one that will work with Lazy Writer, and one that will work with NewScript. 
Disk Only $29.98 



LazyWriter Proportional printer driver and Italics. This is special program that you add to Lazy 
Writer to Utilize the TEC dot Matrix printers proportional printing mode. This puts spaces between 
each letter to make the print look like it was typeset with a $1 0,000 typesetting machine. Works 
with both the standard Proportional character set it the TEC and with the special italics set 
included with this program $39.95 



PRINTER PAPER 



A special very white super quality paper for your printer. We are selling a special clean edge 
paper that normally sells for up to $75.00 a box. We have a special introductory price of only 
$39.95 a box. The edges on this paper are cut with a Laser beam and they are super smooth 
after you rip the perforations off it looks like a cut sheet of paper. 2600 sheets per box for 
only $39.95 



COMPUTER SHACK 

1691 Eason • Pontiac, Michigan 48054 
Info: (313) 873-8700 • Orders: CALL TOLL FREE (800) 392-8881 

Master Charge and VISA OK. Please add $3.00 for shipping in the U.S.A. - $5.00 for Canada or 

Mexico - Proper postage outside of U.S. - Canada - Mexico. 

Dealers: We are distributors for all items in this ad. Write for our catalog and price list. 



80 Micro, January 1983 • 69 



REVIEWS 



on four cassettes, a lesson book called 
the Figures Book in a three-ring binder, 
a reference manual, and a reference 
card. Super Scripsit includes two disks 
each for the Model I and III. 

You will need a printer connected to 
your 48K Model III; two disk drives and 
the lowercase printer modification are 
required for Model I use. Model I own- 
ers will find the lesson samples, three 
new printer drivers, and the block- 
moving module on disk. 

Learning SuperScripsit without a cas- 
sette player will be a challenge. The 
Figures Book is only a workbook as it 
was with Scripsit. A contents table is at 
the front. Each lesson lists objectives of 
that lesson. 

The Help menu can be called from 
disk at any time and is useful when 
learning the system. It covers error 
messages, block moves, find, search, 
replace, proofread, header/footer set- 
up, printing, and calling up a docu- 
ment. These modules cannot be used 
more than two at a time without the 
program calling them in from the disk. 
Error messages freeze everything until 
the break key is pressed to acknowledge 
the error. 

Printers 

Seven different printer drivers are in- 
cluded with SuperScripsit. Radio Shack 
Line Printers IV, V, VI, VIII and the 
Daisy Wheel II are specifically compat- 
ible. Drivers for Radio Shack's new 
series of printers are already included 
on the disk. 

I used a Model I and an Epson MX- 
80 with Graftrax Plus. Check your 
owner's manual for DIP-switch set- 
tings. I tried three different parallel- 
printer drivers included with Super- 
Scripsit and decided to use the DW2 
default driver. 

I first loaded and tested the demo 
printing document. Underline and bold 
printing worked as described. Double 
underlining printed as single underlin- 
ing. Bold printing is a dot-by-dot graph- 
ics function. I recommend you use the 
enhanced mode to set up the printer 
codes and that you make all changes by 
these codes as the MX-80 lost the de- 
fault settings made by SuperScripsit 
after the first change. I easily set 20 
printer codes to change print styles and 
try features of the MX-80 with Graftrax 
Plus and made corrections to the demo 
printing document. 

The Radio Shack LP VIII printer has 
a special driver included. Check your 

70 • 80 Micro, January 1983 



owner's manual for DIP-switch set- 
tings. Bold printing slows it down and is 
on a letter-by-letter basis. Superscripts 
and subscripts look good if you have 
allowed the half line extra spacing to 
avoid typing on the line above or below. 
Printer codes enable you to print single 
characters not on the keyboard; see 
your printer manual. If you watch the 
paper carefully, you can mix type styles 



"If you have Scripsit 

now, the decision 

to buy SuperScripsit 

needs careful 

consideration. " 



from an elongated large type to a con- 
densed type. Tab settings can be re- 
duced or expanded as needed. You can 
do some neat things with the LP VIII 
and SuperScripsit. 

Radio Shack LP IV's special print 
driver includes print sizes I've never 
seen before. 

I own a Radio Shack Daisy Wheel II 
printer. This is the printer that the pro- 
grammers had in mind when they de- 
signed SuperScripsit. I can type 10 or 12 
characters per inch or proportional 
type. Fifteen-character-per-inch wheels 
are available; a SuperScripsit print 
driver is still being developed by Radio 
Shack. SuperScripsit displays the actual 
line arrangement. 

When I decided to try a sample docu- 
ment in the three different types, it was 
necessary to restart each time. The tab 
lines and the arrangement of the words 
on the page were adjusted each time. 
Lines marked for centering had to be 
remarked. 

SuperScripsit gives you a choice of 
proportional, monoproportional, or 
nonproportional printing. Proportional 
spacing is slowest because each line is 
inspected by SuperScripsit to ensure 
even margins. Monoproportional spac- 
ing has the same objective, but it inserts 
extra spaces between words only. Non- 
proportional printing looks like a 
manual typewriter was used. Underlin- 
ing includes spaces unless printer codes 
15 and 14 are used. Other printer codes 



can be set for wheel characters not on 
the keyboard. See the Daisy Wheel II 
manual for the codes. 

Other printing features of Super- 
Scripsit include selecting lines per page, 
spacing between words, spacing be- 
tween lines, superscript, subscript, 
underlining, double underlining, bold 
printing, printer pause to change printer 
type wheels, and reverse top of form 
(for newsletter columns). 

SuperScripsit vs. Scripsit 

If you have Scripsit now, the decision 
to buy SuperScripsit needs careful con- 
sideration. What features are not now 
available to you? Scripsit works with 
only 32K memory; SuperScripsit re- 
quires 48K memory. How many disk 
drives are in your system? Scripsit 
works with only one drive because the 
entire program resides in memory; 
SuperScripsit must be in drive because 
of the need to access modules needed to 
perform different functions. 

Are good patching programs such as 
Scriplus from Powersoft workable for 
you? In my case, yes and no; I decided 
that I wanted an easier operation than 
available through Scripsit with Scriplus. 
(It was sufficient while waiting for the 
long-delayed arrival of SuperScripsit, 
however.) I also wanted a proportional 
type driver for my Daisy Wheel II 
printer. 

In order to use Proofreader, a spell- 
ing checker from Aspen Software, it 
was necessary to create a separate 
ASCII file as it could not read the 
SuperScripsit file. Converting my exist- 
ing documents saved on disk by Scripsit 
to a format used by SuperScripsit re- 
quires space for a second disk file cre- 
ated by SuperScripsit. The original disk 
file is not changed. I do not recommend 
trying to convert backwards to Scripsit. 

Superscript seems to be derived from 
the Model II Scripsit cut down into 
modules. Some features such as chain- 
ing (attaching one document file to the 
bottom of the one you are working on), 
single-letter insertion, screen format- 
ting, vertical centering of the entire 
page, nonprinted comment lines and 
multiple block markers, which were in 
Scripsit, are greatly missed. 

Exchanging words or paragraphs 
must be done in a block move. Also, the 
time needed to produce the written 
report or letter can suffer due to the use 
of modules. The @ key is still used as 
the control key, but control D (delete) is 



REVIEWS 



the only mutual control. All functions 
are done differently. I wish screen print- 
ing of the system setups were possible. 
Scripsit allows me to type a memo and 
print 10 copies without saving it to disk. 
SuperScripsit requires seven sectors for 
just a mailing label and requires it to be 
saved on disk and killed from TRSDOS 
if I do not wish to save it. 

Bugs 

Overall, SuperScripsit rates good 
marks for features, documentation, util- 
ity, and potential for adding future im- 
provements easily. However, use of the 
header feature throws the page line 
counter off. The footer feature needs 
careful use; after printing the footer, the 
top-of-form feature failed to work. I 
had to add blank lines to the footer to 
roll the paper to the proper position. 
The page-calculating feature did not 
work for me as a footer nor for the 
Radio Shack manager who sold me the 
program. (Fort Worth insisted that it 
works for them just fine.) 

The LS line space indicator failed to 
respond to changes made when reopen- 
ing a document, and it affected print- 
ing. This was corrected using the block 
commands relative to line spacing. Edit- 
ing by blocks could cause problems. I 
had to retype three or four lines from a 
previous draft twice due to errors in 
storage on the disk after block editing. 
Editing in front of a new page marker 
did hang up the computer for an extra 
moment, but it did straighten itself out; 
no loss of copy occurred. 

Converting from SuperScripsit to 
ASCII removed the control-codes in- 
dicator, but not the codes themselves. 

A rare problem was line feed or tab 
spacing missed by either the printer or 
SuperScripsit at the beginning or end of 
a line. Correction was made by going to 
that line and pressing the delete com- 
mand at the end of the line involved. 
Except for a conversion from 10 spaces 
per inch to proportional printing, the 
correction worked. Why it happened, I 
do not know. 

Side Notes 

I do not recommend using Super- 
Scripsit on other disk operating systems 
(DOS). It was specially designed for 
TRSDOS. I have attempted to discuss 
SuperScripsit only including a few com- 
parisons to Scripsit. For a side-by-side 
comparison, see the September 1982 
issue of 80 Micro. ■ 



-COMPUTER SHACK- 



Small Business Programs 



NEW! 

MONTHLY BILL SYSTEM 

This is a new program for the business- 
man who wants to send a monthly or 
quarterly bill to the same people every 
billing period. (Landlords, garbage man, 
etc.) The program will send out a bill to 
each person (you can set the frequency, 
monthly, quarterly, etc.). It then has a 
very easy way of inputing your paid 
customers. This will help you to keep 
track of who is past due. Gives you 
printouts of your financial condition at 
any time. 

Disk only $149.95 

We also have a Special program for 
Auto, and Home Insurance agents, Call 
for complete details. 



CHECKING ACCOUNT Mod 1 or lll,48kdisk. . . $39 
Excellent check writing program for small 
businessman or for personal use. Menu oper- 
ated for easy use. Has Screen editor, 99 
catagories or expenses. Sorts on payee, Check 
number, or date. It can print your checks on the 
printer. 

BILLING SYSTEM Mod. I or lll,48kdisk .... $39.00 
A billing system written by a businessman for 
his own use. It is simple, fast and easy to use. 
Has a screen editor for quick error correction. 
Prints out invoices, then will send a monthly bill 
to each customer. It will add interest or carrying 
charges. This is not a complicated accounts 
receivable it is a simple but effective way to 
keep track of who owe's you money for the 
company that doesn't do a lot of credit bus- 
iness. 



$& 



- SUPER DIRECTORY - 

- Automatic density recognition - 

- Automatic track count recognition - 

- Automatic dos recognition - 

- The Best Directory On The Market - 

- By Mark Feidman - 



A great new Directory program with its own operating system written by Vernon Hestor. This one 
program will read any dos as it is delivered by it's publishers except forTandy's new model I double 
density operating system. There is even compatibility between Model I and III. The Model I 
SuperDircan read most Model III disks and the Model III SuperDircan read most Model I disks. 
SuperDir can even read double density 80 track disks. 

Now with version 23 you can SEARCH the catalog by program name, disc number, extension 
(/cmd), or even do a STRING SEARCH (find all occurences of any combination of letters.) It will 
SORT (in seconds) on disc number, program name, remarks, extensions, or catagories. You can 
even add a 25 character description of each program. SPECIAL PRINT ROUTINES for Different 
printers. DISPLAY SCROLLS up and down by line or by the entire screen. 
It has a direct SCREEN EDITOR that almost eliminates typing. SuperDir keeps track of the FREE 
SPACE on your disks. SuperDir is the FASTEST, the EASIEST or use and the ON LY directory able 
to read multiple dos's on the market DISK $39.95 

FROM POWERSOFT FAMILY TREE 

NEW POWERSOFT a great new mail list Excellent family geneology program works 

program by the master programmer Kim on both the Model I or Model III. Along with 

Watt. the normal documentation we send a man- 

CS PRICE ONLY $79.95 ual with over 200 pages of instruction on 

QIIPFR IITII ITV Dl IIC how t0 researcn vour family tree. You can 

OUrcn U I ILIIT rLUO get three different printouts a family tree or 

List Price. . . $75.00 CS PRICE . . . $59.09 a family report of each person, or a birthday 

INSIDE SUPER UTILITY printout. Sort on Birthdays. The Nebraska 

»•> L . ■_ • , , , State Genealogical Society tested our pro- 

Great new book show.ng how to zap and gram and saj(j ^ y m h ££ 

do wild things to your d.ska a valuable data source that may be accessed 

™ .? e o 9 ;« $ an used in different wavs - th e Printouts are 

SPECIAL Get a copy of Super Utility plus excellent." 

and Inside Super Utility for only. . . $74.95 Disk or Tape $29.00 

Z BASIC DOWNLOAD & 

The only compilier we will recommend... BULLETIN BOARD 

Disk and tape List $99.95 

CS PM CE $89 95 " new host s y stem thats just super. 

Disk only List $89.95 It's faster than a bullet and more error 

CS PRICE $79.95 free than a forum. Write for more details. 

Tape version List $79.95 List Price $149.95 

CS PRICE $69.95 CS PRICE $09.95 



COMPUTER SHACK 

1691 Eason • Pontiac, Michigan 48054 
Info: (313) 673-8700 • Orders: CALL TOLL FREE. (800) 392-8881 
Master Charge and VISA OK. Please add $3.00 for shipping in the U.S.A. • $5.00 for Canada or Mexico - Proper 
postage outside of U.S. - Canada - Mexico. 
Dealers: We are distributors for all items in this ad. Write for our catalog and price list. 



• See List of Advertisers on Page 435 



80 Micro, January 1983 • 71 



REVIEW DIGEST 

* 

My Micro Speaks Basex, Paul Warme, Hayden Book Com- 
pany Inc., softcover, 164 pp., $9.95. 

"Basex looks like an interesting beginner's language if you 
don't ask too much from it. The only problem is: How many 
beginners are going to be willing to tackle an offbeat language 
like this after learning Basic? Sure a newcomer to computing 
could learn Basex before being introduced to Basic, but that 
doesn't seem likely, given Basic's widespread popularity. One 
would be better off mastering Basic, then learning a higher- 
level language for speed." Microcomputing, November, 
p. 166. 


Basic Betting: The Microcomputer Edge, James Jasper, St. 
Martins Press, New York, 283 pp., softcover, $9.95. 

"Be forwarned: using this book is much more complicated 
than phoning your neighborhood bookie or making an 
educated guess at the Santa Anita racetrack. The programs are 
complex. For example, Jasper lists 22 items which he feels are 
crucial for picking winners in claiming races. By the time bet- 
ters run the programs, they're liable to be blind from poring 
over the Daily Racing Form to get the information." Popular 
Computing , December, p. 156. 


Astro-Blast, Mark Data Products, 23802 Barquilla, Mission 
Viejo, CA 92691, Color Computer, $24.95 tape, $29.95 disk. 
". . .another space game you may ask, well you may be 
right but this one is done with class. . . . The graphics are excel- 
lent, the sound is good, and the action is very good. I found 
myself looking for the coin slot to pay my quarter." Color 
Computer News, October, p. 26. 


TRS-80 Model III Programming and Applications, Larry Joel 
Goldstein, Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ, softcover, 
$12.95. 

"Goldstein has taken a very simple, hand-holding approach 
to the Model III. He has chosen to assume little or no 
knowledge and he leads the reader carefully through the steps 
of using and programming his Model III. . . . Many people will 
not like this as much as David Lien's hand-holding books. 
Goldstein has a different style. But this is a solid and factual 
book." 80 U.S., November, p. 108. 


The Moses Lightpen, Moses Engineering, Rt. 7, Greenville, 
SC 29609, Color Computer, $40 assembled, $19.95 kit. 

"The Moses Engineering Lightpen is a full function light- 
pen that interfaces with the TRS-80C joystick. A standard 
joystick modified to accept the joystick is included.. . .The 
program sampler includes some games, an event counter, col- 
or detector, and other applications software. All programs are 


Address Factory, Computerware, Box 668, Encinitas, CA 
92024, Color Computer, $17.95 tape, $22.95 disk. 

"If you write many letters or need mailing labels, the Ad- 
dress Factory can save you time and trouble. The program 
handles 55 addresses in a 16K Color Computer or 125 address- 
es in a 32K Color Computer. . . . You won't be able to use the 
Address Factory unless you own a printer. If you select the 
Print mode without a printer on line, the program will hang 
up." Info World, October 25. 


written in Basic. Micro, October, p. 97. 


Katerpillar, Tom Mix Software, 3424 College N.E., Grand 
Rapids, MI 49505, Color Computer, $24.95. 

"Katerpillar is very similar to the original. . . .Personally I 
prefer the joystick action over the roller-ball of the original. 
This factor along with the excellent color graphics and sound 
rates Katerpillar quite favorably with the arcade game. " Color 
Computer News, October, p. 60. 






PrintCC, J. Gary Bender, Box 773, Los Alamos, NM 87544, 
Color Computer, $15. 

"PrintCC is designed to let your Model I or Model III act as 
a printer buffer to your existing parallel printer. Its basic pur- 
pose is to act as a buffer for printed data-like letters. It can 
support the Semi-graphics 4-mode (Set/Reset graphics) and 
screen dumping, force output in all capital letters or 
64-character print width. . . . Would I buy the program? I just 
wish I had known about it before I bought my serial-to- 
parallel converter." 80 U.S., November, p. 111. 


Home Money Minder, Computerware, Box 668, Encinitas, 
CA 92024, Color Computer, $19.95. 

"Home Money Minder is merely an electronic checkbook 
with a few sorting and printing routines built in. ... For 
$19.95, you get a usable program that functions as advertised. 
If you are looking for more features and safeguards, wait until 
you get a disk drive before you devote a lot of time and effort 
to typing your checkbook into your computer." Info World, 
October 25, p. 67. 



72 • 



Micro, January 1983 



Dot Writer Ver. 1.5 

NOW TRUE PROPORTIONAL PRINT ON YOUR EPSON 



FEATURES: 

• GEAP CHARACTER FONTS 

• CREATE HI-RES DRAWINGS WITH- 
OUT TRS-80 MODIFICATIONS OR 
PROGRAMMING KNOWLEDGE 

. CREATE OR MODIFY FONTS 



PRINT TIME OPTIONS SUCH AS 
MAGNIFY, DOT SPACING CON- 
TROL, REVERSE CHARACTERS, 
UNDERSCORING, TRUE PRO- 
PORTIONAL PRINT 



• WORKS WITH TRS-80 MODELS1&I 

• SUBSCRIPT, INTERMIX FONTS 
AND HI-RES GRAPHICS ON THE 
SAME LINE 

• EXPANDED PRINT AND MORE! 



ACTUAL CHARACTER FONTS/SIZE 



flBCD EF- RBCD abcE 123456 • HBCD abed 123456 



B abed 12.3 11 * SS • flBCD abed 1E345 : ; ?>< 
ABCDEFGHIJKLMNDP • flBCDEFGHIJKLNN (these are some 



ILL 






additional fonts available 

Dm • IRQ3CID 123 -1 



RBCD abed 123LS • ftBCD dbed 1E345 • 

jtf£fjC£/ • RBCD a b c d^B CD * bC d 

SAMPLES OF HI RES AND MODIFIED C 

5TQP. ..... .„, . , , 



|EXIT| 


NO 
PARKING 


isi r 


__ 






TRUE PROPORTIONAL PRINT 

They said a couldn't be done' But. you're looking at the true 
proportional print from an Epson HXB0 printer. Of course this text has 
been reduced to fit the ad, but you can't faKe the proportional print 

Now you can have type styles hKe those above and many more. You 
can also have true proportional print, user defined underlining, 
multiple underlining, bold underscoring, expanded characters 
and much more 

The feature packed Dot Hnter program allows you to use 
NewScnpl, or your word processor, to create special print features 
that you won't believe You can mix fonts with hi-res graphics You will 
also be able to mix fonts on a line or within a word Now you can use 
your Epson's true power Also. looK for our new printer capability. The 
Prownter will be supported soon and we don't plan to stop there' 

GEAP - The ultimate in TRS-80 Graphics. GEAP 2.1 - Instant Graphic 
Letters. Create screen graphics easily by magnifying, reversing, multiply- 
ing, rotating, merging and much more. Let GEAP 2.1 create a BASIC 
program to recreate your graphic masterpiece! Numerous expansion 
modules give GEAP 2.1 limitless power: EPSON/OKIDATA/ 
Radio Shack LPV/IV printer block graphics; QuickCursor with 2, speed 
controllable cursors, instant line, rectangle and circle. NewScript inter- 
active expansion module. Much more! There is NO other graphic utility 
on the market that is as powerful, versatile and easy to use as GEAP 2.1. 
GEAP 2.1 $49.95 

DOT WRITER 1.5 - The undisputed leader in High Resolution graphics. 
Numerous special Hi-Res type fonts for your Epson MX 80/100. Create 
your own type fonts or Hi-Res graphics. No hardware or modifications 
needed! Now, true proportional print, underlining, expanded print, and 
much more! Dot Writer 1.5 + GEAP 2.1 turns your TRS-80 and EPSON 



into a Hi-Res Graphic typesetter! Requires 48K. disk and Epson MX 80/ 100 
with Graftrax 80/PLUS. Graftrax available for easy home installation. 
DOT WRITER 1.5 $69.95 



GEAP 2.1 and DOT WRITER 1.5 



le still only 



$99.95 



Additional disks ready nowl Dot Writer comes with 12 type styles, but each 
of these styles can be expanded, reversed or magnified to create a mini- 
mum of 36 unique fonts. In addition, we now have 2 disks with 10 fonts each. 
The first disk includes some unique, stylized fonts. Disk 2 includes 10 
italicized versions of our most popular fonts. 
EACH ADDITIONAL DISK $30.00 

ADDITIONAL PRODUCTS 

In addition to our own products, we also carry the following fine software. 

NewScript 7.0 - NewScript is the best and most powerful word processor available 
for the TRS-80. S124.9S 

Electric Webster - Cornucopia Software's top-notch spelling checker. A 50.000 word 
dictionary that you can customize to your needs. Error free hyphenation and unique 
grammar checking are extras that make Electric Webster a must for your work station! 
With correction feature! $149.50 

Falter - Also a fine print product from ProSott. Faster optimizes BASIC code. $25.95 
Trashman - A utility that reduces string compression time by as much as 95%.$39.95 
Quick Compress - A real space saver from ProSoft software. $19.99 

RPM - A real time disk motor speed analysis program. Keep your disks running per- 
fectly! $24.95 



JF 



MiytLYOMl 



West - 74355 Buttonuood. Pal« Desert. Ca. 92268 (619) 340-5471 
East - 221 HirschtieM Dr. , HilliamsviHe. N. Y. 14221 (716) 634-3026 



£3 



t^ 273 



West - 74355 Buttonwood, Palm Desert, Ca. 92260 (619) 340-5471 
East - 221 Hirschfield Dr., Williamsville, N.Y. 14221 (716) 634-3026 


















I'd also like to finally make a little 
money from the Creator. My royalties 
have so far come to $0.00. I managed 
this through a combination of improper 
marketing, a poor choice of associates, 
and not enough cash to market it 
myself. 

The Creator is a program that writes 
data-base programs in Microsoft Basic 
for the Model I. With slight modifica- 
tions, it will do so for a number of other 
Radio Shack and non-Radio Shack 
computers. It will run unchanged on the 
Model III. As far as I know, the DOS 
you use doesn't matter. The Creator is 
especially good at mailing lists, inven- 
tory programs, accounts payable and 
receivable, and general data-base 
applications. 

A number of dedicated data-base 
programs exist for the TRS-80. These 
programs are good, but misguided; 
since they are usually written in Assem- 
bly language, anything they create and 
modify is not transportable, nor is the 
application they generate. Modifica- 
tions are generally impossible. 

But programs the Creator generates 
can be transported to nearly any ma- 
chine running Microsoft Basic or a rea- 
sonable facsimile thereof. The generat- 
or itself can also be modified, if you 
have the time and patience. 

Since neither the Creator nor the pro- 

74 • 80 Micro, January 1983 



grams it writes calls any Assembly-lan- 
guage routines or depends on the oper- 
ating system for anything, the programs 
are also highly portable. The operating 
system only matters to the extent that it 
affects Basic: Since Basic tends to 
disguise any differences that exist, 
you're assured that your software in- 
vestment is protected. 

A Short History 

I write and develop application and 
utility software for a living. I've written 
programs for all the popular microcom- 
puters, and I believe they're generally of 
high quality. The Creator was one of 
the better ones. 

So why wasn't it commercially suc- 
cessful? 

First, a short history is in order. 

I got the idea for the Creator toward 
the end of 1978. 1 was working as a sys- 
tems engineer for a company (which I 
will call Noname) selling computers to 
Radio Shack. 

Noname did not want to sell any soft- 
ware other than languages, unless the 
software came from out-of-house. They 
feared the amount of support that mar- 
keting a piece of software would re- 
quire. When they decided to end all 
field software support for all their prod- 
ucts in favor of a plan to do all support 
from the home office, I decided to 



strike out on my own. In about a week I 
found two possible backers and was out 
of a job. 

In a spirit of boundless optimism, I 
began the project about an hour after I 
left Noname. In about two weeks (some 
200 hours of work), I had a version of 
the Creator running well enough to 
demonstrate. I took a listing to my 
lawyer and submitted it for a copyright. 
No money was coming in and my wife 
was becoming worried. I continued 
working on the program for several 
more months, ironing out the bugs and 
adding features. 

Meanwhile, I showed the program to 
the potential backers, and they agreed 
to supply money in return for a finan- 
cial interest in the company that would 
market the program. The major backer 
took 50 percent and the minor one 25 
percent. Also, the company was to have 
exclusive marketing rights. In return, 
ownership of the program and all modi- 
fications remained mine, and I was to 
receive royalties from each sale. 

I got a TRS-80 Model I toward the 
end of February. I began getting money 
and the company incorporated in 
March. We almost immediately sold a 
number of programs for $295. As a 
matter of fact, the first 22 individual 
demonstrations produced 21 sales. The 
future was looking better. But as it 




turned out, this was to be the high 
point. After a year, my health was poor, 
my wife was threatening to take herself 
and the kids back to her mother, and 
my finances were a disaster. 

Down the Tubes 

I made some bad choices. I had asso- 
ciates who knew nothing about soft- 
ware, little or nothing about computers, 
and no time or willingness to learn. I 
even had one associate who believed I 
spent my time loafing around and doing 
nothing. 

I chose dealers and distributors who 
paid the company (my associates) royal- 
ties. I never saw any of it. 

And I did too much business by 
handshake. To quote L.B. Mayer, "An 
oral agreement isn't worth the paper it's 
printed on." 

My situation may not be typical. 
Many software authors have gotten a 
good income from distributors and 
have been treated well. By and large, 
distributors are not crooks. But if 
you're going to try to market your soft- 
ware, you should protect yourself. 

First, you should see a good lawyer 
and follow his recommendations. 
Friendship and business should never be 
confused: One should have nothing to 
do with the other. 

Be aware that distributors want close 



Program Listing I 

1 PRINT "COPYRIGHT 1980 BY BRUCE TONKIN ALL RIGHTS RESERVED" 

2 PRINT "SERIAL NUMBER" 

3 FOR 1=1 TO 2000:NEXT I 
10 REM THE CREATOR 

20 REM 

30 REM 

40 REM 

50 REM VERSION 1.1 DATED 2-28-80 

60 REM BASIC DATA BASE PROGRAM: WRITTEN AND ADAPTED FOR TRS 80 

BY BRUCE TONKIN 

70 CLEAR3000:CLS 

80 PRINT"THIS IS THE CREATOR, TRS-80 VI. 1. IT WILL ALLOW YOU" 

90 PRINT"TO GENERATE A PROGRAM WHICH WILL CREATE AND ACCESS A DA 

TA FILE" 

100 PRINT"FOR LATER USE. PLEASE INPUT THE PROPOSED PROGRAM NAME. 

110 PRINT"YOU ARE LIMITED TO 8 ALPHABETIC CHARACTERS." 

120 PRINT"PROGRAM NAME="; :LINEINPUTPN$ 

130 F0RI=1T0LEN(PN$) :A$=MIDS(PN$,I,1) :IFA$>"Z"ORA$<"A"THENPRINT" 

ALPHA CHARACTERS ONLY1 ":GOTO120 

140 NEXTI 

150 IF LEN(PN$) >8THENPRINT"TOO LONG " : GOTOl 2 

160 PRINT"WHEN THE PROPOSED PROGRAM IS RUN. WHICH DRIVE WILL CON 

TAIN THE" 

170 PRINT"DATA FILE(0-3)?"; 

180 AN$=INKEY$:IFAN$=""THEN180 ELSEIF(AN$>"3"ORAN$<"0") THEN170 

190 PRINTAN$ 

200 PRINT"WHICH DRIVE DO YOU WANT THE PROGRAM WRITTEN ON? (0-3) 

210 DN$=INKEY$:IFDN$=""THEN210 ELSEIF{DNS>"3"ORDN$<"0 B ) THEN200 

220 PRINTDN$:DN$=":"+DN$ 

230 DF$=PN$+"/DAT:"+AN$:PN$=PN$+"/BAS":PQ$=PN$+DN$:OPEN"0",l f PQ$ 

240 PRINT#1,"1 REM******PROGRAM NAME: ";PN$; "******" 

250 PRINT#1,"2 REM******DATA FILE NAME: " ;DF$; "******" 

260 PRINT#1,"3 REM******DATA FILE IS ON DRIVE" ;AN$; "******" 

270 INPUT"WHAT IS THE MAXIMUM DATA FILE SIZE, IN # OF RECORDS" iM 

S 

280 INPUT"WHAT IS THE RECORD LENGTH ( 1-255) ";RR:IFRR<10RRR>255THE 
N280 ELSER%=256/RR 

Listing I continues 



80 Micro, January 1983 • 75 



and continuing support. They don't 
want to buy your program, they want to 
rent your program and buy you. If you 
can't provide the support, don't go to a 
distributor. 

(Incidentally, that's why this pro- 
gram isn't going through a distributor 
now: I can't support it because I no 
longer have a machine that will run the 
program. Nor do I really want one.) 

Distributors want to pay royalties of 
5 to 25 percent, depending on the pro- 
gram and its selling price. I feel that's 
unfair. Distributors insist it is not, and 
some of them aren't very rich, so maybe 
it isn't. If you feel as I do, don't go to a 
distributor. Otherwise, you're just in- 
viting mental anguish, especially when 
customers complain that your software 
is overpriced. 

Expect a lag of 10 to 90 or more days 
after a program is sold before you get 
any royalties. Distributors have to deal 
with returned merchandise and slow 
payments from dealers — they can't pay 
you what they don't have. In the mean- 
time, existence can be somewhat painful. 

Not all distributors are entirely scru- 
pulous. Anyone can make his books 
look good to a nonprofessional. If 
you're not an accountant or can't af- 
ford to hire one, you'll just have to take 
a good guess. You'll need to spend 
some time to choose only honest dealers 
and distributors. Picking honest men is 
not easy for some people. I guessed 
wrong a lot of the time. 

One other thing. Distributors and 
dealers have been known to go bank- 
rupt. When they do, you lose your 
money. I can offer no suggestions for 
you there. 

The Flip Side 

Is there any reason to go to a distribu- 
tor? Yes. Distributors can and do suc- 
ceed in doing the following: 

• They evaluate your package. If it's 
weak, they'll tell you. If the software is 
salvageable, they'll offer suggestions 
for improvement. This can be the most 
valuable service they can perform. 

• They advertise and promote your 
package far beyond what you could do, 
unless you're wealthy and a good adver- 
tising copywriter. 

• They screen dealers and handle the 
bad apples for you. 

• They provide at least some of the 
support. A good distributor and dealer 
team can save an awful lot of your time. 
Without this, you'd better like talking 
on the telephone. (You won't believe 
the questions you'll get, either!) 

• They provide the niceties, such as 
packaging and printing. Believe me, this 

76 • 80 Micro, January 1983 



Listing 1 continued 

290 IFMS*256/R%>85760THENPRINT"NOT ENOUGH ROOM ON A SINGLE DISK 

FOR THIS.":GOTO270 

300 PRINT#1,"4 REM******MAXIMUM FILE SIZE IS";MS;" RECORDS****** 

310 PRINT#1,"5 REM******RECORD LENGTH IS" ;RR; "PACKED" ;R% ; "PER SE 

CTOR******" 

320 Q$=CHR$(34) 

330 PRINT"PLEASE TYPE IN A TITLE FOR YOUR GENERATED PROGRAM. ":LI 

NE INPUT TI$ 

340 LN=LN+10:PRINT#1,LN;"REM CHANGE DISKS — REINITALIZE HERE" 

350 LN=LN+10: PRINT tl,LN; "CLEAR 3000" 

360 LN=LN+10:PRINT#l,LN;"OPEN";Q$;"R";Q$;" f l,";Q$;DF$;Q$ 

370 LN=LN+10 : PRINTtl, LN;"ONERRORGOTO25001" 

380 LN=LN+10:PRINTtl,LN;"DIMF$(22) ,G$(22) " 

390 PRINT#1, "25000 REM******BEGIN ERROR ROUTINE******" 

400 PRINT#1, "25010 PRINT" ;Q$; "ERROR ENCOUNTERED IN LINE" ;Q$; " ;ER 

L" 

410 PRINT#1, "25020 PRINT ";Q$; "ERROR #=";Q$; "; ERR/ 2+1: CLOSE: RUN" 

420 PRINTtl, "25001 IFERL<10000ANDERL>1000THENPRINT" ;Q$; "PROBABLE 

ERROR IN EDIT SPECIFICATIONS. " ;Q$ 
430 PRINTtl, "32000 REM******INITIALIZE THE HASHED FILE******" 
440 PRINTtl, "3 2010 PRINT" ;Q$; "THIS WILL ERASE ALL PREVIOUS ENTRI 
ES,IF ANY!";Q$ 

450 PRINTtl, "32020 PRINT", «Q$; "TO CONTINUE INITIALIZATION, HIT TH 
E C KEY";Q$ 
460 PRINTtl, "32035 PRINT" ;Q$; "THIS WILL TAKE A LITTLE WHILE. ";Q$ 

470 PRINTtl, "32030 AN$=INKEY$: IF AN$=" ;Q$;Q$; "THEN32030ELSEIFAN$ 

<>";Q$;"C";Q$; "THENRUN" 

480 PRINTtl, "32040 FIELD tl,255 AS AZ$,1 AS DZ$:LSET AZ$=STRING$ 

(255,255) :LSET DZ$=CHR$(255) " 

490 PRINTtl, "32050 FOR 1=1 TO"; INT( .99+MS/R%) ; " :PUTl ,I:NEXT:RUN" 

500 DIMF$(22) 

510 CLS: PRINT" YOU MAY NOW CHOSE AN EXIT CODE OR MESSAGE WHICH WI 

LL ALLOW THE" 

520 PRINT"OPERATOR OF YOUR PROGRAM TO EXIT DATA ENTRY OR UPDATE 

WITHOUT" 

530 PRINT" SAVING HIS LATEST CHANGES TO DISK, AND ENABLE A RETURN 

TO THE" 
540 PRINT"PROGRAM MENU. DO YOU WISH SUCH AN EXIT MESSAGE (Y/N) ?" 

550 O0$=INKEY$:IF 00$="" THEN 550 ELSE IF 00$<>"Y"ANDOO$<>"N"TH 

EN510 

560 IF 00$="Y" THEN PRINT"WHAT IS YOUR EXIT MESSAGE OR C0DE?";:L 

INE INPUT 0T$ 

570 CLS:PRINT"NOW WE MUST DESCRIBE THE POSITIONS OF THE FIELDS I 

N THE FILE." 

580 PRINT"THE NUMERIC FIELDS CAN BE PACKED. WHOLE NUMBERS FROM - 

32767 TO" 

590 PRINT"32767 CAN BE STORED AS PACKED INTEGERS IN TWO SPACES." 

600 PRINT"NUMBERS NEEDING 6 DIGITS OF ACCURACY CAN BE PACKED INT 

O 4." 

610 PRINT"NUMBERS NEEDING UP TO 16 DIGITS OF ACCURACY WILL TAKE 

8 SPACES." 

620 PRINT"PACKED 6-DIGIT-ACCURACY NUMBERS ARE PACKED SINGLE PREC 

IS ION." 

630 PRINT"PACKED 1 6-DIGIT-ACCURACY NUMBERS ARE PACKED DOUBLE PRE 

CISION." 

640 PRINT"PLEASE TAKE CARE TO ALLOCATE THE CORRECT NUMBER OF SPA 

CES." 

650 PRINT" FROM LEFT TO RIGHT IN YOUR RECORD, TELL ME HOW MUCH SP 

ACE" 

660 PRINT"T0 ALLOCATE TO EACH FIELD. YOU HAVE 255 SPACES IN EACH 

RECORD , " 
670 PRINT"AND UP TO 22 FIELDS. TYPE IN 999 WHEN YOU ARE DONE." 
6 80 A=l 

690 PRINT"FIELD t";A;" USES: ";: INPUT F$(A) 

700 EX=EX+VAL(F$(A) ) : IFEX>RRANDF$(A) <>" 999 "THENPRINT" EXCEEDS " ;RR 
;"TOTAL SPACES:TRY AGAIN. " : EX-EX-VAL(F$ (A) ) :GOTO690 
710 IFF$(A)="999"ORA=22THEN780 
720 PRINT"IS THIS FIELD SIZE 0K?(Y/N)"; 

730 EX$=INKEY$:IFEX$=""THEN730 ELSEIFEX$="N"THENEX=EX-VAL(F$(A) 
) :GOTO6 90 :ELSEIFEX$O"Y"THEN720 
740 IFRR-EX=0THENPRINT : A=A+1 : GOT07 80 

750 PRINT" "; EX $: PRINT "THEN YOU HAVE";RR-EX; " SPACES LEFT." 
760 A=A+1 : G0TO6 90 

770 LN=LN+10:PRINT*1,LN;"REM******SET UP FIELDS IN DATA FILE**** 
**" 

780 A=A-l:LN=LN+10:SL=LN:PRINTtl,LN;"FIELD 1 , " ; :OF$="FIELD 1," 

790 F0RI=1T0A-1:V=VAL(F$(I)) :V$=MID$(STR$(V) ,2) : I$=MID$(STR$(I) , 

2) 

800 PRINTtl, V$; "AS F$( " ; 1$; ") , " ; 

810 OF$=OF$+V$+"AS F$("+I$+")," 

820 NEXTI 

830 PRINTtl,MID$(STR$(VAL(F$(A))) ,2) ; "AS F$ ( " ;MID$(STR$(A) ,2);") 

Listing I continues 



Listing 1 continued 



840 LN=LN+10 : PRINT#1 , LN ; "FORI=lT022 : G$ ( I) =" ; Q$ ; Q$ ; " : NEXT : FC=0 : UF 

=0:G$=";Q$;Q$;":CLS" 

850 LN=LN+10:PRINT#1,LN;"PRINTTAB(19) ;" ;Q$; "PRODUCED BY THE CREA 

TOR";Q$ 

860 LN=LN+10:PRINT#1,LN;"PRINT";Q$;STRING$( ( (60-LEN(TI$) )/2) ,32) 

;TI$;Q$ 

870 LN=LN+10:PRINT#1,LN; "PRINT" 

880 LN=LN+10:PRINT#1,LN; "PRINT" ;Q$; "ENTER DATA 

DEPRESS E" ;Q$ 

890 LN=LN+10:PRINT#1,LN;"PRINT";Q$;"LOOK UP A RECORD 

DEPRESS L" ;Q$ 

900 LN=LN+1 : PRINTtl, LN;" PRINT" ;Q$;" SCAN ALL RECORDS ON FILE 

DEPRESS S";Q$ 

910 LN=LN+10:PRINT#1,LN;"PRINT";Q$; "UPDATE A RECORD 

DEPRESS U";Q$ 

920 LN»LN+10:PRINT#1,LN;"PRINT";Q$; "DELETE A RECORD 

DEPRESS D" ;Q$ 

930 LN=LN+10:PRINT#1,LN;"PRINT";Q$;"INITIALIZE THE FILE 

DEPRESS I";Q$ 

940 LN=LN+10:PRINT#1,LN;"PRINT";Q$;"EXIT THE PROGRAM 

DEPRESS X" ;Q$ 

950 LN=LN+10: PRINT #1,LN; "PRINT" ;Q$; "PLEASE DEPRESS THE LETTER 

F YOUR CHOICE: NO ENTER KEY IS NEEDED" ;Q$ 

960. IF 00$="Y" THEN LN=LN+10:PRINT#1,LN; "PRINT" ;Q$; "TO RETURN TO 

THE MENU FROM UPDATE OR ENTRY WITHOUT SAVING YOUR MATERIAL TO 

THE DISK, ENTER ";OT$;" FOR A FIELD ENTRY. ";Q$ 
970 LN=LN+10:PRINT#1,LN;"AN$=INKEY$:IF AN$=";Q$;Q$; "THEN";LN 
980 LN=LN+10:PRINT#1,LN;"IFAN$O";Q$;"E";Q$;"ANDAN$O";Q$;"L";Q$ 
;"ANDAN$<>";Q$;"U";Q$;"ANDAN$<>";Q$;"D";Q$;"ANDAN$<>";Q$;"I";Q$; 
"ANDAN$0";Q$;"X";Q$;"ANDAN$0";Q$;"S";Q$;"THEN";SL 
990 LN=LN+10:PRINT#l,LN;"IFAN$=";Q$;"E";Q$;"THENl000" 
1000 LN=LN+10:PRINT#1,LN;"IFAN$=";Q$;"L";Q$;"THEN10000" 
1010 LN=LN+10: PRINT #1,LN; "IFAN$=";Q$; "S";Q$; "THEN35000" 



1020 LN=LN+10:PRINT#1,LN;"IFAN$=' 

1030 LN=LN+10:PRINT#1,LN;"IFAN$=' 

1040 LN=LN+10:PRINT#1,LN;"IFAN$=' 

1050 LN=LN+1 : PRINT* 1,LN;" CLOSE: NEW" 

1060 DIM D%(22) 

1070 PRINT#1, "10000 REM******BEGIN THE FILE LOOK-UP ROUTINE***** 



Q$;"U";Q$;"THEN11000' 
Q$; "D";Q$;"THENl2000' 
Q$;"I";Q$;"THEN32000' 



1080 PRINT#1, "11000 REM******BEGIN THE FILE UPDATE ROUTINE****** 

1090 PRINT#1, "12000 REM******BEGIN THE RECORD DELETE ROUTINE**** 

**■ 

1100 INPUT"WHICH FIELD IS THE KEY FIELD? INPUT THE FIELD NUMBER: 

";KF 

1110 OF$=OF$+F$(A)+"AS F$("+MID$(STR$(A) ,2)+")" 

1120 IF R%>1 THEN R=INSTR(OF$, " , ") :OF$=LEFT$(OF$,R) +MID$(STR$(RR 

),2)+"*P% AS TX$,"+MID$(OF$,R+l) 

1130 PRINT#1, "35000 FOR K=0 TO";MS-l; " :RP=K:OS=1:GOSUB27040" 

1140 PRINT#1, "35010 IF F$( ";KF; ") >CHR$(249) THEN35990" 

1150 PRINT#1, "35050 GOSUB28000:REM UNPACK RECORD FOR DISPLAY" 

1160 PRINTtl, "35960 GOSUB29000:REM DISPLAY THE RECORD" 

1170 PRINT#1, "35970 FOR J=l TO 2000:NEXTJ:REM WAIT A LITTLE BIT 

BEFORE NEXT RECORD" 

1180 PRINT#1, "35990 NEXTK:GOTO";SL 

1190 LN=1000:PRINT#1,LN;"CLS:REM******BEGIN ENTRY******" 

1200 GOSUB1210 :GOTO1450 

1210 PRINT"NOW WE MUST DESCRIBE THE INPUT PROMPTS THE OPERATOR W 

ILL SEE," 

1220 PRINT"THE EDITS TO BE PERFORMED, AND THE DATA TYPE FOR EACH 

FIELD." 
1230 PRINT"TO DO THIS, WE WILL ASK A SERIES OF QUESTIONS ABOUT E 
ACH FIELD." 

1240 PRINT"TO THE QUESTION" ;Q$; "KIND OF DATA" ;Q$; "THE POSSIBLE A 
NSWERS ARE:" 

1250 PRINT"N NUMERIC DATA, NOT PACKED-STORED AS C 

HARACTER " 

1260 PRINT"PI PACKED INTEGER DATA, STORED AS 2 CHA 

RACTERS . " 

1270 PRINT"PS PACKED SINGLE-PRECISION NUMBER, 4 CH 

ARACTERS " 

1280 PRINT"PD PACKED DOUBLE-PRECISION NUMBER, 8 CH 

ARAC T ERS n 

1290 PRINT"C CHARACTER DATA-ANY CHARACTER IS OK" 

1300 PRINT"YOU MAY TYPE THE WORD HELP TO REPEAT THESE INSTRUCTIO 

NS LATER." 

1310 PRINT"HIT ANY KEY TO CONTINUE." 

1320 P$=INKEY$:IF P$="" THEN1320 

1330 CLS:PRINT"TO THE PROMPT QUESTION, TYPE IN THE OPERATOR'S QU 

EST ION." 

1340 PRINT"TO THE BAD INPUT IF QUESTION, INPUT AS MANY EDITS AS 

YOU WANT " 

1350 PRINT"OF THE FORM: <999 =3 >456.5 <=9" 

1360 PRINT"<";Q$;"A";Q$;" NOTE THE QUOTES AROUND ALPHABETIC ED 

ITS." 

Listing I continues 



(ftinftiiMfcrafh 



& Inventory 
at Check-out 



NEW SYSTEM MAKES 
TRS-SO m A TOTAL 
CASH REGISTER & 
POINT-OF-SALE 
COMPUTER 

Which performs all the normal 
functions of a computer and is 
specially programmed to.... 



■ COMPUTE Sales Taxes, Discounts, 
Special Sales and Promotions 

■ TRACKS Sales by Type, such as Visa, 
Mastercard, Check, Charge, etc. and by 
Employee /Operator for up to 30 people 

■ SELF-PROMPTING to Cashiers 

■ Produces Audit Trails and ACCOUNTING 
DATA for entire operation 

■ CONTROLS up to 20,000 INVENTORY 

LINE ITEMS on our Hard Disk Drive 

■ CONTROLS up to 1,500 INVENTORY 
LINE ITEMS on your Floppy Drive 

■ Complete, Ready-to-Run SOFTWARE 
comes with Cash Control Drawer Unit 

■ AUDIBLE SIGNAL produced when any 
key is depressed by any operator 

■ DRAWER operates automatically or by 
manual override anytime 

■ Generates RECEIPTS on Printer 

■ Available to display in English, French, 
Spanish, or German Languages 

■ Operates on 110AC or 220AC...just plug 
it in 

■ NO INTERFERENCE with or modification 
of regular TRS-80 Mod III. ..plugs right 
into computer 

FREE Specifications and Data Package or 
order complete Operating manual for $15 
from 

ICR/FulureSofl 

Box 1446 • Orange Park, Florida 32073 

(904) 269-1918 lor technical assistance 

and Dealer Information 

Integrated Cash Register Systems from 
as low as $449. 




• See List of Advertisers on Page 435 



Micro, January 1983 • 77 



can be a real pain if you have to do it 
yourself, even if your family helps. Un : 
paid labor has been known to strike 
over working conditions. 

What Customers Expect 

There is no essential difference be- 
tween buying software and buying a 
pair of shoes. Any salesman will tell you 
the customer is looking for fit, style, 
and price. Which one is most important 
depends on the customer. Your soft- 
ware must "fit" the customer's needs. 
Style applies to both packaging and 
program appearance. Price depends on 
the program's function. 

A word about pricing. Generally, if 
you go through a distributor, a program 
must either be a game or sell for over 
$50. Otherwise, it's not worth his time. 
In my opinion, most of the $50 pro- 
grams should sell for about $10, and 
most of the $100-$ 150 programs should 
sell for about $20. The difference is 
just about the dealer's and distributor's 




markup. 

Of course, if a program is to be sold 
at all, it must be advertised. Advertising 
and demonstrations can cost half or 
more of a package's selling price. I can 
only afford to sell this program for $10 
because this article is essentially free 
advertising. 

Customers have grown to expect fan- 
cy packaging and well-printed (not nec- 



essarily good, but good-looking) manu- 
als. I think this is unreasonable: It 
prevents many packages from ever 
reaching the marketplace. Most cus- 
tomers will never read the documenta- 
tion, anyway. The lesson here: Make 
your software so easy to run that little 
or no documentation is required. 

I would advise software purchasers to 
buy generic, but buy with care. Organ- 
ize or join a club. Pool your funds, and 
have the club buy one package for 
evaluation. If the software is worth- 
while, then have the interested members 
each buy a copy. 

Never pirate software. It's not fair 
to the writer. If you want to see 
something even better than the piece of 
code in your hot little hands, encourage 
the author with some rightfully earned 
profit. 

On the other hand, stay away from 
over-priced software. Sooner or later, 
the price will come down, even if not all 
the way to $10. 



Expectations and Enhancements 



Here is what I expected the pro- 
gram to do: 

1. Write bug-free Basic programs. 
Ideally, no bug could ever be gener- 
ated, no matter what the provocation; 
program size limitations and program 
speed trade-offs resulted in a modifi- 
cation of this. Generally, I achieved 
this objective. 

2. The programs could access rec- 
ords in a data file by a key. This access 
had to be quick (preferably less than 
one second), operator transparent, re- 
quire no sort, and make no assump- 
tions about the operating system or 
the processor chip used. I wanted to be 
completely flexible, and not be com- 
mitted to just Radio Shack gear. This 
meant I could not use a sort, since it 
would have to be written in Basic (and 
at the TRS-80's operating speed, be 
painfully slow). 

A sort presented several other prob- 
lems. Any sort would not be operator- 
transparent. Also, any access or write 
based on a sort (even B-TREE) would 
be either slow to read or slow to write a 
record. This was unacceptable. Final- 
ly, if a sorted index file were used, then 
disk failure would cause terrible prob- 
lems for the user. 

Therefore, I reasoned, why should 
any sort be used? The sort, after all, 
would only be needed when and if the 



records had to be printed in sorted or- 
der. Access, in Basic, is by record 
number: thus, what I needed was a 
way to convert the key to a record 
number. 

I wondered (and I still do) why ev- 
eryone else seemed to have settled on 
sorting and binary search. There is, af- 
ter all, a big difference between re- 
trieving records and printing reports. 

I investigated several methods, but 
settled on hashing. Hashing, as I used 
it, consisted of taking a key composed 
of one of more alphanumeric charac- 
ters and converting it to a number in 
the range of 1 to the maximum num- 
ber of records permitted on a single 
disk. The hashing algorithm had to be 
reasonably random. I tested it to make 
sure it was: the generator I used was 
capable of generating numbers more 
random than Microsoft's RND func- 
tion. I used a simple Chi-squared test 
to be sure. 

The record access had to be reason- 
ably quick. A peculiarity of Microsoft 
Basic and a floppy-disk-based com- 
puter is that it is much quicker to read 
even 10 long records placed consecu- 
tively than it is to read just two records 
placed widely apart. (That, by the 
way, is why a binary search technique 
is necessarily inferior to hashing for 
speedy access.) For that reason, I 



wrote the Creator so that the generat- 
ed programs would search consecutive 
locations in the data file after generat- 
ing the hashed record number; any ac- 
cess past the end of the file would 
wrap around to the beginning. Hash- 
ing has another benefit, particularly 
important to anyone using a disk 
drive: head movement is generally less 
than with any other approach. There- 
fore, disk drives should last longer be- 
fore needing repair or adjustment. 
The result is that a program generated 
by the Creator can read any record 
within about a half-second after the 
disk drive is turned on. 

3. Records needed to be capable of 
being updated on any field. This 
was easy. I just fixed it so that 
an update on the key field deleted 
the old record and wrote a new one at 
the new hashed position. Otherwise, 
the updated record would be written at 
the same position. 

4. Records had to be any length, up 
to the maximum length of a record 
permitted within Basic. This was 255 
bytes, at the time. 

5. I wanted at least 20 fields allowed 
per record. 

6. The data file had to be as bullet- 
proof as possible. Bad sectors, power 

Continues on p. 85 



78 • 80 Micro, January 1983 



Listing I continued 

1370 PRINT"NOT NUMERIC NO ENTRY LENGTH < 9" 

13 80 PRINT"NOT ALPHA CONTAINS" ;Q$; "Z" ;Q$ 

1390 PRINT :PRINT"TO THE QUESTION ERROR MESSAGE TYPE THE MESSAGE 

TO BE DISPLAYED" 

1400 PRINT"IF THAT ERROR IS MADE BY THE OPERATOR." 

1410 PRINT"YOU MAY SIGNAL COMPLETION OF EDITS FOR ANY FIELD BY M 

AKING NO" 

1420 PRINT"ENTRY AND HITTING THE ENTER KEY. HIT ANY KEY TO CONTI 

NUE." 

1430 P$=INKEY$:IFP$=""THEN1430 

1440 RETURN 

1450 FOR I=1T0A:I$=MID$(STR$(I) ,2) 

1460 PRINT"FIELD #";I;" LENGTH=" ; :L=VAL(F$( I) ) ,-PRINTL 

1470 P$="": PRINT "PROMPT:"; :LINE INPUTP$: IFP$="HELP"THENGOSUB1210 

:GOTO1470 
1480 K$="":INPUT"KIND OF DATA" ;K$: IFK$="HELP"THENGOSUB1210 :GOTO 
1480 

1490 IFK$0"N"ANDK$0"PI"ANDK$<>"PS"ANDK$<>"PD"ANDK$<>"C"THENPRI 
NT"INVALID KIND OF DATA. N, PI, PS, PD, OR C PLEASE. " :GOTO1480 
1500 IF(K$ = "PI"ANDLO2)0R(K$="PS"ANDL<>4)0R(K$»"PD"ANDLO8)THENP 
RINT" INCORRECT FIELD LENGTH FOR DATA TYPE. " :GOTO1480 
1510 LN=LN+10:PRINT#1,LN; "PRINT" ;Q$;P$;Q$:BL=LN 
1520 IF K$O"C"THENPRINT#1,BL+1;"IFUFO0ANDG$=";Q$;Q$;"THENG$»G$ 

(";i$;")" 

1530 LN=LN+10:PRINT#1,LN;"LINE INPUTG$( " ; 1$; ") "; :D% ( I) =LN: IFOO$= 

"N" THEN PRINT#1," " ELSEPRINTtl ," : IFG$( " ; I; ") =" ;Q$;OT$;Q$; "THEN 

";SL 

1540 IF K$="PI"THENPRINT#1,LN+1;"IFUFO0THENG1=INSTR(G$(";I$;") , 

";Q$;"MORE";Q$;") : IFG1>0THENG%=CINT(VAL(G$( "; 1$; ") ) +VAL(G$) ) :G$( 

";I$;")=MID$(STR$(G%) ,2+SGN(G%) /2) " 

1550 IF K$="PI"THENPRINT#1,LN+2;"IFUFO0THENG1=INSTR(G$(";I$;") , 

" ; Q$ ; "LESS" ; Q$ ; " ) : IFG1 >0THENG%=CINT ( -VAL { G$ ( " ; I $ ; " ) ) +VAL ( G$) ) : G$ 

(";I$;")=MID$(STR$(G%) ,2+SGN(G%) /2) " 

1560 IFK$="PS"THENPRINT#1,LN+1;"IFUFO0THENG1 = INSTR(G$(";I$;") ," 

;Q$;"MORE";Q$;") : IFG1>0THENG=CSNG(VAL(G$( ";I$; ") ) +VAL(G$) ) :G$("; 

I$;")=MID$(STR$(G) ,2+SGN(G)/2) " 

1570 IFK$="PS"THENPRINT#1,LN+2;"IFUFO0THENG1=INSTR(G$(";I$;") ," 

;Q$;"LESS";Q$;") : IFG1>0THENG=CSNG(-VAL(G$( " ;I$; ") )+VAL(G$) ) :G§(" 

;I$;")=MID$(STR$(G) ,2+SGN(G)/2) " 

1580 IFK$="PD"THENPRINT#1,LN+1;"IFUFO0THENG1=INSTR(G$(";I$;") ," 

;Q$;"MORE";Q$;") : IFG1>0THENG#=CDBL( VAL(G$( " ; 1$; ") ) +VAL(G$) ) :G$(" 

;I$;")=MID$(STR$(G#) ,2+SGN(G#) /2) " 

1590 IFK$="PD"THENPRINT#1,LN+2;"IFUFO0THENG1=INSTR(G$(";I$;") ," 

;Q$;"LESS";Q$;") : IFG1>0THENG#=CDBL(-VAL(G$( " ; 1$; ") ) +VAL(G$) ) :G$( 

";I$;")=MID$(STR$(G#) ,2+SGN(G#)/2) " 

1600 IFK$="PI"THENLN=LN+10:PRINT#1,LN;"IFABS(VAL(G$(";I$;")))>32 

767THENPRINT";Q$; "NUMBER OUT OF RANGE. MUST BE FROM -32767 TO 32 

767 i ";Q$;":GOTO";BL 

1610 IFK$="PI"THENLN=LN+10:PRINT#1,LN;"IFINT(VAL(G$(";I$;"))) <>V 

AL(G$(";I$;") ) THENPRINT" ; Q$; "MUST BE WHOLE NUMBER. " ;Q$; " :GOTO";B 

L 

1620 BI$="":PRINT"BAD INPUT IF: "; :LINEINPUTBI$: IFBI$=""THEN1760 

1630 IF BI$="HELP"THENGOSUB1210 :GOTO1620 

1640 PRINT"ERROR MESSAGE: "; :LINEINPUTEM$: IFEM$="HELP"THENGOSUBl 2 

10 :GOTO1640 

1650 IFINSTR(BI$,"NOT NUMERIC") >0THEN1660 ELSEIFINSTR(BI$, "NOT A 

LPHA") >0THEN1670 ELSEIFINSTR(BI$, "NO ENTRY") >0THEN1680 ELSEIFINS 

TR(BI$, "CONTAINS") >0THEN1690 ELSEIFINSTR(BI$, "LENGTH") >0THEN1720 

ELSE1730 
1660 LN=LN+10:PRINT#1,LN;"CD$=G$(";I$;") : E=0:GOSUB3 0000: IFE=1THE 
NPRINT";Q$;EM$;Q$;":GOTO";BL:GOTO1620 

1670 LN=LN+10:PRINT#1,LN;"CD$=G$(";I$;") : E=0 :GOSUB31000: IFE=1THE 
NPRINT" ; Q$ ; EM$ ; Q$ ; " : GOTO" ; BL : GOTO1620 

1680 LN=LN+10:PRINT#1,LN;"IFLEN(G$(";I$;") ) =0THENPRINT";Q$;EM$;Q 
$;":GOTO";BL:GOTO1620 

1690 FH=INSTR(BI$,Q$) :IFFH<1THENPRINT"Y0U FORGOT QUOTES. " :FH=0 :G 
OTO1620 

1700 IF FH>1THENFH$=MID$(BI$,FH+1,1) :LN=LN+10 :PRINT#1 ,LN; "IFINST 
R(G$(";I$;") , " ;Q$;FH$;Q$; ") >0THENPRINT" ;Q$;EM$;Q$; " :GOTO";BL:FH= 
0:GOTO1620 
1710 PRINT"SYNTAX ERROR. THE WORD CONTAINS SHOULD NOT BE SET OFF 

BY QUOTES":GOTO1620 
1720 FH=INSTR(BI$, "LENGTH") :LN=LN+10 :PRINT#1 ,LN; "IFLEN(G$( " ; 1$; " 
) ) ";MID$(BI$,FH+6) ; "THENPRINT";Q$;EM$;Q$; ":GOTO";BL:FH=0:GOTO162 


1730 IFINSTR(BI$,">") <1ANDINSTR(BI $,"<") <1ANDINSTR( BI$,"=") <1THE 
NPRINT"SYNTAX ERROR. REPEAT COMMAND, PLEASE. " :GOT01 620 
1740 C=INSTR(BI$,Q$) : IFO0THENLN=LN+10 :PRINT#1,LN; "IFG$( " ;I$; ") " 
;BI$; "THENPRINT" ;Q$;EM$;Q$;":GOTO";BL:GOTO1620 

1750 LN=LN+10:PRINT#1,LN;"IFVAL(G$(";I$;") ) " ;BI$; "THENPRINT" ;Q$; 
EM$;Q$;":GOTO";BL:GOTO1620 

1760 LN=LN+10:IFK$="PI"THENPRINT#1,LN;"G$(";I$;")=MKI$(VAL(G$("; 
1$;")))" 

1770 IFK$="PI"THENPRINT#1,11900+I;-IFUFO";I$;"THENG$(";IS;")=MK 
I$(VAL(G$(";I$;")))" 

1780 i( IFK$="PI"THENPRINT#l,RL+28000;"G$(";I$7")=STR$(CVI(F$(";I$; 

Listing 1 continues 



FOR TRS-80 MODEL I OR III ^ 
IBM PERSONAL COMPUTER 

MORE SPEED 

10-20 times faster than Interpreted BASIC. 

MORE ROOM 

Very compect compiled code plus VIRTUAL MEMORY 
makes your RAM act larger. Variable number of block 
buffers. 31-char.-unlque wordnames use only 4 bytes In 
header! ' 

MORE INSTRUCTIONS 

Add YOUR commands to Its 79-STANDARD-plus 
Instruction set! 

Far more complete than moat Forths: single & double 
precision, arrays, string-handling, clock, graphics (IBM 
low-res. glvea BAM and 16 color or 200 tint color display). 

MORE EASE 

Excellent full-screen Editor, structured & modular 

programming 

Word search utility 

THE NOTEPAD letter writer 

Optimized for your TRS-80 or IBM with keyboard repeats, 

upper/lower case display driver, full ASCII. 

MORE POWER 

Forth operating system 

Concurrent Interpreter AND Compiler 

VIRTUAL I/O for video and printer, disk and tape 

(10-Megabyte hard disk available) 

Full 8080 or 8088 Assembler aboard 

(Z80 Assembler also available for TRS-80) 

Intermix 35- to 80-track disk drives 

IBM can read, write and run M.3 disks 

M.3 can read, write and run M.1 disks 




FORTH 



THE PROFESSIONAL FORTH SYSTEM 
FOR TRS-80 It IBM PC 

(Thousands of systems in use) 

M , M „ S . F0 5 TH , D i sk s y»'« m (requires 1 disk drive, 32K RAM) 

V2.0 for Radio Shack TRS-80 Model I or III $129.95* 

V2.1 for IBM Personal Computer (80-col. screen) .... 1249.95- 

AND MMS GIVES IT PROFESSIONAL SUPPORT 

Source code provided 

MMSFORTH Newsletter 

Many demo programs aboard 

MMSFORTH User Groups 

Inexpensive upgrades to latest version 

Programming staff can provide advice, modifications and 

custom programs, to fit YOUR needs. 

MMSFORTH UTILITIES DISKETTE: includes FLOATING POINT 
MATH (BASIC ROM routines plus Complex numbers, Rectan- 
gular-Polar coordinate conversions, Degrees mode, more): a 
powerful CROSSREFERENCER to list Forth words by block 
and line; plus (TRS-80) a lull Forth-style Z80 assembler 
(requires MMSFORTH V2.0, 1 drive & 32K RAM) $39.95* 

FORTHCOM: communications package provides RS-232 
driver, dgmb terminal mode, transfer of FORTH blocks, and 
host mode to operate a remote FORTHCOM system (requires 
MMSFORTH V2.0. 1 drive & 32K RAM) $39.95* 

THE DATAHANDLER: a very last database management 
system operable by non-programmers (requires MMSFORTH 
V2.0. 1 drive & 32K RAM) $59.95* 

FORTHWRITE: fast, powerful word processor w/easy key- 
strokes. Help screens, manual & demo files. Full proportional 
w/tabs, outdenting. Include other blocks, documents, key- 
board inputs, & DATAHANDLER fields— ideal for form letters 
(requires MMSFORTH V2.0, 2 drives 8 48K RAM) .... $175.00* 

MMSFORTH GAMES DISKETTE: real-time graphics & board 
games w/source code. Includes BREAKFORTH, CRASH- 
FORTH. CRYPTOQUOTE, FREEWAY (TRS-80), OTHELLO & 
TICTACFORTH (requires MMSFORTH V2.0, 1 drive * 32K RAM) 
$39.95* 



Other MMSFORTH products under development 

FORTH BOOKS AVAILABLE 

MMSFORTH USERS MANUAL - w/o Appendices $17.50* 

STARTING FORTH - best! S1S.9S* 

THREADED INTERPRETIVE LANGUAGES - advanced, 
analysis of FORTH internals $18.95* 

PROGRAM DESIGN & CONSTRUCTION - Intro, to structured 
programming, good for Forth $16.00* 

FORTH-79 STANDARD MANUAL - official reference to 
79-STANDARD word set, etc $13.95* 

FORTH SPECIAL ISSUE. BYTE Magazine (Aug. 1980) - A col- 
lector's item for Forth users and beginners $4.00* 

* - OROERING INFORMATION: Software prices include 
manuals and require signing of a single computer license for 
one-person support. Describe your hardware. Add $2.00 S/H 
plus $3.00 per MMSFORTH and $1.00 per additional book; 
Mass. orders add 5% tax. Foreign orders add 20%. UPS COD, 
VISA and M/C accepted: no unpaid purchase orders or refunds. 

Send SASE lor tree MMSFORTH information. 
Good dealers sought 

Get MMSFORTH products from your 
computer dealer or 

MILLER MICROCOMPUTER SERVICES 

61 Lake Shore Road, Natick, MA 01760 

(617)653*6136 



sSee List ot Advertisers on Page 435 



80 Micro, January 1983 • 79 



SFINKS 
3.0 

CHESS 
PROGRAM 


Rrl 




PRIZEWINNER 

1981 Paris 

World 

Microcomputer 

Chess 
Championship 


the 

finest 

available! 

See 80 U.S. 
June 1982 


•32 book openings 
•chess clock 
•printer output 
•problem mode 
•audio alert 
•thinking on 
opponent's time 
•infinite levels 


32K 

Model 1 (E.I.) 
or Model 3 

tape or disk 
only 

$39.95 


SFINKS 
1.81 

Plays Chess 

Pre-Chess and 

Transcendental 

Chess 


PRIZEWINNER 

1980 San Jose 

U.S. 

Microcomputer 

Chess 
Championship 


•nine levels 
•problem mode 
•move suggestion 
•move take back 
•audio alert 
•good 
documentation 


32K 

Model 1 or 3 

tape or disk 
only 

$24.95 i 


SFINKS 

CHESS 
TUTOR 

Learn to 
play chess 


Step-by-Step 

Programmed 

Learning 

for the 

Newcomer 


•tutor 

•3 level game 
•problem mode 
•audio alert 
•printer output 
•book openings 
•superb graphics 


32K 

Model 1 or 3 

disk only 
only 

$19.95 


Please specify 

tape or disk and 

Model lor 3 

Include $2.00 

Shipping 

WILLIAM FINK 

SUITE 24B 

1105 N. MAIN ST. 

GAINESVILLE, FL 

32601 


EXCEPTIONAL 

DEALER 

DISCOUNTS 

(904) 377-4847 

^^L ^ 212 

/SFINKS 1 ^, 



Listing 1 continued 


) 






1790 


IFK$="PS" 


THENPRINTtl,LN;"G$(";I$;")=MKS$(VAL(G$(";I$;" 


)))" 


1800 


IFK$="PS* 


THENPRINTtl, 1190 0+1 ; "IFUFO" ; 1$; "THENG$( " ; 1$ ; 


")=MK 


S$(VAL(G$(";I$; n )))" 






1810 


IFK$="PS P 


THENPRINTtl,RL+28000;"G$(";I$;")=STR$(CVS(F$( 


";i$; 


")))' 










1820 


IFK$="PD" 


THENPRINTtl,LN;"G$(";I$;")=MKD$(VAL(G$(";I$;" 


)))" 


1830 


IFK$="PD" 


THENPRINTtl, 1190 + 1; "IFUFO"; 1$; "THENG$( " ; 1$; 


")=MK 


D$(VAL(G$( n ;I$; n ))r 






1840 


IFK$="PD" 


THENPRINTtl ,RL+280 ; "G$ ( " ; I $ ; " ) =STR$ ( CVD ( F$ ( 


";i$; 


")))* 










1850 


IFK$="N"ORK$="C"THENPRINTtl,RL+28000;"G$(";I$;")=F$("; 


i$;") 


1860 


RL=RL+10 


LN=LN+10 : PRINTtl ,LN; "RETURN" :NEXTI 




1870 


PRINT#1,' 


10200 


GOSUB28000" 




1880 


PRINT#l f ' 


11200 


GOSUB280 00" 




1890 


PRINTtl,' 


12200 


GOSUB28000" 




1900 


PRINTtl,' 


1005 FC=FC+1" 




1910 


PRINTtl,' 


1006 ONFCGOSUB"; 




1920 


FORI=lTOA-l : PRINT#1 , MID$ ( STR$ ( D% ( I) -10 ) , 2) ; " , " ; : NEXT : PRINT* 


1,D%(A)-10 








1930 


PRINTtl,' 


1007 IFFC< n ;A;"THHNl00 5ELSE I, ;LN+10 




1940 


PRINTtl,' 


10010 


CLS:GOSUB 270 00 'TRY 


TO FI 


ND THE RECORD* 








1950 


PRINTtl," 


10199 


REM******UNPACK THE FIELDS IN THE FILE 


FOR D 


ISPLAY******" 








1960 


PRINTtl, "11010 


CLS:GOSUB27000 'TRY 


TO FI 


ND THE RECORD 








1970 


PRINT#1, "11199 


REM******UNPACK THE FIELDS IN THE FILE 


FOR D 


ISPLAY******" 








1980 


PRINT#1, 


12010 


CLS:GOSUB27000 'TRY 


TO FI 


ND THE RECORD 








1990 


PRINT#1, 


12199 


REM******UNPACK THE FIELDS IN THE FILE 


FOR D 


ISPLAY******" 








2000 

It " 


PRINTtl, 


10799 


REM******DISPLAY RECORD IF MATCH ON KEY***** 


2010 


PRINT#1, 


10800 


GOSUB29000" 




2020 

*•* 


PRINTll, 


11799 


REM******DISPLAY RECORD IF MATCH ON KEY***** 


2030 


PRINTtl, 


11800 


GOSUB29000" 




2040 


PRINT#1, 


•12799 


REM******DISPLAY RECORD IS MATCH ON KEY***** 


2050 


PRINT#1, 


'12800 


GOSUB29000" 




2060 


PRINT#1, 


'28998 


RETURN" 




2070 


PRINTtl, 


'28999 


REM******DISPLAY FOUND RECORD******" 




2080 


PRINTtl, 


'27999 


REM ****** UN p AC K FIELDS IN RECORD****** 


f 


2090 


PRINTtl, 


'29000 


CLS:IF OS=0 THENPRINT";Q$;"IS THIS IT? 


(PLEA 


SE PRESS Y IF 


CORRECT) ";Q$ 




2100 


PRINTtl, 


'29010 


FORI=lTO";A 




2110 


DIMH$(22 








2120 


PRINT"WHEN THE 


DATA IS DISPLAYED, WHAT TITLE WILL EXPLAIN T 


HE DATA IN" 








2130 


FORI=lTOA 






2140 


PRINT"FIELD NUMBER:";I; :LINEINPUTH$( I) 




2150 


PRINTtl, 


22000+I;"DATA ";H$(I) 




2160 


NEXT 








2170 


PRINTtl, 


'29020 


READR$:PRINTR$;";Q$;":";Q$;";G$(I) "; 




2180 


PRINTtl, 


, ; n ;"TAB(50) ;";";" ;Q$; "FIELD t";Q$;";I" 




2190 


PRINTtl, 


'29030 


NEXT: RESTORE" 




2195 


PRINTtl, 


'29035 


IF OS=l THEN RETURN" 




2200 

if it it it 


PRINTtl, 


'12900 


REM******DELETE CODE WRITTEN IN ALL FIELDS** 


2210 


PRINTtl, 


'12905 


R%=(RP-1)/";R%;"+1:P%=(RP-1)-(R%-1)*"; 


*% 


2220 


PRINTtl, 


'12910 


FIELD 1,";RR;"*P% AS DX$,";RR;" AS DL$ 


LSET 


DL$= 


3TRING$(255,250 


:PUT l,R%:GOTO";SL 




2230 


PRINTtl, 


*29050 


AN$=INKEY$:IFAN$=";Q$;Q$;"THEN29050" 




2240 


PRINTtl, 


'29055 


IFAN$O";Q$;"Y";Q$;"THENGOSUB27040:GOSUB280 


0:GOTO29000" 








2250 


PRINTtl, 


"10860 


GOTO";SL 




2260 


PRINTtl, 


"11810 


PRINT" ;Q$; "WHAT FIELD NUMBER DO YOU WANT TO 


UPDATE? ";Q$ 








2270 


PRINTtl, 


"11820 


INPUTUF" 




2280 


PRINTtl, 


"11840 


IFUF>";A;"ORUF<lTHENPRINT";Q$; "INVALID 


FIELD 


";Q$ 


;":GOTO11810" 






2300 


PRINTtl, 


"11860 


ONUFGOSUB"; 




2310 


FORTZ=1TOA-1 : PRINTtl ,MID$ ( STR$ ( D% ( TZ ) -10 ) , 2) ; " , " ; : NEXT: PRIN 


T#l, 


D%(A)-10 








2320 


PRINTtl, 


"11865 


R%=(RP-1)/";R%;"+1:P%=RP-1-(R%-1.)*";R% 




2330 


PRINTtl, 


"11870 


IFUFO" ;KF;"THEN11900ELSEZZ$=G$(";KF;" 


:FIEL 


Dl," 


RR;"*P% AS DX$ 


,";RR;"AS DL$:LSET DL$=STRING$(255,250) 


:PUT 1 


,R%: 


3OSUB26000" 






2340 


PRINTtl, 


"11900 


REM******BEGIN OUTPUT******" 




2350 


PRINTtl, 


"11995 


";OF$ 




2360 


PRINTtl, 


"11998 


REM******INSERT CHANGED FIELDS INTO RECORD A 


ND SEND****** 


n 






2370 


PRINTtl, 


"11999 


FORI=lTO";A;":LSET F$( I) =G$ ( I) :NEXT:PUT 1,R% 


:GOTO";SL 














Listing I continues 



80 • 80 Micro, January 1983 



Words are not enough. 




Experience goes beyond words. We believe adven- 
tures should too. The Asylum Series is Med Systems' 
premiere line of 3-D graphics adventures for the 
TRS-80 and IBM personal computers. What is an 
Asylum? An Asylum is a real-time simulation that 
takes place in a building with 1500 locations. Both are 
inhabited by crazed inmates, sadistic guards, and evil 
doctors. Your goal? ESCAPE! 

Our 3-D graphics are recognized throughout the in- 
dustry for their machine-language speed and clarity. 
Hallways recede into the screen as though you are ac- 
tually there. Doors open and close. Beds, desks, and 
other inmates are drawn on the screen. Instantaneously! 

Asylums understand complete sen- 
tences, not just choppy one and two word 
commands. Sentences like "Drop every- 
hing on the desk except the matches" are 
interpreted and acted on instantly. Fur- 
ther, the command "VOCABULARY" will 
show you the entire dictionary, eliminat- 
ing the need to second-guess program de- 
signers you have never met. 

But don't take our word for it. See the 
reviews in '80 Microcomputing (Feb. 1981, 
Aug. 1981, May 1982). And remember, 
Med Systems offers to refund your money 
if you aren't satisfied. Just return the 
game within 14 days of receipt. 



Although Asylum II is the sequel to 
Asylum I, you need not have played one to 
play the other. Asylum I and Asylum II re- 
quire at least 16K of RAM, and are avail- 
able on tape or disk (please specify). Hint 
sheets are available for each Asylum for 
$1.00. 



lum I 

(cassette or diskette) .. $19.95 
Asylum II 

(cassette or diskette) .. $19.95 
Asylum I & Asylum II 

(one diskette) $34.95 



MED SYSTEMS SOFTWARE 

P.O. BOX 3558 CHAPEL HILL, NC 2751 4 
TO ORDER, CALL 1 -800-334-5470 

Or see your dealer. 



-83 




»-i 



WHY BUY A JOY 
wf STI CK TWICE ! 

u sWeadyhave 
Atari Joystick, 

can use'i+Wfour 
WtHiOUrKrf- 

JOY STICK KIT "^ 

Without Joy Stick Model l/lll $15.95 

With Joy Stick Model l/lll $26.95 

— Be Your Own SYSOP !!!!!— 

Bullet-80 Bulletin Board Model I $130.00 

Bullet-80 Bulletin Board Model III $150.00 

Screen Artist ll-Create Graphics, 

Save As Basic Routines $32.95 

Panik-New From Fantastic Software 

Model l/lll Disk $24.95 

Panik-Model l/lll Tape 16K $19.95 

Bounceoids-New From Cornsoft 

Model l/lll Disk $19.95 

Bounceoids-Model l/lll Tape $15.95 

We Also Have In Stock A FULL LINE Of Software 
From ALL The Major Houses. 
Please Call For Information About Any Products. 
After-Market Computer Gallery* ^ 257 
P.O. Box 993 

14 Summit Street (Mail Order) Aft 

1 Franklin Street (Retail Outlet) ^^ 
Danbury, CT 06810 m£^ 

Voice Line -203 743-1299 

Bullet 80 Computer Line - 203 744-4644 

(300/1200 Baud) 

•A Division 0* Computer Services Of Danbury 



PEl/Tnlnl announces two great new 
machine language arcade games w/sound 
for TRS-80 MOD I or III, disc or tape 




You're a rabbit trying to get to your cove! Cross 
highways and rivers-dodge moving cars and trucks-jump 
from boat to boat - an incredible journey. Gets harder 




Play fast paced indoor soccer against a 
friend or the computer. Dribble, pass, steal the 
ball, use the boards-control the whole team!! 
When you're done, lay down-exhausted. ^ 324 




P.O BOX 1026 
SOUTHAMPTON 
PENNA 18966 
215-947-2334 



*• Specify Mod I or III. disc (32) 
or tape <16k) 

* Add $2.00 postage and handlir 

* Phone or mail / 3C & <S5! accf 

* Dealers inquiries welcome" . 

* Pa. residents add 6% sales ta> 



Listing I continued 

2380 PRINTtl, "27000 

2390 PRINTtl, "27010 

2400 PRINTtl, "27020 

2410 PRINTtl, "27030 

NE, GET POS." 

2420 PRINTtl, "27040 

IN AGAIN @ tl" 

2430 PRINTtl, "27045 

2440 PRINTtl, "27046 

2445 PRINTtl, "35005 

2450 PRINTtl, "27047 

2460 PRINTtl, "27050 

NRETURN" 

2470 PRINTtl, "27055 

,R% : IFZY$=STRING$ ( " ; 

$;":RUN" 

2490 PRINTtl, "27057* 

2500 PRINTtl, "27060 

2510 PRINTtl, "29999 

******* 



REM******LOOK FOR RECORD SUBROUTINE******" 

GOSUB " ; D% ( KF) -10 ; " : KF $=G$ ( " ; KF ; " ) " 

OS=0" 

ZZ$=KF$:GOSUB26000 'GO TO HASHING ROUTI 

RP=RP+1:IFRP>";MS;"THENRP=1 "NOT FOUND? BEG 

R%=(RP-1)/";R%;"+1:P%=(RP-1)-(R%-1) *";R% 

";OF$ 

";OF$ 

IF OS=l THEN GET 1,R%: RETURN" 

GET 1,R%:IFLEFT$(F$(";KF;") ,LEN( ZZ$) ) =ZZ$THE 

FIELD 1,";RR;"*P% AS DX$,";RR;" AS ZY$:GET 1 
RR;", 255) THENPRINT" ;Q$; "RECORD NOT FOUND. ";Q 

;OF$ 

GOTO27040 'NO MATCH: TRY NEXT RECORD" 

REM******NUMERIC FIELD EDIT CHECK SUBROUTINE 



2514 PRINTtl, "30002 CD=INSTR(CD$, ";Q$; "-";Q$; ") : IFCD>0 AND INSTR 
(CD+1,CD$,";Q$;"-";Q$;") >0 THEN E=1:RETURN" 

2515 PRINTtl, "30000 CD=INSTR(CD$,CHR$(32) ) : IFCD>1THENCD$=LEFT$(C 
D$,CD-1)+MID$(CD$,CD+1) :GOTO30000:ELSE IF CD=1THENCD$=MID$(CD$,2 
) :GOTO30000" 

2520 PRINTtl, "30005 FORZZ=lTOLEN(CD$) " 

2530 PRINTtl, "30010 IFMID$(CD$,ZZ,1) <";Q$; "0";Q$; "ORMID$(CD$,ZZ, 

1) >";Q$;"9";Q$;"THENIFMID$(CD$,ZZ,1) <>";Q$; " . " ;Q$; "ANDMID$(CD$,Z 

Z,l) <>";Q$;"-";Q$;"THENE=1:RETURN" 

2540 PRINTtl, "30020 NEXTZZ" 

2550 PRINTtl, "30030 RETURN" 

2560 PRINTtl, "30999 REM******ALPHA FIELD EDIT CHECK SUBROUTINE** 

2570 PRINTtl, "31000 FOR ZZ=lTOLEN(CD$) " 

2580 PRINTtl, "31010 IF(MID$(CD$,ZZ,1) <" ;Q$; "A" ;Q$; "ORMID$(CD$,ZZ 

,1) >";Q$;"Z";Q$;")ANDMID$(CD$,ZZ,1) <>CHR$ ( 32) THENE=1: RETURN" 

2590 PRINTtl, "31020 NEXTZZ" 

2600 PRINTtl, "31030 RETURN" 

2610 LN=LN+10:PRINTtl,LN;"ZZ$=G$(";MID$(STR$(KF) ,2) ;") :GOSUB2600 

0" 

2620 PRINTtl, "25999 REM******HASHING ALGORITHM SUBROUTINE******" 

2630 PRINTtl r "26000 FORZZ=lTOLEN( ZZ$) " 

2640 PRINTtl ,"26010 Xt=Xt+ZZ*ASC(MID$(ZZ$,ZZ,l) ) " 

2650 PRINTtl, "26020 NEXTZZ" 

2660 PRINTtl, "26030 Xt=Xt*Xt*Xt*Xt:X$=STR$(Xt) :RP=VAL(MID$(X$,5, 

4)) :Xt=0" 

2670 PRINTtl, "26040 RP=";MS; "*RP/9999:RETURN" 

26 80 LN=LN+10 : PRINTtl, LN;" REM******LOOK FOR RECORD SPACE******" 

26 90 LN=LN+10: PRINTtl, LN; "GOSUB" ;LN+10;":GOTO";LN+60 

2700 LN=LN+10 : PRINTtl, LN; "RP=RP+1: IFRP>" ;MS; "THENRP=1" 

2710 LN=LN+10: PRINTtl, LN; "R% = (RP-1)/";R% ; "+1:P% = (RP-1) -(R%-1) *"; 

R% 

2720 PRINTtl, LN+5; "FIELD 1,";RR;"*P% AS DX$,";RR;"AS ZY$" 

2730 PRINTtl, "11890 GOSUB" ;LN-10 

2740 LN=LN+10 : PRINTtl, LN; "GET 1,R% : IFZY$<CHR$( 250) THEN"; LN-20 

2750 LN=LN+10:PRINTtl,LN;OF$ 

2760 LN=LN+10:PRINTtl,LN; "RETURN" 

2770 LN=LN+10 : PRINTtl, LN;"FORK=lTO"; A 

2780 LN=LN+10:PRINTtl,LN;"LSET F$(K) =G$(K) :NEXT:PUT 1,R%" 

2790 CLS:PRINT"NOW WE ARE ALMOST DONE. WE NEED TO ASK IF THE OPE 

RATOR IS DONE." 

2800 PRINT"NOTE: DONE REFERS TO DATA ENTRY OPERATIONS ONLY!" 

2810 PRINT"YOU MAY CHOOSE THE MESSAGE YOU WISH. THE OPERATOR'S R 

EPLY WILL" 

2820 PRINT"BE LIMITED TO A SINGLE KEY DEPRESSION. I'D SUGGEST A 

MESSAGE" 

2830 PRINT"OF THE FORM ARE YOU DONE(Y/N)?" 

2840 PRINT"TYPE IN YOUR MESSAGE BELOW." 

2850 LINEINPUTTM$ 

2860 PRINT" IF THE OPERATOR IS NOT DONE, WHAT SHOULD THE REPLY BE 

?" 

2870 ND$=INKEY$:IFND$=""THEN2870 ELSEPRINTND$ 

2880 PRINT" IF THE OPERATOR IS DONE, WHAT SHOULD THE REPLY BE?" 

2890 ID$=INKEY$:IF ID$=""THEN2890 ELSEPRINTID$ 

2900 LN=LN+10:PRINTtl,LN;"PRINT";Q$;TM$;Q$ 

2910 LN=LN+10 : PRINTtl, LN; "TM$=INKEY$: IFTM$=" ;Q$;Q$; "THEN" ;LN;" EL 

SEPRINTTM$":BL=LN-10 

2920 LN=LN+10: PRINTtl, LN;" REM******IF DONE, END: IF NOT, RETURN 

TO MENU, ELSE REPEAT***" 
2930 LN=LN+10: PRINTtl, LN; "IFTM$<>" ;Q$;ID$;Q$; "AND TM$<>" ;Q$;ND$; 
Q$; "THENPRINT" ;Q$; "PLEASE ANSWER " ;Q$; " ; " ;Q$; ID$;Q$; " ; " ;Q$; " OR 
";Q$;";";Q$;ND$;Q$;":GOTO";BL 

2940 LN=LN+10 : PRINTtl, LN; "IFTM$=" ;Q$; ID$;Q$; "THEN" ;SL 
2950 LN=LN+10: PRINTtl, LN; "FORI=1T022:G$( I) =";Q$;Q$; ":NEXT:FC=0:U 
F=0:CLS:GOTO1000" 
2960 CLOSE: END 



82 • 80 Micro. January 1983 





AMAZING! 

NEW LOW PRICE— $99.50 

How else can you describe the Exatron Stringy Floppy system? You could 
say that it's an under $100, compact, reliable, robust, high-speed, 
computer-controlled, easy-to-use, well-supported alternative to disk 
drives, for a Model I or III TRS-80— simply amazing! 

Amazing Technology 

Based on a special endless-loop tape cartridge, called a Wafer, the 

ESF system was designed specifically for computer data storage. 

The direct-drive transport mechanism has only one moving part, 

and data is transferred to and from the tape at a rate of 7200 baud. 

Amazing System 

Thousands of ESF buyers have been amazed by 16K programs loading 

in less than 20 seconds; automatic verification of saved programs; up 

to 70K bytes, and 99 files, on a single Wafer; a ROM operating system 

(RAM based in Model III); no need for an expansion interface; and 1-year 

parts and labor warranty. 

Amazing Support 

With an ESF system you don't just get a piece of hardware, you get total 
support with hundreds of user workshops; dozens of high-quality, reason- 
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File Management System and Technical Word Processor); access to 
hundreds of FREE public-domain programs; an @NEWS user 
column in 80-US; @LOAD program magazine; and a 
jfitofm^ toll-free information line. 



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To see for yourself how amazing the ESF sys- 
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MODEMS 
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NEWSCRIPT features true proportional 
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A typeaheacl/pnntahead butter maxi- 
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NEWSCRIPT $109.99 

MAIL LABEL OPTION 
Create mailing ebes irom NEWSCRIPI 
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Mailing Label Option $15.00 

SCRIPSIT/NEWSCRJFT CONVERSION 

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Scnptsit Conversion $15.00 

ELECTRIC WEBSTER 

A 50,000 word dictionary for NEWSCRIPT. 
It can be selected from the main menu, 
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Continued from p. 78 

failures, and operating system bugs 
had to do minimal damage to records. 
This condition meant I had to pre-al- 
locate all the space in a file. Doing this 
verifies that the disk (at least at the 
start) is error-free and has sufficient 
space to hold the proposed file. Fur- 
thermore, once all the space is pre-al- 
located, if any sector is damaged, only 
that sector is lost. Only a directory 
read error might damage the whole 
file; that was something I couldn't 
guard against. However, copying the 
directory from a back-up disk to the 
damaged disk would suffice to com- 
pletely recover the data, provided the 
data disk and its backup were identical 
in the directory. 

Pre-allocation assures that the two 
disks can be made to have identical di- 
rectories. The trade-off, here, is that 
initializing the data file becomes a ne- 
cessity, and adds to the time necessary 
to set up the generated program to 
run. After my Model I had crashed 15 
times or so, I was convinced I had 
made a wise choice. About 70 percent 
of the first 100 or so crashes were 
hardware-related, and I was able to 
successfully recover all data more than 
90 percent of the time. 

7. Anyone using my program gen- 
erator needed complete freedom to 
check for data-input errors, print er- 
ror-messages of his choice, display 
computed data based on fields in the 
record, update fields based on the re- 
sult of a computation, and state rec- 
ord length, field length, field type, and 
number of fields. 

8. Record space utilization had to 
be efficient. 

Fortunately, Microsoft Basic on the 
TRS-80 lets you pack any numeric 
data. Other Basics, such as CBasic or 
Applesoft, do not allow such space 
savings. CBasic, in fact, requires rec- 
ord and field delimiters or substring 
operations to extract field data. This 
capricious requirement is extraordi- 
narily wasteful of disk space: in fact, 
CBasic records can be as much as 8 
times as long as Microsoft packed 
data, and normally are about twice as 
large. Anyone who has bought CBasic 
for a computer that permits only a 
limited amount of disk storage (less 
than several megabytes) has, in my 
opinion, made a serious error. Even 
for a computer with essentially unlim- 
ited disk space, larger records mean 
longer access times. For many other 



reasons, CBasic is much the inferior of 
Microsoft, and (again in my opinion) 
Tandy's decision to put this extraordi- 
narily good version of Microsoft Basic 
on the TRS-80 was one of the best de- 
cisions they ever made. 

Incidentally, 1 find it almost incred- 
ible how many microcomputer manu- 
facturers produce and proudly sell 
machines as "business solutions" 
when simple things like packing data, 
multiple-precision arithmetic, line in- 
put, substring matching and print for- 
matting are impossible without all 
kinds of gyrations. If those nameless 
manufacturers of 6502-based toys had 
paid Microsoft to put a good Basic on 
their machines, I seriously doubt the 
cost would have amounted to as much 
as a dollar a machine. Yet nobody but 
Radio Shack, of all companies, saw fit 
to make this honest effort. Instead, 
the 6502-based computer manufactur- 
ers spent a lot of money on half-truth- 
ful celebrity advertising, graphics, and 
games. Then, promoting their ma- 
chines for business applications, they 
sold a ton of these game machines. 
Ah, well. 

9. The program generated needed 
to handle an indefinite number of 
records on an indefinite number of 
disks. 

Yet another reason to go to hash- 
ing: no key file space is needed, no 
tables to store in memory and take up 
program space, no worry about the 
time needed to do a binary search. The 
programs generated can handle mil- 
lions or billions of records, given a 
sufficient number of floppy disks and 
a patient operator. 

10. The program had to be easy to 
run, even for someone not knowing 
much about Basic. I tested the pro- 
gram on my associates, both of whom 
were well-qualified on this score. 

11. The program had to run in a 
single-drive 32K system, to maximize 
the number of possible customers. 

Unfortunately, this meant I could 
not continue improving my program 
past a certain point. Once memory be- 
came too short, I had to quit the im- 
provements and leave at least a little 
space to fix later bugs. The Creator 
will still run in a 32K machine, but it 
could have been a better program, 
with more error-checking and more 
capabilities. 

12. The generated program had to 
be as modular as possible, and permit 

Continues on p. 86 



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Micro, January 1983 • 85 



Continued from p. 85 

easy customization later. 

This meant that the program would 
not necessarily be generated with the 
line numbers in order, since the logical 
order in which the modules would be 
generated by the Creator would not 
match the order the modules would be 
placed in the program. Under TRS- 
DOS, NEWDOS, or CP/M, this does 
not cause any problem, because the 
actual line numbers used will be placed 
by the Basic interpreter in their correct 
order. Since anyone with a TRS-80 
has easy, cheap access to at least 
TRSDOS, and since any alternative 
operating system permits transfer 
from TRSDOS to itself, 1 believed 
there would be no problem in writing 
the program lines out of order. 

Anyone running an altered version 
of Microsoft Basic should check to see 
if their Basic meets this requirement 
before trying to run the Creator under 
their version of Basic. 

Design Limitations/ 
Possible Enhancements 

I could have made a number of 
modifications to the Creator. Custo- 
mers, associates, dealers, and friends 
asked me, in nice and not so nice ways. 
One dealer threatened to pirate my 
software with his modifications if I re- 
fused to do them myself. I refused, 
anyway. As far as 1 know, he didn't 
pirate the software. 

Here are the changes you might 
make, and the reasons I did not: 

/. Add a sort for the report pro- 
gram generator. I didn't do this for 
several reasons. First, any Basic sort 
program would be too slow. Second, 
any assembler sort would be nontrans- 
portable. Third, sort programs (then 
and now) are cheap. Why should I 
waste my time reinventing the wheel 
for a small return in a crowded field? 

Nonetheless, I did write a simple 
sort program for the Model II and the 
CP/M market. 1 came to regret it, too. 
Customers complained it was too slow 
and found numerous ways to make it 
even slower or fail to run at all. No 
sort in the world will sort a data file 
correctly when asked to sort the wrong 
field. 

2. Add user customization to the 
screen display. 1 refused to do this be- 
cause of memory problems. Fancy 
screen displays, in my opinion, are 
puffery for serious business applica- 

Continues on p. 89 



Program Listing 2 

10 CLS:PRINT"COPYRIGHT 1980 BY BRUCE W. TONKIN; ALL RIGHTS RESER 

VED" 

20 PRINT"SERIAL NUMBER=SAME AS CREATOR" 

30 PRINT"THIS IS THE REPORT WRITING PROGRAM. CHOOSE ONE OF THE F 

OLLOWING:" 

40 PRINT-RUN A PREVIOUSLY WRITTEN PROGRAM DEPRES 

S R" 

50 PRINT"WRITE A NEW REPORT DEPRES 

S W" 

60 PRINT-EXIT THE PROGRAM DEPRES 

S x- 

70 PRINT: PRINT" PLEASE ENTER THE LETTER CORRESPONDING TO YOUR CHO 

ICE"; 

80 A$=INKEY$:IF A$="" THEN 80 ELSE IF A$="R"THEN90 ELSEIFA$= 

"W"THEN110 ELSEIFA$="X"THEN1870 ELSEPRINT"YOU MUST CHOOSE EITHE 

R R, W, OR X. PLEASE TRY AGAIN. " :GOTO30 

90 PRINT A$ 

100 PRINT"WHAT IS THE NAME OF YOUR PROGRAM?" ; :LINEINPUTPN$: RUN P 

N$ 

110 CLEAR 3000 

120 PRINT A$ 

130 PRINT"WHAT IS TO BE THE NAME OF YOUR PROGRAM?" ; :LINEINPUTPN$ 

140 IF INSTR(PN$,"/") <lANDINSTR(PN$ f "/BAS")<lTHENPN$=PN$+"/BAS" 

150 OPEN"0" f l,PN$:Q$=CHR$(34) 

160 PRINT"WHAT IS TO BE THE TITLE OF YOUR REPORT? TYPE IT ON THE 

NEXT LINE" 
170 LINEINPUTT$ 

180 PRINT"WHAT FILE ARE YOU GOING TO READ FOR YOUR REPORT? TYPE 
ITS" 
190 PRINT"COMPLETE NAME. DO NOT OMIT THE FILE EXTENSION IF THERE 

IS ONE.". 
200 LINE INPUTF$ 
210 PRINT" IS THE REPORT TO GO TO THE SCREEN OR THE PRINTER (S/P) 

220 INPUT PR$:IF INSTR( "SP" ,PR$) <1 THEN 210 

230 IF PR$="S" THEN PR$="PRINT" :CL$="CLS" :GOTO250 

240 PR$="LPRINT":CL$="LPRINTCHR$(12) " 

250 PRINT#1,"10 CLEAR 5000" 

260 PRINT#l, n 30 T$=";Q$;T$;Q$;" 'REPORT TITLE" 

270 PRINT#1,"40 OPEN";Q$;"R";Q$;",l f ";Q$;F$;Q$;" 'OPEN REP 

ORT FILE" 

280 PRINT"WHAT IS THE RECORD LENGTH OF EACH RECORD (1-255) ";: INP 

UT RL:IF RL>255 OR RL<1 THEN PRINT"INVALID. " :GOTO 280 

290 NR%=256/RL 

300 PRINT"NOW YOU MUST DESCRIBE THE FIELDS IN EACH RECORD OF YOU 

R FILE." 

310 PRINT"YOU MUST GIVE THE FIELDS IN ORDER, FROM LEFT TO RIGHT. 

TELL ME" 
320 PRINT"HOW MUCH SPACE TO ALLOCATE TO EACH FIELD." 
330 PRINT"WHEN YOU ARE DONE, TYPE IN 999 AS THE AMOUNT OF SPACE. 

340 A=1:DIM F% ( 50) ,D$ ( 50) 

350 XZ=0 

360 PRINT"FIELD NUMBER" ; A; : INPUT F% (A) 

370 IF F%(A)=999 THEN410 ELSEIFF% (A) >RL THEN PRINT" INVALID. MUS 

T BE NOT GREATER THAN RECORD LENGTH. " :GOT03 60 

380 XZ=XZ+F%(A) :IF XZ>RLTHENXZ=XZ-F% (A) :PRINT"TOTAL EXCEEDS RECO 

RD LENGTH" :GOT03 60 

390 IFXZ=RLTHENA=A+1:GOTO410 

400 A=A+1:GOTO360 

410 XF$="FIELD 1,("+STR$(RL)+"*(CT-1)) AS DU$," 

420 PRINT#1,"50 DIM F$ ( " ; A-l ; ") ,P( " ; A-l; ") ,P$( " ; A-l ; ") ,C# ( 50) ,P# 

(";A-1;") ,C(50) ,C$(50) ,H$(50) " :A=A-1 

430 FOR 1=1 TO A-1:XF$=XF$+MID$(STR$(F%(I) ) ,2)+"AS F$( "+STR$( I) + 

") ,":NEXT 

440 XF$=XF$+STR$(F%(A))+"AS F$( "+STR$( A) +") " 

450 PRINT#1,"45 REM *****NOW WE DIMENSION THE MATRICES USED **** 

460 PRINT#1,"55 REM *****HERE WE SET UP THE FIELDS IN THE FILE * 

470 PRINT #1,"56 CT=0:RL=";RL 

480 PRINT"WHAT ARE YOUR COLUMN HEADINGS TO BE? PLEASE SET UP A L 

EG END FOR" 

490 PRINT"EACH COLUMN YOU WILL USE IN YOUR REPORT. TYPE IN 999 T 

END." 

500 DIM C$(25) 

510 B=l 

520 PRINT#1,"65 REM *****FOLLOWING ARE THE COLUMN HEADINGS ***** 

530 PRINT"COLUMN NUMBER" ;B; : LINE INPUT C$(B):IF C$(B) ="999"THENC 

$(B)="":B=B-1:GOTO550 

540 B=B+1:GOTO53 

550 LN=70 

560 FOR 1=1 TO B 

570 I$=MID$(STR$(I) ,2) :PRINT#1,LN;"H$("+I$+")=";Q$;C$(I) ;Q$:LN=L 

N+10:NEXT 

580 DIMT(50) 

Listing 2 continues 



86 • 80 Micro, January 1983 



A Computer That 
Writes Programs 
For You. 

What will they think of next..? 



Your computer is fantastically fast, once it knows what 
to do. You probably realize that a computer is really 
the combination of hardware and software, working 
together smoothly, to give you what you want. Either 
one alone is useless. Software is really the key. ..the 
"mind" of a computer system. Every project or task 
you want to do requires a new specific software ap- 
plication to make it behave exactly the way you desire. 

Of course, you may be able to "force-fit" an application 
into some existing canned program you have, but to 
really get results, you need a separate application 
program to run on your computer. 

Until now, that meant you were forced to pay money 
for application software off the shelf, or if you could 
afford it, have it custom written for you, or, if you are 
qualified, do it yourself. ..spending endless hours 
figuring it out and writing it. Now, your computer can 
write individual application programs for you. These 
programs are each separate, unique software programs 
that run in standard Basic on your computer. 

A company named FutureSoft has developed this ex- 
citing and long awaited remarkable working tool for 
you. There are two versions called Quikpro+Plus and 
standard Quikpro. Both of them create unique separate 
Basic programs for you. ..to do exactly, precisely, what 
you want to do. And listen to this. ..you create a new 
program in minutes instead of hours. 

You can quickly generate a new program when you 
want it. You can generate thousands of different 
unique programs, each one standing alone as a com- 
plete program that runs in Basic. Best of all, you do not 
have to be a programmer to do it. The Quikpro soft- 
ware becomes your personal programmer, waiting to 
do your work for you any time of day or night you 
choose to use it. 

The custom programs you generate from this software 
provide for: Data Entry, Additions, Changes, Record 
Locating & Searches, great variety of Computations, 
and Report Printing (if you have a printer). It lets you 
decide what data to manipulate and how to manipulate 
it. It lets you decide the formats you want to appear on 
your screen and/or to print out in a report. It lets you 
use differing formats on the same data base. It lets' you 
make calculations from data within records without 
altering the data base. It lets you report results with or 
without including the base data from which results 
were calculated. 

All this is included in the ability/power of the program 
you create. You do it by simply answering questions 
that appear on your screen. Instantly, the Quikpro soft- 
ware instructs the computer to perform complex and 




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The resulting custom program is truly a separate Basic 
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print out its own operating instruction manual so others 
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You can create new programs for every use you have in 
Business, Science, Education, and Hobby areas. And 
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The software is available immediately from the 
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features, you want Quikpro+Plus. Specify to run on 
TRS80 Model I and Model III at only $149; to run on 
TRS80 Model II at $189. 

If you do not need Calculation ability or Report Print- 
ing in the separate Basic programs you will create from 
this program generating software, then standard Quik- 
pro will do the job for you. Standard Quikpro to run on 
TRS80 Model I or Model III is $89; to run on TRS80 
Model II is $129. (Later on you can always trade up to 
the Plus Versions for only the cost difference between 
the two). 

Both programs are available to run on many other 
computers besides TRS80. Details are available by 
calling or writing. 

You can order right now by phone or mail. If you have 
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• See List of Advertisers on Page 435 



80 Micro, January 1983 • 87 



Listing 2 continued 

590 PRINT"WE NEED TO SET THE TABS FOR YOUR" ;B; "COLUMNS. INDICATE 

THE SET:" 
600 FORI=lTOB 

610 PRINT"TAB SETTING FOR COLUMN NUMBER"; I; ":";: INPUT T(I) 
620 IF T(I)>255 OR T(I)<1 THEN PRINT"NOT A VALID TAB SETTING. ":G 
OTO610 
63 NEXT 

640 PRINT#1, "30050 DATA "; 
650 FOR 1=1 TO B-l 
660 PRINT#1,T(I) ;","; 
67 NEXT 
680 PRINT#1,T(B) 

690 LN=LN+10: PRINT* 1,LN;"PG=1 'INITIALIZE PAGE COUNTER" 
700 PRINT#l,LN+5;"REM*****NOW FOLLOWS THE RECORD RETRIEVAL SECTI 

QfJ***** » 

710 PRINT"DO YOU WANT THE PAGES NUMBERED (Y/N)?"; 

720 PG$=INKEY$:IFPG$=""THEN720 ELSE IF(PG$O n Y"ANDPG$<>"N") THEN 

PRINT" INVALID ANSWER. " :GOT07 10 

730 LN=LN+10:PRINT#1,LN;"FORI=1TO10000" 

740 LN=LN+10:KZ=LN 

750 LN=LN+10:PRINT#1,LN;"IFF$(1) <CHR$( 1) THEN20000" 

760 IFPG$="Y"THENPRINT"HOW MANY LINES PER PAGE" ; : INPUTL 

770 L=L-1 

780 PRINT"THE DATA TO BE PRINTED IN THE VARIOUS COLUMNS OF THE R 

EPORT" 

790 PRINT"COMES FROM THE FIELDS IN THE RECORD. NOW WE MUST FIND 

OUT WHAT" 

800 PRINT"KIND OF DATA IS IN EACH FIELD. YOU MUST TELL ME IF IT 

IS" 

810 PRINT "CHARACTER (C) , NUMERIC UNPACKED (N) , PACKED INTEGER (P 

I) ," 

820 PRINT"PACKED SINGLE PRECISION (PS) , OR PACKED DOUBLE PRECISIO 

N(PD) ." 

830 PRINT"YOU MUST DESCRIBE EACH FIELD IN THE RECORD. IF THERE I 

S A FIELD" 

840 PRINT" IN THE RECORD YOU ARE NOT USING, DESCRIBE IT AS CHARAC 

TER(C) ." 

850 FOR 1=1 TO A 

860 PRINT"FIELD NUMBER" ; I; " :LENGTH IS" ; F% ( I) ; " :DATA TYPE IS";:IN 

PUTD$(I) 

870 IFD$(I) <>"C"ANDD$(I) <>"N"ANDD$(I) <>"PI"ANDD$(I) <>"PS"ANDD$(I 

) <>"PD"THENPRINT"C,N,PI,PS,OR PD ARE THE ONLY VALID DATA TYPES." 

:GOTO860 

880 IF D$(I)="PI"ANDF% (I) <> 2 THEN PR I NT "WRONG LENGTH FOR PACKED IN 

TEGER.":GOTO860 

890 IF D?U)="PS"ANDF%(I) <>4THENPRINT"WRONG LENGTH FOR PACKED SI 

NGLE PREC I S ION . " : GOT08 6 

900 IFD$(I)="PD"ANDF%(I) <>8THENPRINT"WRONG LENGTH FOR PACKED DOU 

BLE PRECISION. ":GOTO860 

910 NEXT 

920 FORI=lTOA: PRINT"FIELD NUMBER: " ; I ; "LENGTH=" ; F% ( I) ; "TYPE: " ;D$ ( 

I) :NEXT 

930 PRINT"ARE THESE FIELD DEFINITIONS CORRECT? DEPRESS N FOR NO. 

940 JX$=INKEY$:IFJX$=""THEN940 ELSEIFJX$O"N"THEN980 

950 PRINT"WHICH FIELD IS NOT CORRECT? TELL ME THE NUMBER. " ; INPUT 

I 

960 PRINT"WHAT IS THE DATA TYPE?" ;: INPUT D$(I) : IFD$( I) <>"N"ANDD$ 

(I) <>"C"ANDD$(I) <>"PI"ANDD$(I) <>"PS"ANDD$( I) <>"PD"THENPRINT"INVA 

LID TYPE.":GOTO960 

970 IF(D$(I)="PI"ANDF%(I) <>2) OR(D$ ( I) ="PS"ANDF% ( I) <>4) OR(D$( I) =" 

PD"ANDF%(I) <>8) THENPRINT "WRONG LENGTH FOR DATA TYPE. " :GOTO960 

980 PRINT: FOR 1=1 TO A 

990 LN=LN+10:IFD$(I)="C"ORD$(I)="N"THENPRINT#1,LN; "P$( " ; I; ") =F$( 

";I;")" 

1000 IFD$(I)="PI"THENPRINT#1,LN;"P(";I;")=CVI(F$(";I;") ) " 

1010 IF D$(I)="PS" THENPRINT#1,LN;"P(";I;") =CVS (F$ ( " ; I; ") ) " 

1020 IF D$(I)="PD" THENPRINT#1,LN;"P#(";I;")=CVD(F$(";I;") ) " 

1030 NEXT 

1040 PRINT"NOW WE MUST DESCRIBE WHAT IS TO GO INTO THE COLUMNS 

F THE" 

1050 PRINT"REPORT. YOU MUST WRITE SENTENCES OF THE FOLLOWING FOR 

M:" 

1060 PRINT"COLUMN(5) =FIELD(2) +FIELD(5) " 

1070 PRINT"COLUMN(l)=(FIELD(2)-FIELD(6) )/FIELD(7) 

1080 PRINT"IF COLUMN$(3)=";Q$; "JOHNSON", -Q$; "THEN COLUMN (3) =473 .6 

4" 

1090 PRINT"Vl=COLUMN(l) /COLUMN (2) : V2=100*Vl : COLUMN (3) =V2 

1100 PRINT"IF FIELD(3)=<0 THEN SKIP" 

1110 PRINT"IF FIELD(4)<100 OR FIELD$ ( 7) =" ;Q$; "LAWYER" ;Q$; "THEN S 

KIP" 

1120 PRINT :PRINT"WHERE THE V ARE WORK VARIABLES AND THE COLONS C 

AN BE USED TO" 

1130 PRINT" SEPARATE ANY ADDITIONAL COMMANDS YOU MAY WANT TO EXEC 

UTE ON THE" 

1140 PRINT"SAME LINE. THE COMPUTER READS THE COMMANDS FROM LEFT 

TO RIGHT." 

Listing 2 continues 



A Word About Documentation 

Frankly, the original documentation 
for the TRS-80 Model I and II versions 
of the Creator and Reportor was not 
very good. All the information you'll 
probably need was there — somewhere. 
Finding it was a little tricky. I don't 
think I write that poorly. But I made 
several errors when writing the manual. 
Here's were I went wrong. 

First, I wrote the entire manual on a 
typewriter. After you've typed 60 or 80 
pages, you'll find that it's too late and 
too frustrating to revise and add materi- 
al. Proofreading is more trouble than it 
should be. Making copies is a chore. 

I suggest that you write your manual 
with a word processor. Any is better 
than none at all — it is not possible to do 
worse than with a typewriter and paper. 

Second, I wrote the manual myself. 
Nothing wrong there, except that I 
wrote the programs. It's difficult for a 
programmer to anticipate the questions 
and errors a user might make. If you 
must write the manual yourself, have 
some interested and intelligent nonpro- 
grammer read your copy and make sug- 
gestions. Then give the manual to sever- 
al idiots and ask them to run your 
program. Watch how they go wrong 
and take notes, but do not help them. 
When you've recovered from the shock, 
rewrite your manual and try the whole 
procedure again. Repeat, using differ- 
ent idiots, until even they get every- 
thing right. 

Third, one of the associates absolute- 
ly insisted that the manual be retyped to 
make a camera-ready copy. If you use a 
word processor, do not (under any cir- 
cumstances) permit this step. When 
my Apple manual was retyped, it ended 
up with over 100 typographical errors 
(the associate didn't believe in proof- 
reading), some of which were disas- 
trous. The first 100 copies had to be dis- 
carded, and this was the single act that 
led to the demise of the corporation. 

Beg, borrow, or steal a good letter- 
quality printer. Dump your manual to 
it. Any error will be yours. 

Fourth, be careful to organize your 
manual well. Include plenty of indexes, 
and a table of contents. The contents 
should be organized logically, so that 
anyone running the program will not be 
skipping from one section to another. 
Put anything technical in appendices. 

Fifth, include lots of examples, in- 
cluding at least one complete run- 
through of your program. 

Finally, be prepared to have users ig- 
nore the manual, and reviewers criticize 
it for shortcomings. My experience has 
been that only about 20 percent of the 



88 



Micro, January 1983 



Continued from p. 86 

tions. Furthermore, after investigating 
the matter, I decided that the ques- 
tions I would have to ask, and the pos- 
sible input errors I would need to 
check, would require enough memory 
to demand a 48K machine. Not only 
that, but such routines would make 
the Creator and the generated pro- 
grams less transportable. 

3. Add routines to mask input, 
character by character, for undesir- 
able responses. Again, Basic was too 
slow and assembler too nontransport- 
able. Even worse, such routines seem 
to provoke garbage collection on the 
part of the Microsoft interpreter; the 
worst time to have something like gar- 
bage collection is during data input. I 
thought this modification would be a 
terrible one, and still do. 

4. Add more features: more error 
checking, more help messages, flexible 
levels of help messages, etc. The prob- 
lem here was simple. I wanted to do 
this, but memory limitations did not 
permit it. 

5. Separate the "get the user re- 
sponse" section from the "generate 
code" section. I thought about this 
and rejected it for the TRS-80 market. 
The modification was attractive and 
would have freed more memory for 
each module, but it would have made 
the Creator more complex to operate 
and would have demanded a more so- 
phisticated operator than I saw at the 
time. I still think this was the right 
decision; I can remember getting some 
unbelievable calls for support from 
people who didn't know how to for- 
mat disks, enter Basic, or load pro- 
grams. Adding another program 
module meant another module to de- 
stroy or misunderstand. 

I made this modification for the 
CP/M market. The file containing the 
operator responses looks like a Basic 
program to the Microsoft interpreter, 
and can be loaded and modified with- 
out rerunning the program generator. 
The "generate program specifica- 
tions" module is separate from the 
"generate a program from specifica- 
tions" module. Indeed, the latter con- 
sists of three separate programs, in the 
CP/M version. Operators haven't had 
much trouble with this, so perhaps I 
was wrong to leave it out of the 
TRS-80 version. 

Continues on p. 91 






,; 



"I BOUGHT IT" 

"My biggest loss 
of programming 
time using 
Snappware's 
EXTENDED BASIC 
is spent 
inserting 
my diskette." 

SCOTT ADAMS -PRES. OF ADVENTURE INTL. 




Reduce your programming time significantly with Snappware's EXTENDED 
BASIC. The program is written entirely in machine language., for super fast 
execution and is fully integrated into the TRSDOS* BASIC interpreter, re- 
quiring no user memory. Here are just some of the ways EXTENDED 
BASIC can make your programming task easier: 

• Quick way to recover BASIC program following a New, System 
. or Accidental re-boot. 

• Single character abbreviations for the most frequently used 
commands. 

• Six single key stroke commands to list the first, last, previous, 
next or current program line. Even edit current line. 

• A powerful cross-reference facility with output to display 
and/or printer. 

• Ability to trace a variable through the code. 

• Determine easily if a variable is in use. 

• Permits programmer to display and/or print the value of any or all 
program variables. 

• Identifies the variable type for all variables. 

• Lists each element of any array separately. 

• Program line renumbering facilities allowing for specification of 
an upper Jimit of the block of lines to be renumbered, relocation 
of renumbered blocks of.code and duplication of blocks of code. 

• Cross reference facility for key words and character strings including 
global replacement of key works. 

• Compresses your BASIC program to an absolute minimum by remov- 
ing extraneous information. 

• Merge lines. 

• Deletes statements that could not be executed. 

If you consider your programming time to be worth money, call us and let 
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Cinti., Ohio 45236 



vSee List of Advertisers on Page 435 



80 Micro, January 1983 • 89 



Listing 2 continued 

1150 PRINT" *=MULTIPLICATION, /=DIVISION, [=EXPONENTIATION, -=SUB 

TRACTION," 

1160 PRINT"AND + IS EITHER ADDITION OR CONCATENATION." 

1170 PRINT"DEPRESS ANY KEY TO CONTINUE." 

1180 AN$=INKEY$:IFAN$=""THEN1180 

1190 CLS: PRINT "YOU MUST REMEMBER TO ENCLOSE CHARACTER DATA WITH 

QUOTES . " 

1200 PRINT"YOU MUST ALSO REMEMBER TO PUT A $ SIGN AFTER A COLUMN 

1210 PRINT"WHICH WILL PRINT STRING DATA. PLEASE REVIEW YOUR MANU 

AL." 

1220 PRINT"BECAUSE THIS IS VERY IMPORTANTl FOLLOW THE EXAMPLES G 

IVEN." 

1230 PRINT"COLUMNS WHICH CONTAIN DOUBLE PRECISION NUMBERS SHOULD 

BE" 

1240 PRINT" INDICATED BY APPENDING A # SIGN, AS IN THE EXAMPLES." 

1250 PRINT"YOU CAN STORE RUNNING TOTALS WITH STATEMENTS LIKE:" 

1260 PRINT n V3=V3+FIELD(6) " 

1270 PRINT: PRINT"YOU MAY TYPE AS MANY -MANIPULATIONS AS YOU WANT 
FOR ANY COLUMN" 

1280 PRINT" IN ANY ORDER. TYPE IN 999 <ENTER> WHEN YOU ARE COMPLE 

TED." 

1290 M$=STRING$(50,32) 

1300 LINEINPUTSX$:IFSX$="999"THEN1470 

1310 C=INSTR(SX$, "FIELD") : IFC>1THENSX$=LEFT$(SX$,C-1) +"P"+MID$(S 

X$,C+5) :GOTO1310 

1320 IFC=1THENPRINT"FIELDS CANNOT BE REDEFINED. PLEASE REVIEW DO 

CUMENTATION.":GOTO1300 

1330 D=INSTR(SX$, "COLUMN") :Dl=INSTR(SX$, "=") 

1340 C=INSTR(SX$,"OLUMN") : IFC>1THENSX$=LEFT$(SX$,C-1) +MID$(SX$,C 

+5) :GOTO1340 

1350 IFC=1THENPRINT"SYNTAX ERROR. " :GOT013 00 

1360 PRINT"IS THIS OK? IF NOT, DEPRESS N TO DELETE THE INSTRUCTI 

ON." 

1370 JX$=INKEY$:IFJX$=""THEN1370 ELSEIFJX$="N"THEN1300 ELSEPRINT 

"OK, READY FOR NEXT COMMAND (999 TO EXIT)" 

1380 IF LEFT$(SX$,1)="V" OR LEFT$(SX$,2) ="IF" THEN LN=LN+10:PRIN 

T #l,LN;SX$:GOTO 1300 

1390 IFD<10RDKDTHENPRINT"WAIT A MINUTE. 

ITION: RE-INPUT. ":G0T013 00 

1400 LN=LN+10 : PRINT #1,LN;SX$ 

1410 D=INSTR(SX$,"(") :D1=INSTR(SX$,")") :D$=MID$(SX$,D+1 ,Dl-l) 

1420 D=INSTR(D$," ") : IFD=1THEND$=MID$(D$,2) :GOTO1420 

1430 IFD>1THEND$=LEFT$(D$,D-1) :GOTO1420 

1440 D=VAL(D$) 

1450 IF INSTR(SX$,"$")>0 AND( INSTR(SX$, "$")<INSTR(SX$,"=") ) THEN 
MID$(M$,D,1)="S":GOTO1460 

1451 IF INSTR(SX$,"#")>0 AND( INSTR(SX$,"#")<INSTR(SX$, "=") ) THEN 
MID$(M$,D,1)="M":GOTO1460 

1452 MID$(M$,D,1)="D" 
1460 GOTO1300 

1470 LN=LN+10:PRINT#1,LN;"M$=";Q$;M$;Q$ 

1480 IF PR$="PRINT" THEN LN=LN+10 :PRINT#1,LN; "IFL=0THENCLS: PRINT 

TAB(30) ;T$:"; :GOTO 1500 
1490 LN=LN+10:PRINT#1,LN;"IFL=0THEN";PR$;"CHR$(12) ;TAB(30) ;T$:"; 
1500 IF PG$="Y"THENPRINT#1,PR$;" TAB(65) ; " ;Q$; "PAGE NUMBER";Q$;" 
;PG" ELSE PRINT#1," " 

1510 LN=LN+10:PRINT#1,LN;"IF L=0 THEN ";PR$; " :GOSUB30000" 
1520 PRINTtl, "30000 FOR J=l TO";B 

1530 PRINTtl, "30010 READ T:";PR$;" TAB(T) ;H$( J) ; " 
1540 PRINT#1, "30020 NEXT:RESTORE" 
1550 PRINTtl, "30030 " ;PR$; "-.RETURN" 
1560 LN=LN+10 : PRINTtl, LN; "FOR J=l TO";B 
1570 LN=LN+10:PRINT#1,LN;"IF MID$(M$,J,1) =" ;Q$; "S" 

T:";PR$;" TAB(T) ;C$( J) ; " 
1580 LN=LN+10:PRINT#1,LN;"IF MID$(M$, J,l) =" ;Q$; "D' 

T:";PR$;" TAB(T) ;C( J) ; " 
1590 LN=LN+10:PRINT#1,LN;"IF MID$(M$, J,l) =" ;Q$; "M" ;Q$; "THEN READ 



•INVALID COLUMN DEFIN 



';Q$;"THEN READ 
';Q$;"THEN READ 



T:";PR$;" TAB(T) ;C#( J) ; " 
1600 LN=LN+10:PRINT#1,LN; 1 
1610 LN=LN+10:PRINT#1,LN; 1 
1620 LN=LN+10: PRINTtl, LN; 



NEXT : " ; PR$ ; " : RESTORE" 
L=L+1 : IFL>" ; L ; "THENPG=PG+1 : L=0 " 
NEXT" 
1630 PRINTtl, KZ; "FIELD 1 , ( " ;RL; "* (CT-1) ) AS DU$,";RL;" AS ZU$:GE 
T 1,1+((I-1)/";NR%;") :IF ZU$=STRING$( ";RL; " ,255) OR ZU$=STRING$( 
";RL;",250) THEN";LN 

1640 PRINT #1,KZ+1;"IF ZU$=STRING$( " ;RL; " ,0) THEN 20000" 
1650 PRINT#1,KZ+5;XF$ 

1660 PRINT#1,KZ-5;"CT=CT+1:IF CT=" ;NR%+1; "THEN CT=1" 
1670 PRINTtl, KZ+7;"GET1,1+(I-1)/";NR% 
16 80 CLS:PRINT"HAVE YOU SAVED ANY TOTALS YOU WANT PRINTED AT THE 

END? (Y/N) " 
1690 YN$=INKEY$:IF YN$=""THEN1690 ELSEIF (YN$<>"Y"ANDYN$O n N n ) THE 
NPRINT"Y OR N ONLY, PLEASE. " :FORI=1TO300:NEXT:GOTO1680 
1700 PRINTtl, "30040 REM*****THESE ARE THE TAB SETTINGS*****" 
1710 PRINTtl, "29990 REM*****BEGIN PRINTING COLUMN HEADINGS*****" 
1720 IF YN$="N"THENPRINTtl, "20000 CLOSE: END" :GOT01 870 
1730 PRINT"THEN YOU MUST TELL ME WHICH VARIABLES YOU WANT PRINTE 
D IN WHICH" 

Listing 2 continues 



program's users will read the manual, 
and only about 10 percent of that 20 
percent will read it thoroughly. The re- 
maining 90 percent will get frustrated 
and either throw the program out (and 
ask for a refund), work through the 
problem somehow, or give up and read 
the manual. We gave refunds to about 5 
percent of our buyers. 

Unfortunately, writing a program 
that doesn't need a manual makes the 
program attractive to pirates. Pirates 
don't like to copy documentation: It's 
expensive to do it right. 

Why I Gave Up on Tandy 

You'll notice that I could have made 
several improvements to the Creator 
that would have increased its usability, 
not to mention its salability. I never got 
around to it because I stopped writing 
software for the TRS-80 almost two 
years ago, when my company dissolved 
and I sold my Model I in favor of the 
CP/M-based Altos 8000-2. 

I do not wish to take a step backward 
and return to the Radio Shack market. 
Here are some reasons why. 

I thought then that TRSDOS would 
never be a standard operating system, 
that the "big" manufacturers would 
surely and soon enter the microcom- 
puter marketplace, and that CP/M 
would offer much more future poten- 
tial. Further, the little TRS-80 was un- 
healthy from the first day I had it. Mean 
time to disk-drive failure was about five 
days; mean time to repair was two. The 
local dealer was helpful — he even lent 
me replacement drives — but the annoy- 
ance and downtime was aggravating. 

The Model II was annoying, as well. 
The TRSDOS on that machine was as 
buggy as the TRSDOS on the little one, 
and the machine didn't like to run on 
hot days at all. I had CP/M for that ma- 
chine, bought from Pickles and Trout, 
but I had no faith in the hardware. (By 
the way, Pickles and Trout's CP/M is 
good, and I recommend it.) 

Even worse, the Model II TRSDOS 
kept being modified. The modifications 
were the sort that changed the disk for- 
mat, space available, and other low- 
level things. They meant that the pro- 
gram written for one DOS release was 
incompatible and unreadable under 
another. After several such modifica- 
tions, any user would have to go 
through several transfer programs to 
successfully upload a program. I felt 
that such DOS modifications were an 
indication that TRSDOS was going to 
be unusable. 

The Model II TRSDOS also had 
some features I didn't like at all. A one- 



90 • 80 Micro, January 1983 



Continued from p. 89 

6. Allow automatic overflow of 
records from drive to drive. I didn't 
want this modification at all. It would 
not be transportable. Another more 
important reason is that it would 
demand that you place each disk 
on a special drive and/or that the 
program detect how many drives/ 
disks were in place. This would be 
nontransportable and an easy place 
for errors. To this day, I have no 
doubt whatsoever about the correct- 
ness of my decision here. 

7. Since "everyone" was running 
(choose one or more: NEWDOS, 
NEWDOS80, LDOS, ULTRA DOS), 
add enhancements for a version for 
that operating system. This turned out 
to be both an easy and a hard decision. 
I felt, then, that TRSDOS was terri- 
ble, but I wanted to stay transport- 
able. 1 was only one man, and my as- 
sociates wanted a version for the 
Apple (shudder) and the PET (two 
shudders) and other machines — even 
other languages. I didn't see how 
I could possibly support all those dif- 
ferent versions, make enhancements, 
provide customer support, check ad 
copy, eat and sleep at one time. I was, 
after all, working about 14 to 16 hours 
a day, seven days a week. Nor could 
the company afford to hire any help 
for me. 

8. Make the generated program 
faster. Actually, this was a continuing 
project. I have little doubt that the 
program would be even more stream- 
lined today if I had continued with the 
TRS-80. Still, I feel I could have done 
little to the program to appreciably 
speed its operation beyond its present 
abilities. One thing now possible is 
the Microsoft compiler for TRSDOS 
programs. Both the Creator and the 
generated programs could be com- 
piled; the only changes in the generat- 
ed program, I believe, would be the re- 
placement of the New command with 
an END, and inserting spaces where 
required. 

9. Reduce the memory require- 
ments in the generated program. This 
was a battle. I could have made the 
generated program smaller than it 
was, but at the cost of increased 
size in the Creator and decreased 
modularity and modifiability in the 
generated program. I struck a com- 
promise I felt was fair. 

10. Allow more fields in the gener- 

Continues on p. 92 







"\ BOUGHT IT" 

"My biggest loss 
of programming 
time using 
Snappware's 
EXTENDED BUILT IN 
FUNCTIONS is 
spent inserting 
my diskette." 

SCOTT ADAMS - PRES. OF ADVENTURE INTL. 



Snappware's EXTENDED BUILT IN FUNCTIONS is a collection of much 
needed additions to the TRSDOS* BASIC interpreter which greatly ex- 
tends its convenience and utility. The following features become part of 
your BASIC language and provide the enhancements without requiring 
any additional memory/The most important component of EXTENDED 
BUILT IN FUNCTIONS is an in-memory sort routine, guaranteed to be the 
fastest general purpose in-memory sort on the market. Along with this 
you also receive other EXTENDED BUILT IN FUNCTIONS. Here is a 
sampling: 

SRT— Sorts one or more arrays into a specified sequence 
FMT— Arranqes data into a string variable as with PRINT USING 
PDAT/U DATS— Permits user to do arithmetic on dates. 
PK$/UPK$— Compresses strings to save disk space. 
ETIM$— Shows the difference between two times. 
CLEAR— Specifies the number of file blocks to be allocated when 
you specify high memory and string space. . 
DELETE— Allows you to dynamically remove portions of a BASIC 
program. 

In addition to these, there are functions unique to Model II and to Model 

III. The exclusives to Model II are long error messages and PEEK/POKE. 

The exclusives to Model III are: 

SWAP— Supports exchange of variables with a single statement. 

HEX$— Converts numbers to hexadecimal strings. 

RESTORE— Allows you to set READ pointer to location of choice. 

If you consider your programming time to be worth money, call us and let 
us show you how to get more of it. 

MODEL II $100.00 

MODEL III $ 75.00 



*,: 



•TRSDOS™ Tandy Corporation 



mm 



Time saving power 
at your fingertips. 

CALL TOLL FREE: 

1-800-543-4628 

OHIO RESIDENTS CALL 
COLLECT: (513) 891-4496 
3719Mantell 
Cinti., Ohio 45236 



vSee List of Advertisers on Page 435 



80 Micro, January 1983 • 91 



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Listing 2 continued 

1740 PRINT "COLUMNS. I WILL GIVE YOU TWO DUMMY VARIABLES CALLED" 

1750 PRINT"T$ AND B$. T$ IS THE WORD TOTALS, AND B$ IS BLANKS." 

17 60 PRINT" IF YOU WANT TO PRINT THE WORD TOTALS IN ANY COLUMN, T 

ELL ME TO" 

1770 PRINT "PRINT T$; IF YOU WANT TO SKIP A COLUMN, TELL ME TO PR 

INT B$." 

1780 LN=20000:PRINT#1,LN;PR$ 

1790 LN=LN+10 :PRINT#1,LN;"T$=";Q$; "TOTALS" ;Q$;":B$=CHR$ (32)" 

1800 FOR 1=1 TO B 

1810 PRINT" VARIABLE TO PRINT IN COLUMN NUMBER" ; I; ":"; :LINE INPUT 

sxs 

1820 LN=LN+10:PRINT#1,LN;"READ T:";PR$;" TAB(T) ; " ;SX$; ">" 

1830 NEXT 

1840 LN=LN+10:PRINT#1,LN;CL$ 

1850 LN=LN+10:PRINT#1,LN; "CLOSE: END" 

1860 PRINTS1, "19990 REM*****PRINTING TOTALS SECTION*****" 

1870 CLOSE: END 



disk system required the operating 
system on all disks at all times, meaning 
I would have to ignore Tandy's 
copyright or sell every purchaser 
another copy of TRSDOS with each 
purchase of my software. Since every 
purchaser of a Model II got TRSDOS 
with his machine, this meant I had to 
sell him something he already had! 

I called Tandy, leaving my name and 
phone number. I told them I intended 
to sell copies of the software with 
TRSDOS on the disk, and might re- 
quire the purchasers to verify that they 
already had purchased TRSDOS; if this 
was illegal, please have someone at Tan- 
dy or Radio Shack contact me and tell 
me what I must do. I never heard from 
them. TRSDOS turned out to be unnec- 
essary, after all. Anyway, I thought 
their approach was dumb and probably 
illegal. 

The Model II had no PEEK and 
POKE commands. Factory software 
support was, I felt, miserable. On the 
other hand, the CP/M machine was 
never down. We even shipped it to the 



Continued from p. 91 

ated program. This modification was, 
and is, fairly easy to make. You will 
note that the generated program con- 
tains an On. . .GOSUB construction. 
The present limitation of 22 to 24 
fields is solely dependent on Basic's 
maximum line length. By weeding out 
spaces in the generated code, this 
could be increased to 47. By generat- 
ing a GOSUB to a program section 
containing a number of consecutive 
On . . . GOTO lines, any number of 
fields can be accommodated. This is 
necessary, because an On. . .GOTO 
will fall through when an over or un- 
derflow occurs, whereas an On. . . 
GOSUB over- or underflow returns an 



NCC and back one year as baggage, 
and accidentally dropped it on the mar- 
ble floor in Chicago's Northwestern sta- 
tion just before a demonstration. In 
fact, that machine went almost three 
years before anything at all went wrong 
with it (a bad transistor in the power 
supply), and downtime then was one 
day. I have had very good luck with my 
Altos 8000-2. 

The CP/M Microsoft Basic 5.2 was 
better than the TRS-80 Basic, as well. 
Program chaining with saved variables, 
40-character variable names, While. . . 
Wend loops, and a good compiler were 
available. The CP/M machine also had 
more disk space, and (at my actual in- 
complete count) 69 languages or ver- 
sions of langauges available. This 
meant a lot of flexibility. All this cost 
less than the Model II! 

The CP/M operating system had no 
discernable bugs, ran fast, and was well 
supported. I was not tied to one com- 
pany for languages and utilities. An as- 
sembler/editor came with the system. 
About 16 megabytes of public-domain 



error. The CP/M version, for that 
reason, permits up to 500 fields, 
limited only by memory. 

//. Make it easy to use the report 
program with sort programs. I never 
thought such use was difficult. The 
CP/M version will allow the specifica- 
tion of a sort index for a report at run- 
time, but the TRS-80 version can be so 
modified with a simple bit of code: to 
the generated report program, add 
one line opening an index file as a se- 
quential input file, file number 2. This 
index file should contain the record 
numbers to read, in sorted order. 
Then alter the beginning of the record 
read loop from "GET 1,1" to "IF 
EOF(2) THEN 20000: ELSE INPUT 
#2,K:GET 1,K". That's it! ■ 



92 • 80 Micro, January 1983 



software was available, for about $8 a 
disk. This software included languages 
(like Pilot, Stoic, Algol, and Basic-E), 
communications programs, applica- 
tions software, games, and so on. I 
knew I'd have a long wait before I saw 
any of that stuff from Tandy. 

The decision I made was easy, and I 
have yet to regret it. I said goodbye to 
the Model I (and the Model II) and kept 
the Altos. 

The Dl-Fated Apple/PET Versions 

After about a year of my associate's 
cajolery and threats, I succeeded in get- 
ting someone to help me do an Apple 
version. I needed help, since I didn't 
have any knowledge of the Apple. I 
even got one. 

I hated the Apple, hated Apple's 
DOS, doubly hated Applesoft (not even 
an Else statement!), disliked the com- 
promises necessary with the Apple ver- 
sion, and gave the machine to one of my 
associates at the first opportunity, 
about three months later. Even today, I 



at 



## 



n 



never want to see another Apple again. I 
will have to admit that the Apple never 
broke, though. 

I never wrote a version for the PET. I 
got as far as reading the PET DOS man- 
ual, decided the machine was unsuitable 
for anything to do with business ap- 
plications (especially my program), and 
told my associates NO. In fact, I told 
them I'd leave if they ever brought it 
up again. 

What I really wanted to do was a 
CP/M version with the (then new) Mi- 
crosoft Basic compiler and Microsoft 
Basic 5.2. 

Have fun with the programs. Write 
me if you have questions about my ex- 
periences, comments about my deci- 
sion, or just want to share some experi- 
ences. I will do my best to reply, but 
I have a family to support so please 
understand: I may be too busy. I will 
read your letters with interest, though. 
I may even read the ones I'll prob- 
ably get from Tandy, Apple, and Com- 
modore. H (Continues) 








I BOUGHT IT 

My biggest loss 
of programming 
time using 
Snappware's 
AUTOMAP and 
AUTOFILE is 
spent inserting 
my diskette." 

SCOTT ADAMS - PRES. OF ADVENTURE INTL. 



When working with direct files or creating a formatted screen, Autofile 
and Automap are indispensible aids. 

Autofile is designed to automate for the BASIC programmer the task of 
moving data elements to and from a direct file. Previously, this was a 
time consuming chore because the FIELDed variables may not be directly 
referenced by user logic. The FIELD statement was eliminated, thereby 
relieving you of the guessing game as to where the FIELDed variable is. 
In addition, the LSET and the CVx functions are performed automatically. 
The software, when installed/becomes part of your BASIC interpreter 
providing the enhancements without additional memory. 

Automap is designed to automate for the BASIC programmer the task of 
presenting information on the video display and accepting information 
from the keyboard operator. The software consists of two main compo- 
nents: the OFF-LINE COMPONENT used to describe to the system the 
screen formats and the ON-LINE COMPONENT from within your BASIC 
program to initialize a screen, send data to the video display and receive 
data from the keyboard operator. This facility when installed, becomes 
part of your BASIC interpreter. 

Both products complement one another and, if used in conjunction, can 
save a significant amount of programming time. ■ 

If you consider your programming time to be worth money, call us and let 
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MODEL III 



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OHIO RESIDENTS CALL 
COLLECT: (513) 891-4496 

3719 Mantell i 

Cinti., Ohio 45236 ' 



80 Micro, January 1983 • 93 



Sketchy Documentation 



Though this is not intended to be a 
complete set of instructions to all 
of the features of the Creator, the fol- 
lowing should let you successfully run 
the program. The Creator and the Re- 
porter (the report program generator) 
come as disk-based programs, called 
CREATOR/BAS and REPORTOR/ 
BAS. The disk also includes two dem- 
onstration programs, which are not 
provided here for reasons of space. 

The Creator and Reportor come on 
a nonbootable disk. For $10, 1 cannot 
afford to provide a DOS or a loader. 
If you have a single-drive system and 
your DOS requires that the disk in 
drive have an operating system, find 
a friend with a two-drive system and 
copy the Creator disk to a disk with a 
system on it. 

How to Load The Programs 

Enter Basic. The default number of 
files is all right. To run the Creator, 
just type RUN"CREATOR/BAS:x", 
where x is the drive number on which 
the Creator disk is loaded. 

Questions Asked by the Creator 

The questions asked, in order, are: 

1 . What's the name of the program 
being generated? Use up to eight al- 
phabetic characters. 

2. Which drive will contain the 
data file when the generated program 
is run? Enter a number, depending on 
the number of drives in your system. 

3. Which drive do you want this 
program written on? 

4. What is the maximum number 
of records desired in the file? Enter a 
number of reasonable value. 

5. What is the record length? 
Questions four and five generate a 

check to see if the file will fit on a stan- 
dard Model I disk; you might want to 
modify the check in Creator if your 
DOS permits more file space on a 
single disk. The Creator will generate a 
program that will block and deblock 
records within a sector (but will not 
span sectors); you will need to modify 
the Creator and Reportor if your Basic 
allows the specification of different- 
size records. Record length may be 
anything up to 255 bytes. 

6. What will be the title of your 
program? Enter up to 250 characters. 




Please do not enter anything with quo- 
tation marks. 

7. Do you want to use an exit code 
or message? This question will allow 
you to specify a character or group of 
characters that will allow you to exit 
data entry/update/retrieval and 
return to the menu. You'll never need 
to depress the break key to exit your 
program. 

8. If seven is answered Y: What is 
your exit code or message? Do not use 
quotation marks. 

9. Now comes a repetitive series of 
questions for each field you will be us- 
ing. First you are asked for the field 
size: packed fields can be eight, four, 
or two bytes, and character or un- 
packed numeric fields can be from 1 to 
255 bytes in length. You are then 
asked if the size you choose was cor- 
rect. The Creator will tell you how 
many spaces you have left and pro- 
ceed to the next field until no space re- 
mains in the record. 

10. What field is the key field? In- 
put the field number of the field by 
which data will be retrieved. This field 
must not be a packed field. 

11. Now comes another series of 
repetitive questions. Each field is cov- 
ered, in order. 

You must first tell the Creator the 
operator prompt that will request in- 
put for each field. This prompt must 
not contain quotation marks, but can 
contain anything else. 

You are then asked to tell the 
Creator what kind of data is being 
stored in each field. Your options are: 

• PI (Packed integer: whole numbers 
from -32767 to 32767). 

• PS (Packed single precision: 
floating-point numbers with six 
significant digits). 

• PD (Packed double precision: 
16-digit, floating-point numbers). 

• C Character data. 



• N Unpacked numeric data. Treated 
exactly as character data. 

You will then be asked for edits and 
error messages. The edits you may 
choose will determine the kinds of ac- 
ceptable responses the generated pro- 
gram will accept. 

When requesting edits, the program 
will display the message: 

BAD INPUT IF: 

Here are the permissible edits: 

• NOT NUMERIC (Operator input 
contains nonnumeric characters). 

• NOT ALPHA (Operator input con- 
tains digits). 

• CONTAINS"XX" (Forbidden 
character string contained in input). 

• NO ENTRY (Operator attempts to 
skip a field input). Note: The key field 
must use this edit. 

• LENGTH>xx (Supply a maximum 
length for entry to this field). 

• LENGTH<xx (Supply a minimum 
length for an entry to this field). 

• LENGTH = xx (Supply a forbidden 
length). 

• LENGTH< = xx LENGTH> = xx 
LENGTHOxx 

• <"abc" (Supply a character string. 
If the operator inputs a string alpha- 
betically less than the string you sup- 
plied, the input will be flagged as er- 
roneous). 

• >"abc" < = "abc" > = "abc" 
= "abc" < >"abc" 

• <xx.yy (Supply a number. If the 
number input is less than the number 
you choose, the input will be flagged 
as erroneous). 

• >xx,yy < = xx.yy > = xx.yy 
=xx.yy < >xx.yy 
Compound edits are permitted; 

every edit past the first one must refer 
to the field as G$(X), where X is the 
field number. Compound edits can be 
quite complex to implement; a little 
experimentation will serve to show 
you what techniques will work. For 
example: 

>xx.yy OR VAL(G$(4))<VAL(G$(3)) 

is a compound edit that will not permit 
the entry of a number to field 4 that is 
either >xx.yy or less than the numeric 
value of field 3. You don't need to 



94 • 80 Micro, January 1983 



choose any edit (except, as noted, for 
the key field). Further, you can use as 
many edits as you want. You will, for 
each edit, be asked for an error mes- 
sage. The message you choose will be 
displayed if the edit is violated. Error 
messages are not mandatory. If an er- 
ror message is used, it cannot contain 
quotes. 

12. When you're done entering 
prompts, edits, and error messages for 
each field, you'll be asked for field 
titles. When the record is retrieved and 
displayed, these titles will appear next 
to each field's data. 

1 3 . You will then be asked for a ter- 
mination message. This message will 
be something of the form: 

ARE YOU DONE ENTERING DATA (Y/N) 

14. You will be asked for two per- 
missible single-key depressions. In this 
case, the first one, applied if the oper- 
ator is done, would be Y; the second, 
if the operator is not done entering 
data, would be N. When the generated 
program is being run, (in this case) a 
response of Y will return the operator 
to the menu and a response of N will 
continue with data entry. 

When this last question has been 
completed, your program is done. 
You can load it or run it; it's ready to 
go. Don 't forget: you must initialize 
your data file before entering any 
data! The initialization option will ap- 
pear in the menu of your generated 
program. The load may take a little 
while. Your program will be saved on 
the disk you indicated earlier as a text 
(ASCII) file, and the lines are out of 
order. If you want to arrange for 
speedier program loads in the future, 
just load and resave your program in 
the normal way. Future loads will be 
quite rapid. 

Updating Your Records 

You can update records in any of 
several ways. You can update a field 
by choosing the update option in your 
generated program's menu, and then 
entering the record's key and the field 
number to update. You can then di- 
rectly enter the updated value for the 
relevant field. If the field is a packed 
field, you can update the field com- 
putationally. This is done by entering 
a numeric value followed by the 
operator you choose. Permissible 
operators are + ,-, MORE, and LESS. 

Continues on p. 96 



MM 



'If 




I BOUGHT IT 

"My biggest loss 
of programming 
time using 
Snappware's 
COLLEGE EDUCATED 
GARBAGE COLLECTOR 
is spent inserting 
my diskette." 

SCOTT ADAMS -PRES. OF ADVENTURE INTL. 



The Snappware College Educated Garbage Collector (SNAPP-VI) is an 
intelligent processing function which greatly improves performance of 
typical BASIC applications. And here's why. 
Microsoft uses a 'variable length string' in the BASIC interpreter. Each 
time the string is assigned a new value, it is relocated in a string pool. 
Periodically the string pool must be reorganized and condensed into a 
single contiguous area. Performing this string space reclamation is time 
consuming and inefficient because this approach evaluates and collects 
each string individually. The time required is roughly proportional to the 
square of the number of active strings in the resident program. During 
reclamation the system seems to 'lock-up' and does not respond to 
the operator until the process is completed. 

This time consuming approach requires a better solution. Snappware has 
developed a solution which takes advantage of the auxiliary memory .. 
available. SNAPP-VI requires only four bytes per active string as a work 
area. When free storage space is available, our system temporarily bor- 
rows, uses and returns the space to the free storage pool when com- 
pleted. If storage is not available, our system will temporarily transfer out 
to disk enough of the BASIC program to make room for our work area and 
return the 'paged out' information to its correct location when completed. 

Benchmarked times show, in some situations, SNAPP-VI performs one 
hundred times as fast as the Microsoft approach. . . 
If you consider your programming time to be worth money, call us and let 
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•sSee List of Advertisers on Page 435 



Micro, January 1983 • 95 



Continued from p. 95 

For example, updating a field con- 
taining the value 34.56 by entering 
1 .23 + will produce an updated field 
value of 35.78. This is especially handy 
for inventory, accounts-receivable, 
and accounts-payable applications. 
When your record has been updated, 
you can choose to update one or more 
additional fields, or you can choose to 
return to the menu. You can update 
the key field, if you wish. 

The Reportor 

Suppose you've generated your 
data file. The next thing you might 
want to do is print a list of the infor- 
mation contained in the file. You 
might want to perform computations, 
obtain totals, or skip certain records. 
The Reportor will let you do it. 

You can generate your report so 
that the report is printed to the screen, 
or so that the information is sent to 
your printer. The CP/M version will 
let you choose either or both options 
at the time the report program is be- 
ing run. 

You can load and run the Reportor 
by entering Basic and entering the 
command: RUN "REPORTOR/BAS: 
x", where x is the drive number on 
which the Reportor can be found. 

Here are the questions asked by the 
Reportor: 

1 . Do you want to write a new pro- 
gram, run a program, or exit? Choose 
the appropriate option. 

2. What is the name of the pro- 
posed program? Up to eight uppercase 
letters can be used. Do not choose a 
name identical to the name of another 
program on the same disk, or the old 
program will be overwritten. 

3. What will be the title of the re- 
port? This is the title that will be 
printed on the top of each page of the 
report. Do not include quotation 
marks, please. 

4. Do you want the report printed 
on the screen or the printer? 

5 . What is the name of the data file 
to read? Please include the full file 
name, including the password (if any). 
If you make a mistake here, you can 
correct the generated program in line 
40, later. 

6. What is the record length of 
each record in the data file? Answer 
this as you did when running the 
Creator. 

7. Now follows a series of repetitive 
questions asking about the field 



lengths for each field in the data file. 
You need not answer with the same 
numbers as earlier; however, the total 
of the field lengths must be the same as 
the record length. 

8. Now you are asked to enter the 
column headings for each of the col- 
umns you'll be using in your report. 
You can have more columns than 
fields, since one or more columns 
can be derived or computed. You 
can also have fewer columns than 
fields. Your column headings can in- 
clude spaces, but should not include 
quotation marks. 

9. What are the tab settings for 
each column of the proposed report? 
Enter numbers from 1-255. You can 
get some pretty fancy printing results 
by requesting that one column's tab be 
less than or equal to a previous col- 




umn; Basic will print that column at 
the correct tab position, but one line 
down. Ordinarily, I use this approach 
when printing mailing labels. You can 
also use tab settings greater than the 
width of the paper to achieve similar 
results. 

10. Here, the Reportor will want to 
know if you want the pages 
numbered, and the number of lines 
per page. You can have as many lines 
per page as you want. For mailing 
labels, I suppress the printing of the 
headings and title (after the first time) 
by telling the Reportor that I don't 
want the pages numbered, and I want 
1,000,000 lines per page. This should 
be sufficient: 1,000,000 lines, at 300 
lines per minute, takes 3,333.33 
minutes (about 3.5 weeks). If not, tell 
the Reportor you want 10,000,000 
lines per page. You either have an ex- 
tremely fast printer or an awful lot of 
patience. 

1 1 . Now you will see a screen full 
of information, telling you about the 
ways you can manipulate the data. 

You'll need to remember only a few 
things: 
• COLUMN(K) is the Kth column of 



your report. 

• FIELD(K) is the Kth field of your 
record. 

• Any packed fields are automatically 
unpacked. 

• If any field or column is either dou- 
ble precision or a character string, you 
must explicitly state that fact. For ex- 
ample, COLUMN$(K) is the Kth 
report column, and it contains 
character data. COLUMNAR) is the 
Kth report column, and it contains 
double precision data. FIELD$(K) is 
the Kth field of the record, and that 
field contains string data. 

12. You are then asked to state the 
data type for each field, just as with 
the Creator. The permissible data 
types are C, N, PI, PS, and PD. C and 
N are treated identically. 

13. Using the information from 
(11), you then state what you want 
printed in each column. You can state 
your requirements in any order you 
like. Any operation permitted in Basic 
is allowed. (If you have unpacked nu- 
meric data, be sure to convert the data 
to numbers using the VAL function 
before using that data in calculations.) 

Here are some examples of permis- 
sible operations, so you get the idea: 

COLUMN(4) = FIELD(5) 

COLUMN(5) = VAL(FIELD$(7))/FIELD#(6) 

COLUMN#(9) = (FIELD(4) - FIELD)2))/ 

INT(COLUMN(5)) 

IF COLUMN(3) = THEN SKIP 

COLUMN$(l) = "THIS IS THE NAME" 

+ FIELD$(4) 

IF COLUMN(7)>1000 THEN COLUMNS(IO) 

= "INVALID BALANCE" 

IF COLUMN(6)<X) THEN COLUMN(9) = 

COLUMN(4)/COLUMN(6) ELSE COL- 

UMN(9)=0 

COLUMN(3) = FIELD(l)*FIELD(I) + 

FIELD(2)*FIELD(2)-2*FIELD(1)*FIELD(2) 

COLUMN$(7) = MID$(STR$(FIELD(6) 

+ COLUMN(3)),2) 

14. If you need to use totals or in- 
termediate results, use any variable 
beginning with the letter V. For 
example: 

VX = VX + FIELD(7) VX = VX + 1 VX = VX 
+ VY + SQR(VZ) 

15. You can signal completion of 
this define-columns stage by entering 
the command 999 instead of defining 
a column. 

16. You will then be asked if you 
have any totals you wish printed at 
the end of your report. If you do, 

Continues on p. 98 



96 • 80 Micro, January 1983 



i.#A. 



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^See List of Advertisers on Page 435 



80 Micro, January 1983 • 97 



Continued from p. 96 

then you will be asked for the variable 
to print. You can print any tem- 
porary variable you have defined, or 
you can print T$ (which prints the 
word TOTALS') or B$(which prints 
a blank). You can also print character 
strings or computations such as 
V1/(V2 + V3), if you wish. You can 
print additional information after the 
last report column by telling the Re- 
porter to print the added items fol- 
lowed by commas. For example, sup- 
pose column nine is the last report 
column, and you want to print V9 
there. You could print some more in- 
formation by telling the Reportor to 
print V9, V8, "HELLO THERE "; 
V7$, "REPORT ENDS" in column 
number nine. When you are done 
with this section or, if totals were not 
desired, you have completed question 
15, your report program has been 
written. You can run it immediately, 
or you may wish to load and resave it 
so that subsequent loads occur more 
rapidly. 

About Support for These Programs 

I'm sorry to tell you that I can- 
not support or enhance these pro- 
grams in any way. If there is suf- 
ficient demand, and reason to believe 
it might be worth my while, I might be 
convinced to change my mind. I think 



this is unlikely. 

What You Can and Cannot Do 

Given a 48K machine, you might 
wish to add some of the enhancements 
I mentioned. However, if you do, do 
not assume you can sell the enhanced 
version without my permission. You 
can make any enhancements you wish 
for your own use, however. I hereby 
publicly place my hashing algorithm 
and file-access methods uncondi- 
tionally in the public domain. You can 
use them, incorporate them in your 
future programs, sell them, or do 
whatever you like with them. 

For Information 

Send your check or money order for 
$10 ($20 for Model II) to: Bruce W. 
Tonkin, 34069 Hainesville Road, 
Round Lake, IL 60073. Add $1 for 
mailing in the continental U.S. (or suf- 
ficient funds if not in the continental 
U.S.), or write and tell me when and 
where you want to pick the programs 
up. Please don't come to my house: I 
don't like that, and I probably won't 
have anything to give you, anyway. 
Remember I don't have a machine: 
Several friends have agreed to make 
the copies or arrange for the copies to 
be made. I will try to fill all orders 
within two weeks of receipt. If I'm 
deluged with responses, I'll fill all 
orders as I receive them. You'll be 



notified if your order cannot be filled 
within 30 days. 

All disks for the Model I or III will 
be standard single-density miniflop- 
pies. All disks for the Model II (if 
there are any requests for that version) 
will be 8- inch. I don't know what for- 
mat TRSDOS is using now, so I'll pro- 
bably need to find out. It would help if 
you would tell me which version of 
TRSDOS you are running: If there are 
any difficulties in transferring from 
my 2-year-old copy to the present one, 
I may just have to return your money. 
If that happens, you can blame the 
whole thing on Tandy. 

If you want the CP/M version, send 
$99 or write for information. Shipping 
anywhere within the continental U.S. 
is included. Add funds for postage 
elsewhere: shipping weight will be 
three pounds. Please state the disk for- 
mat required. Anything other than 
standard 8-inch, single-density or 
Altos 8-inch, double-density disks 
might take some extra time to obtain. 

If you want the complete rewritten 
documentation for the TRS-80 ver- 
sions of these programs, send an ad- 
ditional $10 plus postage (shipping 
weight is one pound); I will have to 
arrange to have the manuals reprint- 
ed. If there is insufficient demand, I 
will return your money and not fill 
your order. The documentation will 
probably be shipped separately. ■ 



and CP/M Versions 



For those users running the Model 
II, a similar version of the Creator 
and Reportor is available. Since I no 
longer have a Model II, nor do I know 
anyone who might be willing to make 
copies, I will have to check around to 
see where I might make some copies. 

The Model II version, for those pa- 
tient enough to wait for it, has in- 
creased capabilities. Computational 
update allows * and /, the maximum 
number of fields is 47, computed data 
can be displayed with the record, a 
number of additional utility programs 
are provided, etc. The Model II ver- 
sion can be purchased for $20, plus 
mailing. It is also being placed in the 
public domain, for anyone's noncom- 
mercial use. 

There was an Apple version of the 
Creator. It was sold, about a year ago, 




i 



and I have no more interest in it. For 
those with Apples, you can try to 
modify the TRS-80 code shown. Good 
luck; you'll need it! 

The present version of the Creator 
for CP/M and Microsoft Basic 5.2, 
has been sold under a variety of 
names. To my knowledge, there are 12 
program generators for Microsoft 
Basic for micros on the market today. 
Four out of these 12 were my work. 
The selling price has been as high as 



$795. I am, herewith, reducing the 
price to $99 for the Creator (now 
called Progen), and the Reportor (now 
called Repgen) to readers of this 
article. Complete documentation will 
be provided with full support. 

Frankly, I don't think that you'll 
need any support. The CP/M version 
has more capabilities than any other 
program generator being sold. To give 
you an idea of the expansion, let me 
note that the code published with this 
article takes about 30K. The CP/M 
version includes some 240K of code. 

So, if you have CP/M, write me. I 
will send a brochure detailing the 
capabilities of the CP/M version and 
listing some of the other software I 
have for sale. (Plug, plug). Complete 
source code for this version is for sale, 
as well. ■ 



98 • 80 Micro, January 1983 




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VI 



\l 



REVIEW 



Forthwrite 



by Wynne Keller 



T 



he second generation of word processors is 
upon us. One newcomer, Forthwrite, deserves 
to be ranked with the best of them. 



• • • * 

Forthwrite 

Miller Microcomputer Services 
61 Lake Shore Road 
Natick, MA 01760 

$175 



Several new word processors have 
been introduced in the past year. Many 
reviewers use the term "second genera- 
tion" to describe these programs. The 
first generation included the original 
Electric Pencil and Scripsit. The second 
generation has arrived with far greater 
capabilities than the first. Forthwrite is 
in this new generation, which also in- 
cludes Lazy Writer, SuperScripsit, and 
Newscript. All cost over $100 and are 
intended for the serious writer or busi- 
ness user. 

Forthwrite is written in the Forth lan- 
guage and requires the MMSForth disk 
system to operate ($130 for the TRS-80, 
$250 for the IBM PC). Forth is a so- 
phisticated, highly flexible language 
known for its speed. MMSForth has 
been on the market for several years and 
is a respected implementation of Forth. 
Forthwrite is available for the TRS-80 
Model 1 and III and the IBM. 

100 • 80 Micro, January 1983 



Editing Module 

On the assumption that many Forth- 
write users are former Scripsit users, 
some Scripsit commands have been re- 
tained, so learning Forthwrite is easy. 
The same letter abbreviations are used 
to set margins, turn justify on and off, 
center the text, and so on. These are en- 
tered in a command line within the text, 
and unlike Scripsit, can be in lowercase. 

The editing commands are more logi- 
cal than Scripsit 's, and they are easy to 
remember. In the TRS-80 version, the 
clear key is the control key, and all com- 
mands function by pressing control and 
one or two other keys. For example, 
control I toggles in and out of the insert 
mode, control D is for delete, and con- 
trol P for paragraph. Many commands 
offer additional choices; the delete com- 
mand, for instance, deletes one letter 
when first pressed with the option of 
further deletion of blanks, words, sen- 
tences, paragraphs, blocks, or pages, or 
to the end of text. These additional 
choices are displayed on the bottom line 
of the screen, so you don't have to re- 
member all the keys, just the control D. 

Those who already own MMSForth 
will recognize many Forthwrite com- 
mands from the Forth editor. Arrow 
keys provide complete cursor control 



and can be supplemented with com- 
mands for special cursor moves. Nine 
help screens can be accessed for 
assistance. 

You can reset a number of editing 
features, such as the cursor's blink rate 
and speed of movement, the number of 
type-ahead characters (which allow 
commands or text to be typed while the 
computer is busy with other tasks), and 
the number of lines to be jumped with 
the shift up and down arrows. Forth- 
write provides a screen of dots on which 
to type; it can be up to 255 characters 
wide. This helps you visualize layouts. 
If you don't like the dots, you can sub- 
stitute another character. 

Text blocks in Forthwrite are marked 
as in Scripsit, but there are many added 
features. For example, headers and 
footers can run more than one line. 
Forthwrite also has many convenient 
block features; it can get a block rather 
than just copy it (with Get, you don't 
need to delete the block from the former 
position when you are done). You can 
also save a block to disk, move it to an- 
other document, or include it in another 
document at printout time. The ability 
to include blocks allows considerable 
flexibility. You can create a file that 
calls in other blocks or other documents 
so material can be reused in multiple 
documents. Several" sample files on the 
Forthwrite disk illustrate this process. 

Column features are very sophisti- 
cated. Forthwrite has two types of tabs: 
visual tabs and printer's ems (measured 
in tenths of an inch). Visual tabs are dis- 
played on a bar at the bottom of the 



screen, as in Scripsit. A printer's ems 
tab appears at printout time, but its po- 
sition isn't shown on the screen while 
you're typing. Either system is easy to 
use, but the ems are more flexible and 
give true proportional appearance on 
the letter-quality Spinwriter-type print- 
ers and the new class of under-$700 dot- 
matrix proportional printers. 

Forthwrite's left-margin and para- 
graph-indent features produce profes- 
sional-looking documents. By adjusting 
these settings, single-word left columns 
can have an adjacent right column of 
several lines, indented automatically; 
you don't have to be concerned about 
where each line in the second column 
will end. In many word processors, this 
type of layout requires resetting the left 
margin frequently. With Forthwrite, 
you only adjust the setting once, before 
starting the columns. 

The directory is alphabetized for 
easy, sequential loading of documents 
with shift, control, and down arrow and 
for automatic printing of a range of 
documents. The directory is always 
available and file names can be capital- 
ized, lowercased, or a mixture. When 
asking for your file, you do not have to 
match the uppercase/lowercase display 
of the directory file name. Type the let- 
ters in any form, and they are adjusted 
to match the directory configuration. If 
you forget to save the file before leaving 
the program, a reminder appears on the 
screen. 

Complete find, replace, and wipeout 
functions are available. These are indif- 
ferent to uppercase/lowercase mis- 
matches and have a wildcard capability 
so you can ignore nonmatching charac- 
ters or control codes associated with the 
search word. The replace function can 
distinguish whether it is replacing a cap- 
italized letter or a lowercase letter, so it 
can globally replace a single word, capi- 
talizing the first letter if the word begins 
a sentence. Find, replace, and wipeout 
can be done on a global basis, with or 
without a verification before each 
change. 

Hyphenation is often unnecessary 
with right-justified proportional print, 
because words are evenly spaced on the 
line. However, long words may need 
hyphenation. Forthwrite provides a soft 
hyphen that is placed while typing with 
control J. During the printout, if the 
word falls on the right margin, it is hy- 
phenated. If the word occurs within the 
line, the hyphen does not appear. A 
hard hyphen, which is always printed, is 
also available. 

One advantage of the soft hyphen is 
that rehyphenation isn't needed if you 



change the document's margins. In 
Forthwrite, you can't see which words 
fall on the right margin until a printout 
is made, because paragraph indents do 
not occur on the screen, and true pro- 
portional print cannot be duplicated 
with the computer character set. So, 
you should either hyphenate long words 
with soft hyphens as you type or obtain 
a printout and choose those lines that 
you want hyphenated. Typical propor- 
tional print documents require about 
two hyphens per page. 

While editing a document, you might 
receive the error message "This com- 
mand illegal when in the white space." 
Forthwrite calls all the areas of the 
screen where typing has not occurred 
white space, since the background char- 
acters are white dots. As you type, each 
letter replaces a dot. However, if you 
decide to use the down arrow to drop 
the cursor onto the white dots and add a 
word to the end of a previous line, the 
cursor must occupy the space adjacent 
to the last letter. If the cursor is on a 
white dot, you can't type until it is 
moved or the text line is opened with 
control O. This is disconcerting at first, 
but it's not difficult once you are accus- 
tomed to it. 

Unfortunately, you can't determine 



the line number of the cursor. This is a 
handicap when trying to decide if a let- 
ter, for example, would fit on a single 
page. Cursor line numbering becomes 
meaningless if a document uses in- 
cluded blocks, but it would be useful for 
simple documents. Information on the 
number of characters in a document is 
provided, as well as the amount of 
memory available. 

Printouts 

Forthwrite has several printout 
modes. While typing and editing a doc- 
ument, a screenprint is always available. 
This duplicates the screen and does not 
format the document. 

Quickprint is a formatted printout of 
the document, and it is slightly faster 
than a regular printout because menu 
choices are not required. It retains the 
document in memory while the printer 
program overwrites the editor program. 
After a Quickprint, the document is still 
available in memory. 

A third printing method is a technical 
copy of the document as it appears on 
the disk. This method does not format 
the document. It includes all printing 
and formatting commands and is espe- 
cially useful when learning to use 
Forthwrite. 




PRINTER GRAPHICS FOR EPSON 

A picture is worth a thousand words. 
AUTOPLOT can tell your story with strik- 
ing graphics. Plot functions or tabulated 
data automatically in minutes. A few 
keystrokes select from many options, 
such as plot size, grid overlay, continuous 
curves and/or separate marks, multiple 
curves, linear or log plots, numeric 
integration or differentiation, . . . 



1976 1978 I960 1932 

From the review in INFOWORLD (7/12/82, p. 41) 



"SUMMARY: All in all, AUTOPLOT is a superlative 
program in its advertised form. It is extremely easy to 
use and well documented and provides Model I or III 
owners with capabilities they only dreamt of before . . . 



AUTOPLOT will work with: 

• TRSDOS, DOSPLUS, NEWDOS, NEWDOS80 or LDOS 

• EPSON MX-80 or MX-100 with GRAPFTRAX-80 or 
GRAFTRAX-Plus 

AUTOPLOT for TRS-80 

(Model I or III with 48k, 1 disk drive) 

on disk with 40 page manual $79.50 

AUTOPLOT for LNW-80 

(+ Hi-Res video graphics) $99.50 

NEW: AUTOPLOT for CGP-115 

Color Graphics Printer $69.50 

Please add $3.00 for shipping and handling 

CA residents please add 6% sales tax 

Phone orders, VISA and MASTERCARD welcome 

TRS-80: CGP-115: TM of Tandy Corp. MX-80, GRAFTRAX: TM ol EPSON Inc. k ' 524 



InfoVVocId 

Software Report Card 



Autoplot 2.2 



Performance 
Documentation 
Ease of I'se 
brror Handling 



1 * 1 1 

1 1 1 i 

DDD0 
OODi3 

nana 
a a a 



Copyright 1982 by Popular Computing, 
Inc. a subsidiary ol CW Communications, 
Inc.. Framingham. MA— Reprinted trom 
Intoworld. 



MENLO SYSTEMS 

3790 El Camino Real, Suite 221 
Palo Alto, CA 94306, Tel. (415) 856-0727 



■See List ol Advertisers on Page 435 



80 Micro, January 1983 • 101 



Another interesting option is to 
"print" the file on disk rather than 
paper. In this mode, the file is format- 
ted as it would appear on paper, and it 
can be scanned for proper appearance. 
The idea is to save paper, noise, time, 
and to permit proofing even when no 
printer is available. I encountered two 
problems. One is that a document that 
fits in memory as a document might not 
fit when formatted. You might have to 
artificially break up the document to 
use this option. The other problem is 
that this feature cannot work if you use 
proportional type, since these charac- 
ters can't be accurately displayed on the 
screen. However, if the document is to 
be printed in standard pitch, the feature 
displays margins and page breaks as 
they will appear on paper. 



The fifth and most-used choice is a 
formatted printout of the document. 
This has a number of options. First, you 
should select a printer driver. Special 
drivers are available for the NEC Spin- 
writer, Epson MX-80, Daisy Wheel II, 
NEC 8023, and the C. Itoh Prowriter, 
in addition to a standard serial and par- 
allel driver that works with any printer 
but does not provide special features. 
Other options include multiple-copy 
printing, the page number to begin 
printing, and the page number for 
headers and footers to start printing. 
You can change the print buffer size, 
the baud rate (for serial printers), and 
the number of characters per interrupt, 
or you can request pauses for inserting 
text from the keyboard or changing 
print wheels. Not all these options are 



available from the printer program; 
some are part of a customization rou- 
tine, and many are commands within 
the document. 

One of the nice features of the system 
is its ability to embed special commands 
that only affect the printout if the prop- 
er printer is available. Otherwise, the 
program ignores the commands and 
prints the text normally. Special items 
such as condensed print, wide print, 
red-ribbon mode, emphasized mode, 
subscript, superscript, legal strike out, 
and underlining are all supported if 
your printer can do them and you have 
a printer driver. Because Forthwrite 
source code is provided you can adjust 
the existing printer-driver code tables 
for other printers. 

Forthwrite supports true propor- 



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102 • 80 Micro. January 1983 



tional print with right-justification and 
tabbing on capable printers. A complete 
test program is included for adjusting 
your type. The preset width of type 
characters can be changed. True pro- 
portional print means the individual 
characters are proportional. The j, for 
example, occupies less space than the w. 
The spaces between words are adjusted 
in fractions of a space, resulting in a 
pleasing text. 

Special Features 

Forth write can read MMSForth's 
Datahandler data-base program files, 
and you can include their fields as text 
blocks in documents. Format features 
include right-justification within a field 
and dollars and cents decimal point 
alignment, with dollar sign and com- 
mas. Names entered into the Data- 
handler in last-name-first, first-name- 
last order can be reversed for Forthwrite 
printouts. 

You can dictate a document and then 
use the Xscribe function to trigger the 
cassette port to turn the tape recorder 
on and off while typing. This is not as 
elegant as foot-activated transcription 
machines, but it is useful and is a nice 
"extra." 

I have had MMSForth for more than 



a year, and it is totally incompatible 
with most other Model I and III pro- 
grams, since it is not just a different 
DOS but a different language. Yet, 
since it is a fine system and is pleasant to 
use, I am tempted to say it is not out of 
step with the world, the world is out of 
step with it. 

Gradually, many specialized applica- 
tion programs are becoming available 
for the MMSForth system, and these 
programs are made to be compatible 
with each other wherever the compat- 
ibility would be useful, as it is between 
the Datahandler and Forthwrite. The 
problem is that this is a slow process, 
and some needed programs are not 
available. 

The obvious omission here is a spell- 
ing checker. Spelling programs are be- 
coming popular, but with Forthwrite, 
you can't use any spelling checker cur- 
rently on the market. 

Forthwrite provides a transfer mod- 
ule to take any standard TRSDOS (or 
IBM PC) file and move it to Forthwrite. 
This is intended for moving files from 
your old word processor to the new one. 
A program is under development to 
effect a transfer in the other direc- 
tion — onto a DOS; when it becomes 
available, the compatibility problem 
will be solved. Using a foreign DOS 



spelling checker will still cause some 
problems, but it can be used. 

Curiously, Forthwrite provides ex- 
traordinary compatibility between the 
Models 1, III, and the IBM Personal 
Computer. If you own all versions of 
the program, you can freely exchange 
files, on the same disk, among all three 
computers. By using Forthwrite, a 
modem, and the Forthcom communi- 
cations program, you can send a per- 
fectly formatted letter at 1,200 baud to 
any of the three machines. You can also 
send Forthwrite files to any brand of 
computer with Forthcom. However, 
they have to be edited, after they are re- 
ceived, to make them compatible with 
the format commands used by the re- 
ceiving computer. If you want to do 
word processing on your microcomput- 
er at home and transmit the results to a 
mini or mainframe computer at work, 
you should enjoy this feature. 

The Forthwrite program provides so- 
phisticated printer control, fast opera- 
tion, powerful include functions, Data- 
handler compatibility, on-screen help, 
modular source code that can be altered 
by the end user, and much more. It can 
rightfully take its place among the top- 
quality word processors for the TRS-80 
and the IBM PC.B 



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Model L80M Like L80 but with built-in audio monitor $23.50 

Model LS80M L80M plus LSS SOFTROL (below) in one $37.50 

(Above for Radio Shack CTR80 or 80A. No modifications 
needed. May or may not work with other recorders.) 
Model LS81M Loader/Softrol/Monitor for new RS CCR81. 
Built-in auto-powered amplifier 
for marginal tapes $44.50 

Model LSS-2 Solid state SOFTROL (1 ) elimi- 
nates switch-hits (2) pushbutton and slide switch 
control of CTR Motor makes tape positioning a 
snap with no plug pulling (3) cushioned motor- 
off delay pulls end of programs past CTR pinch 
rollers so you get no pinch-hits, plus (4) auto- 
matically gaps between saved programs. May 
be used to computer-switch other DC loads up 
to 15 volts and 1.5 A. Works with all standard- 
plug recorders and computers $18.99 



$2.99 with order 

from either company; 

Otherwise S4. 99 ppd. 



% 



LEMON AID LOADER 



^ 



SKEPTICAL? Any doubt 
that KWIK model I speed-up 
programs work? Send $3 for 
DEMO tape or request FREE 
with any order. 




LEMONS 
TECH 

325N.Hwy65 
P.O. Drawer 429 
Buffalo, M0 65622 
(417) 345 7643 



Call either number til 10 prn most any oay for into or order U.S. orders postpaid, add $3 for COD or overseas. Missouri residents add sales tax 



^358 



*-See List ol Advertisers on Page 435 



80 Micro, January 1983 • 103 



TUTORIAL 



Selling Your Software 



by Neil J. Salkind 



s 



o you've decided to put your program on the 
market. Should you sell it through a pub- 
lishing house? Neil tells you how to begin. 



You've just finished writing the 
greatest program in the world! You 
want to let thousands of other micro us- 
ers in on the fun, but how? 

You can share the code with your lo- 
cal user group, publish it in 80 Micro, 
or, as many amateur programmers are 
doing, try to sell it commercially. 

The market for software is booming. 
As the personal computer permeates 
everyday life, the market is wide open 
for innovative and well -written software. 

Your First Decision 

So you've decided to sell your soft- 
ware. Do you want to market your soft- 
ware directly or work with an estab- 
lished software company? 

If you decide to market your software 
directly, you probably will advertise in 
magazines and newsletters, purchase 
mailing lists from direct-mail brokers, 
mail flyers, and even visit user groups. 
Don't underestimate the time and mon- 
ey you must spend — typical headaches 
include increasing postage costs, poorly 
targeted mailing lists, and documenta- 
tion that's never quite complete. 

104 • 80 Micro, January 1983 



The advantage to handling all sales 
and marketing yourself is that you keep 
every penny sales earn. 

There are also distinct advantages to 
working with a commercial publisher. 
First, they have established technical 
support and marketing systems. Next, 
they have the people and the skills to 
adapt your program to new systems 
(other than the one the software was de- 
veloped on) so that the entire market 
can be tapped. Finally, they are virtual- 
ly impossible to compete with financial- 
ly. They have salespeople, lots of mon- 
ey for advertising, and a network of re- 
tailers already in place. 

Let's assume you decide to sell your 
work through a software house. How 
do you go about that? 

Choosing a Publisher 

Finish your program; be sure that it 
operates without problems, and fully 
document its operation. (If your pro- 
gram is accepted by a publisher, be pre- 
pared for some final editing. What you 
think is the best way of saying some- 
thing might indeed be best for you, but 



not for the thousands of potential users.) 

What are publishers looking for? In 
general, the things you want from your 
own software. It should be user friendly, 
able to handle errors, show good pro- 
gramming practice, and be unique. Few 
publishers are looking for another pro- 
gram that can balance your checkbook. 

Review the advertisements in popular 
magazines and see what kinds of soft- 
ware different companies publish, and 
which company's advertisements ap- 
peal to you. Some companies deal only 
with business software, while others 
may focus almost entirely on arcade 
games. You want to target your efforts 
where they will produce the highest like- 
lihood of success. 

Remember also that not all software 
firms deal with outside authors. Many 
commercial publishers conduct all writ- 
ing and documentation using their own 
staff and are not interested in purchas- 
ing out-of-house materials. 

After you have found a company that 
looks right, give them a call and ask to 
speak to someone in acquisitions, new 
submissions, or marketing. Depending 
upon the company, different depart- 
ments handle such calls, so be patient in 
your search to locate the right person. 
Tell what you have done, and see if they 
are interested in learning more. Many 
firms use a submissions packet consist- 
ing of all the materials you need to sub- 
mit your work for consideration. Oth- 
ers might simply want a listing of the 
program. Under no circumstances 



You Are Being Atta 








is 



'Op 



n 



1982 Soft Sector Marketing, inc 
Written by l.any Ashmun 




• < ■■ ■■ 
'liiltll'L- 




I H ^ T I 

P.O. Box34Q* Garden City, Ml 481 35 • SQO-5S1 -6504/(31 3) 4S5-4QSO 



Prices per Game TRS-80* 16K Level II Mod I/Mod III Cassette $15.95 Talking and sound effectsare playable through 

TRS80" 32K Level II Mod I/Mod III Diskette $19.95 th ® cassette AUX plug. High scores are auto- 
matically saved after each game on disk 
10% discount for 2 items. 15% for 3 or more. Please add S2.50 per order for postage & version. Joystick compatible, 
handling Michigan residents add A% sales tax. Outside USA (except Canada) please Call or write for our f 
add S 10.00 per order for postage & handing. complete catalog. I 



FORTRESS X 

Only The Fast Survive! 




«t^i*k/ 



1982 Soft Sector Marketing. Ino- 
Written by Larry Ashmun 



Defend Planet from 

6 Different Types of Alien Attacks 

1982 Soft Sector Marketing inc. 



should you ever send your materials, 
either in disk, cassette, or printed form 
to a publisher without first making an 
inquiry and then fully protecting your- 
self (which we'll get to in a moment) 
against misuse of your materials. 

If you are hesitant to call and want to 
write a letter instead, be sure to include 
as much as you can about the program's 
development, any limitations there 
might be (for example, memory needed) 
the system it was developed on, as well 
as a full description of what it does. 

Do not be discouraged by disinterest- 
ed companies. Try other firms until 
you've at least one invitation to submit 
your materials for consideration. If 
your work is good, someone will surely 
be interested. 

Finally, although it's a good idea to 
send inquiries to more than one com- 
pany at the same time, be careful not to 
send off the actual materials to too 
many publishers at once. Go first with 
the one you feel can best serve your 
needs, and then work your way down if 
your program is not accepted. 

Protecting Yourself 

Sometimes people do make the mis- 
take of sending their programs to a 
company without first making in- 



quiries. The next thing they know, their 
software is being passed around and 
they've lost any chance at the market. 
When you deal with any company, you 
must protect yourself by using a nondis- 
closure form and by copyrighting your 
materials. 

A nondisclosure statement simply 
says that the company will not disclose 
or reveal the contents of your work to 
anyone else while discussions with you 
are underway or thereafter if they don't 
choose to publish. In other words, they 
cannot discuss your work outside of 
their own company. Any company that 
does not suggest you complete such a 
"orm should not be considered. 

The next step you should take is to 
copyright your work, a much easier and 
more inexpensive procedure than most 
people think (see "How to Copyright," 
page 154). 

In 1978, with the increase in the num- 
ber of programs being written, the 
Copyright Law (P.L. 96-517) was 
amended to include computer programs. 

It is important to understand that the 
Copyright Office only acts as an office 
of record. They will not verify whether 
your program works. For them, a com- 
puter program is defined as "a set of 
statements or instructions to be used di- 



rectly or indirectly in a computer to 
bring about a certain result." In other 
words, they assume what you send them 
is what you claim it to be. The copy- 
righting of the material in no way vali- 
dates that claim. 

When you are ready to copyright 
your work, you should enter as a com- 
ment in your printout the word "Copy- 
right," your name, and the year. You 
should also have it incorporated into 
your program itself if there is any kind 
of visual output. (Next time you play 
Pac-Man, glance at the bottom of the 
screen.) Send to the Copyright Office 
(Library of Congress, Washington, 
DC) for one copy of form TX. Com- 
plete this form, and send it along with 
$10 plus a listing of your program to the 
Copyright Office. Your certificate will 
arrive within a few weeks. The people 
who work in the copyright office are 
very helpful — feel free to call them if 
you have questions. 

When you send a listing of the pro- 
gram, be sure that it is in a high-level 
language rather than machine language 
since the examiners will want to read at 
least part of it. Since some programs 
run very long, send only the first and 
last 25 pages of the listing if it is more 
than 50 pages. 



80mJGrO bookshelf 
Nanos System 

REFERENCE CARDS 

For Models f, II, III, Color, Pocket and Apple II & II Plus 

At last! No more Hipping through the pages of the Basic manual! No more working through the maze ol 
machine language instructions!. These cards completely summarize the Basic and Assembler manuals' 
FEATURES (on most cards): 

memory map, eyeball graphics, math Instructions, basic commands, store Instructions, basic (unctions, load 
instructions, basic statements, move instructions, special keys, exchange Instructions, print using 
examples, shift instructions, basic special characters, compare Instructions, basic and assembler 
messages and codes, branch instructions, basic facts, data alteration Instructions, reserved words. 
I/O instructions, ROM routines, complete character chart with graphics and space^compression 
codes, hex-dec chart, control code cross-reference, assembler instructions commands and 
operators, screen line layout, editor commands & subcommands, condition code easy access. 

Model I: BASIC only FC1001 $2.95 

Model I: BASIC and Assembler FC1002 $4.95 

Model II: BASIC and Assembler FC1005 $5.95 

Model III: BASIC only FC 1004 $3.95 

Model III: BASIC and Assembler FC1003 $5.95 

Color. BASIC and Extended FC1006 $4.95 

Apple II A II plus BASIC FC1007 $3.95 ™ 

Apple II & II plus BASIC & 6502 FC1008 $4.95 

Pocket: BASIC only FC1009 $2.95 

^^ff^f\ NEW 

_^-*^^^^f^A''^'\B|X^ Z-80 Machine Language $4.95 

\ ModoilLSVC $2.95 

\ Model II: Commands and 

Utilities $3:95 

Model II: TRS-80 Commands 

and Utilities FC1010 $3.95 

Z-80 Microprocessor 

FC1011 $4.95 

ZX80. ZX8t. and Tnnox Sinclair 
1000FC1012 $5.95 

Prices do not include shipping and handling charges. Sorry no COD orders. 

Use the order card in this magazine to order. Allow 4-6 weeks for delivery. 

Shipping and handling for card3 only $1.00 per order. 

80 Microcomputing Bookshelf • Peterborough, NH 03458 

1-800-258-5473 

J "TRS-80 Is a Registered Trademark of Tandy Corp. 

Computer picture reprinted permission Tandy Corp. VISA ! 

APPLE Is a registered trademark of Apple Computing Inc. ■ 



• Jv^/v r/ri 






M ,,, ,t VWMH null;" 

taonvA \\\ 





mm ,,mwc 






i 



Q Q Q @ . 

MISSION: 
Destroy Enemy Base 



tMk 



" 1982 Soft Sector Marketing. Inc. 
Written by Barlow - -"" 



'^\ 



W 




AU*lll% r A 






I R A T- 1 

P.O. Box340* Garden City, Ml 481 35 • 8QO-5S1 -6504/(31 3) 425-4020 



Prices per Game: lRS-80' 16K Level II Mod I/Mod III Cassette $15.95 

TRS-80* 32K Level II Mod i/Mod III Diskette $19.95 

10% discount for '?. items. 15% for 3 or more Please add 52 50 per order for postage & 
handling. Michigan residents odd 4% sales ?ax Outside USA (except Canada) please 
add S10 00 per order for postage & handing 



C0 ^Tft Y 

FRIED 
CHICKEN 



Talking and sound effects are playable through 
the cassette AUX plug. High scores are auto- 
matically saved after each game on disk 
version. Joystick compatible. 
Call or write for our 

MastwCord 

complete catalog 



^ «S2fe i&x (fiflfck 


wiyj^i 


f pf | ^ Jy m ill %ll ilp* 


Is There Nothing 
Sacred? 



1982 F actory P rogramming. Inc. 
J. Weaver. Jr. 




I 



Don't Chicken Out! 

1982 Factory Programming. Inc. •.. 
Written by J Weaver. Jr. 



■vts 




What You Should 
Expect from a Publisher 

A publisher should provide good de- 
sign and coding assistance, documenta- 
tion (if yours is not perfect, which it 
rarely is), telephone support for users 
(especially if the program is very 
complex), on-going maintenance (en- 
hancement and revisions for different 
operating systems), sales and marketing 
systems already in force (not just adver- 
tising), and finally, a royalty rate that 
you find acceptable. 

Royalties are always a sticky situation 
and vary widely from publisher to pub- 
lisher. In general, publishers pay 
around 30 percent of their net sales. 
What this means is that they might sub- 
tract production costs (disks, printing 
and binding costs for the documenta- 
tion, and so on) from the sales cost. In 
numbers, the net cost is 80-85 percent 
of the retail costs, and this figure is what 
your royalty would be based on. For ex- 
ample, if the retail price of the program 
is $20, the net (85 percent of $20) is $17, 
and your 30-percent royalty is $5.10. 

The dealer, of course, also gets a dis- 
count of around 40 percent. In the end, 
the publishing company itself has per- 
haps 20-25 percent as their profit. You 



can see they need to sell a good number 
of any software package to recoup de- 
sign and production costs. 

The larger the predicted sales are, the 
more likely it is that your royalty will be 
higher. In the same sense, the more the 
publisher has to invest in bringing your 
software on line, the less your royalty 
will be. 

Finally, programmers who have an 
established reputation can demand a 
higher royalty. I have not heard of any 
software designer getting an advance 
for his or her work (much like the book 
publishing industry does on a regular 
basis), but I certainly wouldn't be 
surprised if this is a common practice in 
the future. 

What the Publisher 
Does with Your Software 

When you send your materials to the 
publisher, and after the nondisclosure 
form is signed, the company will begin 
evaluation. This can be done in several 
ways. One way is to have their own staff 
do the evaluation. Some companies, 
however, send it to outside evaluators 
who test the program on their own ma- 
chines and can get a feel for the every- 
day value of your idea. 



This evaluation process can take up 
to three months in some cases, and only 
a few weeks in others. It depends upon 
the backlog of programs to be reviewed 
and the publisher's procedure for re- 
viewing. Don't call the publisher every 
few days asking if a decision has been 
made yet. They want the evaluations 
back as quickly as you do, so you will 
both have to wait. 

Virtually all software that comes to a 
commercial firm needs some additional 
work, and the amount of time that it 
will take to get the bugs out, rewrite the 
existing documentation, and produce 
the final version are all factors that en- 
ter into the publisher's final decision 
whether to offer you a contract. 

Although it might seem to you that the 
market is saturated (because most com- 
puter magazines are full of advertise- 
ments), this is simply not the case. The 
potential for sales of new programs with 
new uses, or even new programs that do 
a better job than others, is expanding 
every day. Get to work writing and stick 
with it until you're successful! ■ 



Neil J. Salkind, a developmental 
psychologist, lives at 1235 Tennessee 
St., Lawrence, KS 66044. 




EPSOIT 

MX-80AND MX-100 

OWNERS 



GIVES YOU 
CONTROL OF YOUR PRINTOUT 

SELECT CONDENSED, BOLD, OR WIDE 
PRINT INSTANTLY USING THE PRINTER 
PANEL BUTTONS. < N0 computer control codes required) 

ACTIVATE PERF-SKIP AND LEFT MARGIN 
INDENT TO AUTOMATICALLY FORMAT YOUR 
PRINTOUT INTO NEAT PAGES THAT CAN BE 
PUNCHED AND BOUND. 



MXPLUS™ INSTALLS 



UTES, NO SOLDERING! 



MXPLUS IS A PLUG-IN MODULE FOR ALL EPSON MX-80/100 
PRINTERS AND IS COMPATIBLE WITH ALL INTERFACE BOARDS. 
.MXPLUS HAS A 1 YEAR WARRANTY. 



ORDER TODAY 

ORDERS CALL 24 HR. 800-835-2246x441 
INFORMATION CALL 213-969-2250 



DRESSELHAUS COMPUTER PRODUCTS 

BOX 929 

AZUSA. CALIFORNIA 91702 



108 • 80 Micro, January 1983 



$49.95 

POSTPAIO CALIF. AOO 6°. 

SAME OAY SHIPPING 

WITH MC/VISA 




Color Co mp 






2 



Are you tired of searching the latest magazine for articles about 
your new Color Computer? When was the last time you saw a 
great sounding program listing only to discover that it's for the 
Model I and it's too complex to translate? Do you feel that you are 
all alone in a sea of Z-80's? On finding an ad for a Color Computer 
program did you mail your hard earned cash only to receive a 
turkey because the magazine the ad appeared in doesn't review 
Color Computer Software? If you have any of these symptoms 
you're suffering from Color Computer Blues! 

But take heart there is a cure! 
It's COLOR COMPUTER NEWS. 

The monthly magazine for Color Computer owners and only Color 
Computer owners. CCN contains the full range of essential 
elements for relief of CC Blues. Ingredients include: comments to 
the ROMS, games, program listings, product reviews, and general 
interest articles on such goodies as games, personal finances, a 
Kid's page and other subjects. 

The price for 12 monthly treatments is only $21.00 and is available 

from: 

#»* t REMarkable Software 

P.O. Box 1192 
Muskegon, Ml 49443 *- 145 

NAME . 




\M 



ADDRESS 
CITY 



State.. 



.Zip. 



Allow 8-10 weeks for 1st issue. 



80 M 



BUSINESS 



^ The Ultimate in Mailing Packages 

*° POSTMAN MASS MAILING SYSTEM 

®1982 Alger Software, Distributed exclusively by Soft Sector Marketing, Inc. 

For the serious businessman who has as little as 100 name mailing list or 200,000 names> 
THERE IS ONLY ONE SYSTEM FOR YOU! 

FEATURES OF THE NEW POSTMAN MASS MAILING SYSTEM 

The Postman system (version 2) is an almost COMPLETE rewrite, rethink, redesign of the original POSTMAN. The many features of the 
new POSTMAN system are quickly outlined below. 



MULTI-DRIVE - True multi-drive operation is possible. POSTMAN will search all drives for 
address files and connect them together into one large file for the duration of that session. 
Once POSTMAN has found the data files on the disks the operator "sees" just ONE 
CONTIGUOUS sorted list of addresses. The operator does not need to tell POSTMAN when to 
"switch" drives or manually "swap" sections of the data file in and out of the computer's 
memory. This is the foremost among the list of features because of its relative uniqueness 
among mail list handlers written for the TRS-80. 

LARGE UfT SUPPORT- The multi-drive operation allows the user to access data files on ALL 
configured drives CONCURRENTLY (at the SAME time) for truly large mailing lists. Files need 
not be sectioned into smaller "byte size" chunks to fit into memory. 
HARD DISK SUPPORT - (HARD DISK POSTMAN only) The FULL utilization of the space and 
speed of the new hard disk drives is possible with POSTMAN. For example, a 7.5 megabyte 
drive can be configured to hold almost 60.000 labels. Multiple hard drives can be accessed 
CONCURRENTLY allowing 200.000++ entry mailing lists. 

FORM LETTER CAPARIUTY-With the purchase of the separate POSTRITE program, the user is 
provided with an easy to use form letter generator which will merge a generalized letter 
produced from a word processing system(i.e. LAZY WRITER, etc.). with the nameand address 
information from the POSTMAN MASS MAILER data base. POSTWRITER allows the user to 
insert any field from a POSTMAN label entry anywhere in the letter. 

MENU OPERATION - As you would in a restaurant, choose your dinner from a list (or MENU). 
POSTMAN will allow you to direct its actions by selecting from various menus that it will 
display. A complete discussion of each menu is presented in the manual. 
INSERT - New names can be quickly added to your list at any time. The new addresses are 
placed into the file in their proper sorted order eliminating the need for a separate sort 
operation after entering a stack of new names. POSTMAN will allow the operator to enter a 
"batch" of labels without returning to the control menu between each label insertion, thus 
speeding entry and reducing the aggravation of extra menu control keystrokes. 
DELETE - Names can be removed at any time when they are no longer needed. 
EDIT- Information in any name entry can be quickly changed at will with "word processor" 
ease. A"transparent" cursor simply is moved to the label displayed on the computer screen 
and corrections are just typed over the existing label. If you happen to change a field which 
is also used as a sort key. POSTMAN will automatically move the changed label to its correct 
position in the list to maintain the sorted arrangement of the labels. 

OVERLAY- When identical changes are needed on many addresses, the OVERLAY feature 
can make them with one keystroke. The needed changes which are common to many 
labels are entered into the "overlay mask". When you wish to apply these common changes 
to any label, one command will do it. 

SORT - Arrange your list in any alphabetic or numeric order. The ordering may use one or 
more fields to control the sort. A machine language heap sort assures fast execution. The sort 
need only be performed once, the sorted list will stay sorted through all subsequent 
insertions, deletions and changes to existing labels. NO NEED to leave the POSTMAN 
program to use a separate program to sort your data. Your data is sorted quickly and after 
sort completion POSTMAN is ready for your next command! 



SPECIAL STREET ADDRESS SORT - For the user with many addresses on the same street. 
POSTMAN will sort your entries by the house NUM8ER after grouping those on the same street 
together. Local city lists can be quickly sorted to aid post office dispatching. 

PURGE - Unwanted duplicate addresses can be removed from your list automatically or 
under operator control. 

SEARCH - Any address in your list can be quickly found with fast search and positioning 
commands Three different types of searches are provided. A "fast" search which uses a 
hashing technique, a "selective sequential" search for labels with common fields, and 
"quick" positioning using the first or major sort field toget you into the general "ball park" of 
a label or sequence of labels. 

LABEL PRINTING- One. a few or all addresses in your list can be printed on standard or non- 
standard label stock. Up to 6 labels across can be printed with a format YOU can easily 
control. TWO user definable ATTN' lines are provided for any use. Labels can be printed from 
many of POSTMAN'S menus, search, edit, or during label insertion 

EFFICIENCY - POSTMAN is written in the machine's native language to gain the full 
advantage of the microcomputer's speed Extensive use of program segmentation 
reduces the amount of use RAM needed to hold the program allowing a greater number 
labels to be kept in core, resulting in faster operation Little used routines need only be 
brought into memory when they are needed and once through with their task, release their 
space back to POSTMAN. 

REPORT LISTINGS - A special program to produce columnar listings of address data from 
your label data base is provided. You can easily specify the information to be printed 
DATA DISK MERGING- Labels can be quickly transferred from one disk to another with the 
PSTMERGE program callable from the main POSTMAN SYSTEM menu Source and destination 
drives needed not be separate drives, prompts to exchange diskettes if the same drive is 
used, are provided. 

DATA DISK PREPARATION UTILITY- Provided with POSTMAN is the DPREP program which 
allows the user to preparea floppy/hard disk for use with POSTMAN This easy to use utility can 
be told to prepare any portion of the available space on a disk 

DATA INTEGRITY- All data transfers to the disk filesare made using special write commands 
which instructs the operating system to check the validity of EACH write to the disk. 

DATA GUARD' - is a special programming technique only offered by Soft Sector 
Marketing. Inc. If by chance your machine resets while writing information to the disk, you 
only lose the information that you were writing. Your files are always protected from the 
danger of losing all the work that you have put in that day. NO OTHER PROGRAM ON THE 
MARKET OFFERS THIS PROTECTION. If you reset with ANYBODY'S MAILING PACKAGE DURING 
WRITING you would destroy your ENTIRE data disk We can't stop your machine from failing 
but we can protect your data. 



Description of Label Record Fields: 



Length 


Name 


10 


Code 


15 


Last Name 


15 


First Name 


26 


Company 


26 


Address 



Description 

User defined printable field 
Last name of addressee 
First name of addressee 
Name of company 
Street address 



IDEAL SYSTEM 



Length 


Name 


Description 


15 


City 


City, township, village 


5 


State 


State, province, territory 


9 


Zip 


Zip code, zone, route 


2 


Data 1 


User definable field 


5 

1 


Data 2 


User definable field 



Mod III 48K 1-40 Track Drive • 2-80 Track Dual Headed Drives • Dosplus or LDOS Operating Systems 
Gives space for over 1 1,000 names - 5 second average name insertion - time sorts all 1 1,000 names in less than 4 minutes 

"Special version to work on Dosplus 4.0 Hard Disk operating system. 



A 



Standard Version 
Only $125.00 



- Overview Available - 
The POSTMAN system requires Mod I or Mod III, 48K, 2 disk drives minimum. 

Standard Version with for DOSPLUS Hard Disk4.0 Operating System 

POSTWRITER form letter writer & Radio Shacks Hard Drive System 

$175.00 $225.00 



^87 



- DEALER INQUIRIES WELCOME - 



SOFT SECTOR MARKETING, 

INCORPORATED 

P.O. Box 340 e Garden City, Michigan 48135 
Order Line 800-521-6504 

Michigan Orders & Questions 313-425-4020 



PAYMENT- payment accepted Dv charge personal chec 

Icr' C O D only, under the following conditions Charges 
processed when shipped usual'y within <58nours Personal 
Checks delay shipping pending 3 weeks to clear C.O.D. 
■i i. -i> :i. • • -r: •>•.) c-nijcu or Cash only, add St bU -VII residents must ada 4% sales tax 
SHIPPING & HANDLING - Shipping Charges: Sena the larger amount. 2% or $250 uniess 
$1 L'u a'ed otherw so Any oraei received without shipping and handing will oe shipped freight 
collect Air Mail Shipping outside ot North America, please send the larger amount 10% or 
.' ' '■(' Overpayment wm I be refunded 



-See List ot Advertisers on Page 435 



80 Micro, January 1983 • 109 



REVIEW 



The Great Beyond 



by Terry Kepner 



• ••• 

Beyond-Basic 

Excalibur Software 

3336 Cascadia Ave., S. 

Seattle, WA 98144 

Package I disk $49.95, tape $39.95 

Package II disk $64.99, tape $49.99 

Package HI disk $79.99, tape $59.99 



TRS-80 programmers rejoice! Excal- 
ibur Software has just increased the 
power of Basic 1,000 percent. Beyond- 
Basic is a machine-language program 
that replaces standard Microsoft Basic 
and adds 60 new Basic commands, 
functions, and operators for cassette- 
based computers and 82 new Basic com- 
mands, functions, and operators for 
disk-based users. 

Beyond-Basic is available in three 
configurations: short, medium, and 
long, for cassettes or disks. Each of the 
larger versions contains all the com- 
mands, operators, and functions of the 
next smaller version. The smaller ver- 
sions are included in packages two and 
three so you can use them when you 
need the extra memory they free, and 
don't need all the power of the larger 
versions for the particular program 
you're writing. 

Beyond-Basic 's manual is thick, over 
200 pages. The same manual is used for 
all three versions and is divided into 
three sections. The introduction claims 
that this is done so you can upgrade 
from one version to another without 
needing another manual. I suspect that 
Excalibur is using only one manual as a 
subtle form of advertising: Once you 
see the features you didn't get, you'll 
want to buy the next version. 

110 • 80 Micro, January 1983 



Increase the power of 
Microsoft Basic 100 
fold with Excalibur Soft- 
ware's new Beyond -Basic. 



There are certain features common to 
all three versions, cassette and disk. I'll 
cover these first. 

Beyond-Basic uses its own keyboard 
driver to supply lowercase support for 
Model Is with the uppercase/lowercase 
modification. It also gives you control 
over the character used as the cursor 
and if it blinks. Repeating keys, the time 
delay before repeat takes effect, and the 
speed of the repeat are also under your 
control. 

Pressing the shift and right-arrow 
keys tabs the cursor over eight columns, 
as in standard Basic, but pressing the 
left-arrow key jumps the cursor back 
over all the spaces in the tab. Pressing 
the shift and up-arrow keys has been 
modified to let you input any ASCII 
code from 1-255. After pressing this 
key, the keyboard waits for you to type 
up to three decimal numbers that repre- 
sent the ASCII character code you 
want. Numbers greater than 128 are 
stored and displayed in the line as 
graphics characters, numbers less than 
32 are stored as the graphics character 
formed by adding 128 to the number. 

If, while typing in a line, you discover 
a mistake made earlier, press the shift 
and right-arrow keys and the line is 
transferred to Beyond-Basic 's XED 
mode, where you can use the editing 
commands to correct the line before 
typing further. 



Another useful feature covers the im- 
mediate keys. These are keys that you 
can type as the first character of a com- 
mand line and have them treated as full 
commands; i.e., pressing the period key 
followed by the enter key lists the cur- 
rent program line. Other immediate 
keys are: the up-arrow key lists the 
previous line; the down-arrow key lists 
the next program line; shift and up- 
arrow lists the first line of the program; 
shift and down-arrow lists the last line 
of the program; comma puts you into 
standard edit mode for the current line; 
shift and comma puts you in Beyond- 
Basic's Extended Editor (XED); semi- 
colon runs the current program; slash 
continues program execution after a 
break; colon resumes auto line number- 
ing starting at the current line number 
plus the last increment; and the @ sign 
lists the statement about to be executed 
if the program has been stopped by an 
error or by the break key. 

All the Beyond-Basic versions also 
support shorthand notation for certain 
commands: 

A AUTO 

D DELETE 

E EDIT 

G GOTO 

L LIST 

L LOAD (if followed by quotes) 

R RUN 

S SAVE 

The medium version also includes F 
(Find) and X (XED for extended editor) 
as shorthand, while the disk versions ac- 
cept K (Kill) and N (Name). 

For those fortunate (or unfortunate) 
enough to remember Level I Basic, the 
abbreviations of Basic commands (P. A. 
for PRINT @) allowed were real time 



savers. Well, Beyond-Basic lets you ab- 
breviate commands by their first letter 
followed by a period. 

There's no memory advantage to 
using these abbreviations, but they do 
make it much easier when typing in pro- 
gram lines. 

For those of us interested in program 
readability and structured program- 
ming, Beyond-Basic automatically in- 
dents For . . . Next loops by indenting 
two spaces per nesting level after the line 
number for each line affected. This in- 
dentation technique is also used with the 
BeyOnd-Basic commands WHILE . . . 
WEND and LIF. . .ENDIF. Lines be- 
ginning with the Basic command REM 
are also indented. 

Other improvements include accept- 
ing hexadecimal and octal numbers in 
input, data, and VAL statements; ac- 
cepting numbers between - 32768 and 
+ 65535 as integers; letting you put 
quotes in strings without having to use 
CHR$(34); fixing the Tab function to 
operate properly with LPRINT 
(LPRINTTAB(130) puts the print head 
at column position 130 instead of col- 
umn 64 as with standard Basic); and in- 
stead of putting you in edit mode when 
a syntax error is discovered, you're left 
in command mode of Basic, preserving 
your program's variables and values. 

Features Taken 

From Standard Disk Basic 

Many features of standard Disk Basic 
have been duplicated by Beyond-Basic, 
most of which are available in all ver- 
sions. These are: CMD"R" and 
CMD"T" (turning internal clock on 
and off for Model I disk, turning clock 
display on and off for Model III disk); 
DEF USRn and USRn (10 USR func- 
tions); INSTR (search a string for a sub- 
string); LSET and RSET (left and right- 
justification of strings, disk only); 
DEFFN and FN (define user functions, 
not in the short version); MID$ = (take 
a substring and store it in another 
string); and Load and Save (which 
operate exactly as CLOAD and 
CSAVE, tape system only). 

The Short Version 

The functions supplied with the short 
version of Beyond-Basic include trans- 
lating integer expressions into hexa- 
decimal numbers and back; converting 
strings of hex digits to integers; convert- 
ing hexadecimal numbers to strings of 
ASCII codes; converting strings of up- 
percase letters to lowercase and vice ver- 
sa; calling machine-language routines; 
converting degrees to radians; convert- 
ing between signed and unsigned in- 



tegers (65535 to the appropriate normal 
integer); evaluating numbers buried in 
strings (VAL finds the number only if it 
starts the string); PEEKing a string 
from memory; formatting a number 
similar to the Print Using command, 
only this returns a string in a variable; 
PEEKing of 16-bit numbers; generating 
a string of spaces with a single com- 
mand; a routine that performs similarly 
to INKEY$, except it waits for a key to 
be pressed; another routine that oper- 
ates the same as INKEY$ except the 
buffer isn't emptied when it's read; let- 
ting you find the address of a line num- 
ber; and positioning the line-printer 
print head. 

There are several new operators that 
make it easier to use Beyond-Basic: DIV 
performs integer division faster than 
Basic's "/"; EQV performs a binary 
AND operation on two integers; IMP 
results in NOT (A AND NOT B); MAX 
returns the larger value of two numbers; 
MIN finds the smaller of two numbers; 
MOD finds the remainder of integer di- 
vision; and XOR, which returns a true 
condition if either one, but not both, of 
its arguments is true. 

The Medium Version 

The medium version includes all the 



commands, functions, and operators of 
the short version, with the addition of 
three commands, two statements, and 
two functions, including: 

• Find scans your program for any 
string of up to 20 characters, including 
Basic and Beyond-Basic tokens. 

• Size gives you program statistics on 
free memory size; current program size; 
number of program lines; number of 
file buffers; number of bytes used by 
any currently defined variables; number 
of bytes cleared for strings; and the to- 
tal size of the program, variables, and 
string RAM. 

• XED, the Extended Basic Editor, 
performs similarly to the normal Edit 
except it displays the entire line you're 
editing (using a nondestructive cursor, 
like a word processor); control charac- 
ters are displayed as graphics; the line 
number can also be edited (letting you 
duplicate a line by just giving it a new 
number); graphics can be entered using 
the G command and pressing Q, W, A, 
S, Z, and X; and you can store any 
ASCII character (1-255) in the line be- 
ing edited. 

• Plot statements give the Model I and 
III many graphics commands of the 
Color Computer (plot a filled box; a 



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80 Micro, January 1983 • 111 



line; a box outline; shapes by using up, 
down, left, right, erase, and invert; plot 
width, rotation, scaling, clearing, and 
intersections; plot using variables or ar- 
rays; and plot by superimposing screens 
on top of each other and displaying 
them or displaying only where they in- 
tersect, or don't intersect). 

• ERN$ corrects a deficiency of the on- 
error trapping routines by providing 
string messages to the error-trap routine 
instead of just numbers. 

• SYS is tied to the plot statements, and 
fills in the SYS(15-18) locations with 
the proper information. 

Long Version 

The long version contains everything 
in the medium version, plus these com- 
mands and statements: 

• COMP automatically compresses 
your program by removing unneeded 
spaces and, optionally, remarks. 

• LREF is a line-number cross-ref- 
erence. 

• RENUM is a program renumbering 
routine. 

• VLIST lists all the currently defined 
variables in your program, as well as 
their values. 

• VREF is a variable name cross-refer- 
ence, which lists all the variable names 



in your program. 

• MAT, matrix manipulations, lets you 
fill, copy, reshape, add, subtract, multi- 
ply, print, read, and delete entire arrays 
with one statement. 

• Sort, sorts arrays into ascending or 
descending order; either the entire array 
or just a portion of it can be sorted at 
any time. Up to 64 arrays can be simul- 
taneously sorted. 

Disk Systems Only 

There are several commands, state- 
ments, and functions that are restricted 
to disk systems. Most are related to disk 
I/O, and include: 

• INCHRS reads a character from a 
disk file. 

• Name displays default file name. 

• OPEN"C" opens a file buffer to 
pass information from one program to 
another. 

• OPEN"S" opens a sequential file, 
for output or input, without erasing the 
current file on the disk. 

• SLOAD lets you break a large pro- 
gram into segments. 

• SYS loads a machine-language 
program into memory, but doesn't exe- 
cute it. 

The disk versions of Beyond-Basic 
also include a special utility called 



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CONFIG/CMD, which lets you change 
the operation of Basic to your custom 
needs, such as disabling the lowercase 
driver (Model I only), causing all output 
that would normally be sent to the 
printer to generate a "Feature Not 
Available" error if you don't have a 
printer available, setting up a default 
memory size, or setting up to use the 
standard Basic Editor instead of XED. 

There's one command I haven't men- 
tioned yet, and that's "$". By typing 
"$" directly in front of a Basic com- 
mand, you specify that the command's 
output be sent to the printer; i.e., $DIR 
will force the directory to be printed out 
instead of printed on the video. Also, 
you'll notice that many Basic com- 
mands were modified for use by Be- 
yond-Basic. This hasn't affected their 
normal performance. Thus, while CVD 
is used by Beyond-Basic to convert 
degrees to radians, it still functions as 
convert to double precision when prop- 
erly used with a field statement and 
string variable. So you haven't lost any 
of the normal Basic commands or abili- 
ties; instead, they've been enhanced to 
include new abilities. 

As you can see, Beyond-Basic is a 
very powerful program, but it does have 
a few flaws: It's guaranteed to work on- 
ly with TRSDOS (or Percom's DBL- 
DOS). Not all your DOS's capabil- 
ities (if it's not TRSDOS) will work 
properly. 

There's no summary of commands, 
nor a command-syntax card. If you 
want to find a command, you must use 
the manual's index. This also makes it 
difficult to learn the commands, as you 
have no handy method to remind you 
of commands you may have forgotten 
after reading the manual the first time. 

If you write a program using Beyond- 
Basic, you must always have this system 
in memory to use the program. (That is, 
the only people who could use your pro- 
gram would have to have Beyond-Basic 
before they could use your program.) If 
you're writing only for your own needs 
or for someone who has Beyond-Basic, 
then this point isn't relevant. 

I think Beyond-Basic is a useful tool 
for the programmer writing a program 
for a specific use. It has many features 
that ease the difficulty of writing and 
debugging a program, and many more 
features that make the program a sleek- 
er, more efficient unit. If you currently 
use TRSDOS Basic for your program- 
ming, I suggest you get Beyond-Basic. 
If you aren't using TRSDOS, you 
should still give Beyond-Basic your con- 
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112 • 80 Micro, January 1983 



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THANK YOU FOR A FANTASTIC YEAR ! 



All of us at Software Support want to extend seasons greetings to you and a 
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114 • 80 Micro, January 1983 



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TUTORIAL 



The Art of Documentation 



by G. Michael Vose 



D 



ocumentation doesn't have to be hard to write. 
Here's a step-by-step explanation of how to 
write clear, concise manuals for your code. 



Documentation, the written instruc- 
tion that accompanies most software, is 
often called the armpit of our industry. 
Manuals are criticized for being too 
long, too short, too skinny, too fat, too 
simple, too complicated — everything 
except too good. 

The fact is, they are often poorly 
written, incomplete, not indexed, and 
full of jargon. Many shining examples 
prove that manuals can be well-written 
and useful— Radio Shack's Model III 
Operation and Basic Language 
Reference Manual or Disk System 
Owner's Manual, for example — but 
such a manual requires hard work, and 
some fundamental knowledge of how 
to write. 

If you have inclinations as a software 
entrepreneur, you'd better learn some 
basics of writing high-quality manuals. 
Good old common sense, and the 
writing and organizational techniques 
described in the following paragraphs, 
can help you develop manuals that can 
turn out "too good." 

Different Styles 

There are two main categories of 
documentation. They are different in 
style and orientation. The first category 
is program documentation, the step-by- 
step explanation of what each program 



line does, a table of all variables used in 
the program, and a flowchart of the 
program's logic. Program documenta- 
tion always includes a listing of the pro- 
gram's code. If the listing contains 
abundant remarks and explanations in 
the code, the listing is called self-doc- 
umenting code. 

The second category includes the user 
documentation, the instruction manu- 
als that explain to the end user how to 
load and run the program. 

Both categories (and there is some 
overlap of the information each re- 
quires) need to be organized to accom- 
modate the following goals: 

• Make it easy to find information. 

• Avoid errors and ambiguous ref- 
erences. 

• Don't forget anything. 

• Write in a positive, first-person style. 

With these general goals in mind, 
let's take a look at the kinds of informa- 
tion that good documentation should 
include. 

Program Documentation 

Program documentation is less im- 
portant to the people who use the pro- 
gram than it is to you, because most 
people won't be concerned with how the 
program works. Those who are will 



want to talk to you personally. 
Ultimately your program documenta- 
tion needs to be thorough only because 
you may need it to help you make 
upgrades and modifications or to repair 
a bug that surfaces six months after the 
program is on the market. 

Program documentation should in- 
clude the following materials: 

• A listing of the program; 

• A variable map listing all the 
variables used and what they mean; 

• A flowchart of the program's logic; 

• A description of the hardware the 
program will run on (listing any excep- 
tions); 

• Operating systems the program is 
written under; and 

• Notes on any special restrictions such 
as memory size, protection of memory 
for machine-language subroutines, and 
so on. 

It is good technique to make liberal 
use of remarks when coding your pro- 
grams. You can remove remarks from 
the final working version of the pro- 
gram, but they are invaluable during the 
coding process. A listing of the code 
with remarks intact is an indispensable 
part of your program documentation. 

Flowcharts often change substan- 
tially from a rough diagram of the em- 
bryonic program to the chart that de- 
scribes what the final product actually 
does. Therefore, you will probably have 
to draw a flowchart before you start 
and after you finish writing the pro- 
gram. Don't eliminate this step in the 
documentation process. This flowchart 
can save many hours six months later if 

80 Micro, January 1983 • 117 



you decide to modify the program. A 
flowchart can help you avoid unwork- 
able additions to the program keeping 
the logic flow straight in your mind as 
you try to accommodate a new feature 
into the existing code. 

If you produce detailed program doc- 
umentation first, preparing user doc- 
umentation will be easier. Detailed pro- 
gram documentation will give you a 
clear, well-organized idea of how to 
present the essential material to the 
reader. 

User Documentation 

The first task in writing user docu- 
mentation is to determine for whom 
you will be writing. If your program is a 
utility, you can presume your audience 
knows quite a bit about computers. You 
can safely incorporate some jargon into 
your text and can possibly hedge on 
things like loading instructions, unless 
they are out of the ordinary. But if your 
audience is school children or secretar- 
ies, you had better plan to write down 
every detail on how to use the program, 
from loading to listing to running, with 
as little jargon as possible. 

Don't underestimate your audience, 
either. If you've written a business ap- 
plications program, don't teach the user 
the fundamentals of that particular busi- 
ness, except as they apply directly to the 
program. For example, you don't have 
to explain how to amortize a mortgage 
to a real estate professional. You do 
have to explain to him how to enter the 
principal amount, interest rate, and the 
term of the loan. 

Once you've determined your audi- 
ence, you'll want to write an introduc- 
tion spelling out exactly what the pro- 
gram is designed to do. If the program 
is designed to aid an electrician in trou- 
bleshooting television circuitry, state 
that fact in the first paragraph of your 
introduction. Explain the features that 
make your program better than others 
in subsequent paragraphs. But your 
first job is to state what the program 
will do. 

Next, describe the hardware your 
program needs. List the mandatory 
equipment first and list the optional 
equipment it supports under a separate 
heading. Make sure to include the mini- 
mum memory size needed to operate 
the program. If it works in 4K or 16K, 
say so. 

If you've written^ disk program, list 
all the operating systems the program 
will run under. If the program needs to 
be modified to run under a certain oper- 
ating system, make an appendix ex- 
plaining the modifications and direct 
the user to it. 

118 • 80 Micro, January 1983 



Walk Before You Run 

The manuals that you write for appli- 
cations programs — distinct from the 
reference manual that accompanies a 
utility or language product — must pro- 
vide a walk-through or sample run of 
the program. Programmers like to call 
this kind of instruction "hand-holding" 
and it is an important part of any 
manual. 

Instruction manuals should follow 
the step-by-step procedure that the op- 
erator will use to run the program. So, 
after the introductory materials, your 
manuals should include installation in- 
structions, if necessary, loading instruc- 
tions, and running instructions. In addi- 
tion to these major components, you'll 
need a table of contents, an index, and 
possibly one or more appendices. 



"If your program is 

a utility, you can 

presume your 

audience knows 

quite a bit 

about computers. " 



Installation instructions should con- 
tain advice about the value of making 
back-up copies of the program and data 
disks or tapes. If you plan to incor- 
porate a device to prevent unauthorized 
duplication of your program, this is the 
place to give the user that information. 
If you plan to incorporate a method for 
making one or two back-ups, explain 
the procedure here. If you plan to set up 
a registration system for users, tell the 
reader how to go about registering. 

The installation instructions should 
also contain instructions on formatting 
data disks, hooking up peripherals such 
as printers and communications de- 
vices, and loading special drivers or rou- 
tines to be protected in high memory. 
Installation instructions should also 
mention any peripheral software need- 
ed, such as upper/lowercase modi- 
fications or special driver routines for 
specific printers. 

Instructions loading come next and 
should be very specific. The procedure 
should be explained step-by-step. Use 
plain language, not jargon: 

• RIGHT — Place the operating-system 
disk in drive and press your computer's 



reset button. 

• WRONG— Boot up your DOS 
and . . . 

Make sure you spell program file 
names accurately, and include all exten- 
sions, where necessary. I recently was 
instructed to load a program called 
MAINMENU by an instruction manu- 
al, but obtained "program not found" 
error messages when I tried. Inspecting 
the directory of files on the disk, I 
discovered that the file's real name was 
MAILMENU. This simple error can be 
serious to a novice user. 

(I place the file names of all programs 
on a disk along with a short description 
of each program in an appendix.) 

Your loading instructions should in- 
clude a description of what the operator 
will see on the screen at each step of the 
process and will be complete only when 
you have arrived at the first full screen 
display of the program itself. 

Outline the Procedure 

Next, you'll begin by outlining the 
general procedure the operator will use. 
Here's an example: A business program 
will usually be menu driven, offering 
the operator a choice of options from a 
list or menu. If the program requires 
data before a report can be printed, 
outline the procedure: 

1 . Select ADD DATA 

2. Add names and account information 

3. Return to menu 

4. Select SORT DATA 

5. Perform sort 

6. Return to menu 

7. Select PRINT DATA 

8. Print data 

9. Return to menu 

Once you've outlined the general pro- 
cedure, you can write entire chapters of 
instructions on the specific operations 
involved in performing the outlined 
task. 

If your program is a game, make sure 
you list all the functions you've built 
into it. Here is where your program 
documentation comes in handy. I once 
wrote instructions, using an author's 
materials, for a football game written 
for the Apple computer. While playing 
the game, I mentioned to a coworker 
that it would be nice if you could pass as 
well as run. He suggested I call the 
author and ask if he could incorporate 
that feature into the game. When I called 
and made the suggestion, the author 
reported that that function was built 
into the game, but that he forgot to 
mention it in his instructions. We came 
close to publishing the game with one of 
its most important features unrecorded. 

Game programs and utilities should 



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include a summary card of the major 
commands. This card should be de- 
signed to be read easily for quick 
reference. 

Putting Pen to Paper 

Now you know all the manual's in- 
gredients: table of contents, introduc- 
tion, installation instructions, loading 
and running information, and index. 
You sit down to start writing, but — 
whoops — the words come out all 
wrong. You try to write the introduc- 
tion and end up with a detailed descrip- 
tion of microprocessor bit manipulation 
instead. How do you really write this 
manual, anyway? 

Start at the Beginning 

Think back to those eighth-grade 
civics and history classes when you had 
to write a report on government of the 
Civil War. Once you researched your 
subject, the first step in preparing your 
report was to develop an outline. 

Outlines give you a method of work- 
ing your way into the subject gradually, 
starting with the essential background 
information and a general presentation 
of your findings and then moving into a 
detailed presentation. 

An outline of your instruction manu- 



al performs the same function. It pro- 
vides you with an organizational base 
from which to start. A thorough outline 
also facilitates writing the table of con- 
tents. Take your time. You may have to 
produce two or three drafts over several 
days to complete your outline, but it 
will be time well spent once you begin 
the writing process. 

The introduction to your manual is 
crucial. Like the lead in a newspaper or 
magazine article, your lead must cap- 
ture the reader's attention while offer- 
ing enough information about what is 
to follow to entice the reader to con- 
tinue. The introduction must also tell 
the potential buyer what benefits he will 
derive from owning the program. 
Where possible, this enumeration of the 
benefits should be specific without be- 
ing technical. 

All too often an introduction (and 
even many product announcements) 
contain an impressive list of the tech- 
nical features of a product, but never 
explain what the product is designed to 
do. For the majority of buyers, the pro- 
cess is much less important than the re- 
sults. In fact, many products include 
outstanding features that go unused 
simply because they are never made un- 
derstandable to the nontechnical user. 



For example, a popular word-pro- 
cessing package claims, " . . .a printing 
chaining feature, permits installing spe- 
cial control characters in your text, 
loads ASCII files, EDTASM files. 
and much more. These terms are mean- 
ingful to people experienced in using 
computers and word processors, but 
will mean little to the first-time buyer. It 
would be better to omit mention of 
these features in the introduction. They 
would be more suited to a section en- 
titled "Advanced Features" for experi- 
enced buyers. 

The key, then, to writing your intro- 
duction is to explain what your program 
will do as simply as you can. You'll 
have an opportunity to explain how it 
does these things later. 

Some Dos and Don'ts 

In any kind of technical writing for 
semi- or nontechnical readers, there are 
several rules to observe. 

Observing these rules may add a little 
time to your manual preparation, but 
will be worth it in the long run. First, 
the Dos: 

• Do use plain, simple English words to 
explain a function. Tell the reader to 
type words or commands, rather than 




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to "keyboard" or "enter" them. 

• Do maintain consistency throughout 
a document; once you adopt or estab- 
lish a term or phrase, use it throughout 
your manual. If you call it a disk on 
page one, avoid calling it a "floppy" or 
a "diskette" on page four. 

• Do use acronyms to modify nouns, 
not as stand-alone terms. Use "disk op- 
erating system," not DOS when refer- 
ring to the disk operating system; DOS 
can modify disk or command, as in 
"DOS disk" or "DOS command," 
after you have defined it. 

• Do define any terms you want to ab- 
breviate. Define kilobyte (K) and its ab- 
breviation before using the convention- 
al "32K" in a memory description. 

Here are some important Don'ts: 

• Don't use unnecessary abbreviations 
such as "tech" for technical or "specs" 
for specifications. Abbreviations should 
be used sparingly. 

• Don't assume your reader under- 
stands how to perform essential opera- 
tions that are out of the ordinary. For 
example, if your program uses the 
Purge function that many disk operat- 
ing systems make available, explain 
how to use the function or direct the 
reader to a reference that will outline the 
procedure. 

• Don't use program names or features 
to describe a process: "Back up your 
disks" should be written, "Make back- 
up copies of your disks." 

• Don't use nouns as verbs. 

• Don't make up new words. 

• Don't use jargon. 

These rules will help you avoid some 
of the most confusing errors committed 
in writing about software. 

A good test of your written materials 
is to give them to someone who knows 
nothing about computers. Ask him to 
read your manual. Have him point out 
fuzzy or vague passages and words or 
phrases he doesn't understand. You can 
then rewrite these passages to produce a 
manual that will be usable by almost 
anyone. 

Cross-Referencing Means 

Never Having 

To Say You're Sorry 

It is a frustrating fact of life that most 
people will not take time to read the in- 
struction manual. Undoubtedly, they 
are so anxious to see what programming 
miracles you have wrought that they 
merely skim through the manual gain- 
ing only the barest idea of how to pro- 
ceed. Subsequently, when they run into 
a problem, they pick up the manual and 
start flipping through its pages hoping 
the answer will jump out at them. 

At this point you'll make a lot of 

122 • 80 Micro, January 1983 



friends if you've had the wisdom to in- 
clude a table of contents and an index. 
The longer the manual, the more im- 
portant these components become. 
These two elements of a manual should 
not be treated as an afterthought; spend 
some time preparing them. Make them 
as complete as possible. 

The basis for the table of contents 
will be the original outline of your man- 
ual adapted to conform to the final 
draft of the manuscript. Your chapters 
should be short and confined to the dis- 
cussion of one subject, where possible. 
In a very long manual, the table of con- 
tents can include the chapter subheads. 
Make it easy on the reader to find the 
information he needs. Put the table of 
contents at the beginning of your 
manual. 



"Step one is 
unmitigated torture. 

That's right, 
you 're going to 

have to read 
your own manual. " 



On a separate page just after your 
table of contents, you might consider 
listing all figures, tables, sample 
screens, and menus accompanied by ap- 
propriate page numbers. Often, such 
figures or sample problems are a short- 
cut solution to a user's indecision. 

Indexing 

Indexing is more difficult, but even 
more important. The index must con- 
tain a reference for each process dis- 
cussed in your manual. The index is a 
rare bird in manual production; make 
sure you list it in the table of contents. 

Different methods of preparing an 
index are worth an article in themselves. 
The most familiar is the card method. 
You must work quickly and scrupulous- 
ly. Make yourself a pot of coffee, buy a 
thick stack of three-by-five cards and 
grab the family's recipe file box. 

I say you must work quickly because 
an index is usually the last step in the 
preparation of a manual. Your publish- 
er is waiting to go to press. But before 
you begin, you must have final page 
proofs with correct pagination. Unlike 



many typeset books, technical manuals 
are often bound on 8 '/2 -by- 11 sheets 
delivered by a line printer. This allows 
you the advantage of knowing where 
your material will fall on each page 
much earlier in the production cycle. 

Step one is unmitigated torture. 
That's right, you're going to have to 
read your own manual. While reading, 
underline keywords about the subject 
under discussion, as well as indicator 
phrases about the aspects you are ex- 
plaining. Each keyword followed by its 
indicators should be listed on a separate 
index card, page by page. Later, the 
cards can be collected in alphabetical 
order. Your indicator entries should be 
edited for redundacy and their page 
numbers combined. 

If you composed your subheads 
carefully for the table of contents, these 
keywords will come easily; the indicator 
phrases are more difficult. Nothing is 
more useless to the reader than an index 
entry "disk" followed by 12, 18, 32-36, 
94. If this is the best you can do, don't 
waste your time. The above entry does 
not give the reader a clue as to whether 
you are discussing information storage 
on disk (storage) or what happens when 
you leave one on overnight (care and 
handling). 

"Disk" is distinct from "disk op- 
erating system," which itself must be 
itemized by user instructions, or special 
notes for use with certain peripherals. 

Cross-referencing is another arcane 
and tedious art, but necessary. If you 
think the reader might be struggling to 
find DOS instructions, let him know 
they can be found under "disk oper- 
ating system." If he's looking for 
ASCII character codes, make sure you 
direct him to "American Standard 
Code for Information Interchange." 

There are a number of other tips to 
follow, and I recommend two good ref- 
erence manuals: A Manual of Style is 
put out by the University of Chicago 
Press, and Words into Type is pub- 
lished by Prentice-Hall. They both have 
chapters delineating the protocol of in- 
dexing. They are standard editorial 
guides and you'll find them in the refer- 
ence room of your city library. 

The Home Stretch 

Now that you've finished writing 
your manual, you're within sight of the 
end of this whole ordeal. All that re- 
mains is to proofread and edit your 
material after you write it. Let's take 
a close look at what an edit/proofread 
cycle will accomplish. 

Proofreading 

Proofreading is the process of exam- 



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listed with as many cross references 
as required to retrieve the article. 

An Author index lists individual names 
as well as each contributor in jointly 
written articles. Another section is 
the Review index which covers book 
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educational courseware. It lists the 
source of the review and 
translates the written review V 
into a One-Star to Five-Star rating! 

LAMP eliminates the hit or miss 
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.-527 





Literature Analysis of Microcomputer Publications 



fMMBHBBi 






DMSON Of DfOStON SYSTEMS WC 







SHE 









d? is now a 
dealer does 
order r - 



r local dealer. If your 
end us a check or money 
for shipping & handling. Outside 
dd $6.00 for shipping. California 
i% sales tax. Be sure to specify cassette or 



"Weerd" Is 100°' 

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of Tandy Corp. 



ining your text to locate and correct 
spelling and grammatical errors. The 
proofreading cycle should also verify 
the accuracy of all references to pic- 
tures, figures, and tables accompanying 
your text. Proofreading should also 
enable you to pick up errors like leaving 
out a chapter title or misnumbering 
pages. 

If you proofread your own work, it's 
wise to set it aside for a few days, so the 
material will appear fresh. Better yet, 
give your manuscript to a friend who 
has a sharp eye for spelling and punc- 
tuation, and let this trusted soul make 
proofreading corrections. 

Even though program listings are 
machine generated, and presumably er- 
ror-free, it is a good idea to proofread 
these listings, too. Be on the lookout for 
misspelled words in print statements or 
routines. When you are writing a pro- 
gram, a misspelled word seems trivial, 
but when a software submissions editor 
looks over your work, those errors will 
leap off the screen. They can't help your 
cause and are so easy to avoid. 

Of equal importance is editing. An 
editor examines a manuscript's content 
for style and readability. The content 
edit should be done with a critical eye. 
Ask yourself as you read each sentence, 



"Did I say what I meant to say? Does 
this sentence read clearly and convey a 
coherent thought? Does it follow 
logically from the sentence preced- 
ing it?" 

While editing, be conscious of your 
text's readability. If you feel that a sen- 
tence's meaning may be obscured be- 
cause of its length, break the question- 
able sentence into two or more 
sentences, or rewrite it entirely. 

Word Processing 

A cold-blooded edit usually yields a 
greatly transformed manuscript. You'll 
find that word processing makes your 
job much easier. The ability to make 
liberal changes in your text without ex- 
pending large amounts of time and 
energy can significantly improve the 
quality of your output. 

There is one final editing opportunity 
that you will be afforded. (If you're not 
offered, insist!) You'll be asked to 
proofread your author's proofs. These 
proofs are galleys of the final version of 
your manuscript after it has been 
typeset by your publisher. This is the 
last opportunity to make sure that all 
your materials are correct and com- 
plete. Don't regard this responsibility 
lightly. Plan to spend a good deal of 



time inspecting this nearly final prod- 
uct. Make sure it is as good as you and 
your editors can make it. 

The End 

If you take the time and invest the ef- 
fort to write a good manual for your 
software, you'll be in a much stronger 
marketing position whether you try to 
sell your goods to a publisher or peddle 
the stuff on your own. Good manuals 
make your software look more profes- 
sional. They will help prevent after-sale 
service problems. And they will make 
you feel better about your product. 

I'm sure documentation will continue 
to take a lot of heat from software users 
who want to sound technologically 
chic — after all, criticizing something 
yields a feeling of power — and from 
people who still remember mainframe 
computer documentation that was not 
written for end users and was conse- 
quently obtuse. 

At least you can now be sure that 
your manuals won't be counted among 
those that get slammed! ■ 



G. Michael Vose is a technical editor 
for 80 Micro. 



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9. Question and answer capability allows product ordering, vote taking, 
user surveys etc 

10. Fast, Responsive, and fully protected!! 1200 baud on TBBS averages 
40%-120% faster throughput than competitive boards. TBBS responds 
instantly when a caller commands! Most other systems respond at the 
end of a line or series ol lines or at certain times not at all. TBBS is ready 
lor a new caller in an average of 5 seconds!! Worst case with 2500 
messages on file is less than 45 seconds on a floppy based system. TBBS 
also cleans up correctly after accidental loss ol carrier. No hung systems' 
No lost messages! No lorgotten deletes! Even when using remote DOS! 

11. To see what we are talking about call TBBS headquarters at 
(303)690-4566. TBBS has to be used to believe!! 

12. System requires Model I or III (or equivalent). Auto-Answer Modem, 
RS-232, and NEWDOS/80 V 2.0. Program will work on either model auto- 
matically. (NOTE: 1200 baud requires a specially modified cable.) 



TRS-80' is a registered trademark of TANDY CORPORATION. 



4122 SOUTH PARKER ROAD 
AURORA, COLORADO 80014 (303)693-8400 -545 



Monday- Friday 

9:30 AM-6:30 PM 

Saturday 10 AM-5 PM 



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sSee List ol Advertisers on Page 435 



80 Micro, January 1983 • 125 



TECHNIQUE 



Mailing List Compiler 



by Gerald Sprouse 



u 



se your Color Computer, a Line Printer VII, 
and this program to keep your mailing list 
up to date. It lets you print labels, too! 



Program Listing 

10 CLEAR 9000:T=40:L=38:DIMM$(T,8) :N=0:M=7 
20 CLS:PRINT n COLOR COMPUTER MAILING LIST 
VAILABLE:" 

<A>DD NAMES TO THE MAILING 
<R>EAD MAILING LIST FROM TAPE 



30 PRINT' 
40 PRINT' 

LIST' 
50 PRINT' 
LS" 

60 PRINT" 
T" 

70 PRINT' 
80 PRINT' 
90 PRINT 



<L>IST NAMES ON THE SCREEN 



<W>RITE MAILING LIST ON TAPE 



FOLLOWING OPTIONS A 



LIST" 
<OHANGE THE MAILING 



<P>RINT MAILING LABE 



<D>PRINT ADDRESS LIS 



<E>ND" 

NUMBER OF NAMES IN LIST=";N 

'KEY IN YOUR OPTION" 

100 A$=INKEY$:IFA$=""THEN100 

110 ON INSTR("EARCLPWD",A$) GOTO130 ,140 ,460 ,470 ,360 ,700 , 440 , 860 

120 GOTO20 

130 END 

140 CLS:PRINT"ADD NAMES TO THE MAILING LIST" 

150 PRINT"DO YOU WANT INSTRUCTIONS ON HOW TO ENTER DATA(Y/N)?" 

160 A$=INKEY$:IFA$=""THEN160 

170 IFA$= n N"THEN230 

180 CLS: PRINT "NAME 1" : PRINT"NAME 2" :PRINT"NAME 3" : PRINT "NAME 4" 

190 PRINT-ORGANIZATION": PRINT "ADDRESS" :PRINT"CITY, STATE, ZIP" : PRI 

NT"TELEPHONE" 

200 PRINT" ABOVE ARE THE DATA ENTRY ITEMS. TYPE EACH ITEM AND PRE 

SS ENTER." 

210 PRINT n TO IGNOR AN ITEM JUST PRESS ENTER. " 

220 LINEINPUT"PRESS ENTER TO BEGIN", -A$ 

230 CLS:IFN<T THEN250 

240 GOTO280 

250 N=N+1 

260 GOSUB1000:IFM$(N, 0) <>"" THEN250 

270 N=N-1:GOTO20 

280 PRINT " OUT OF MEMORY ":PRINT"DO YOU WANT TO RECORD THE" 

290 PRINT"CURRENT LIST ON TAPE(Y/N)?" 

300 A$=INKEY$:IFA$= nn THEN300 

310 IFA$="Y"THENGOSUB1130 

320 PRINT"DO YOU WANT TO CLEAR THE MEMORY FOR ADDITIONAL NAMES (Y 

/N)?" 

330 A$=INKEY$:IFA$=""THEN330 

340 IFA$="Y"THEN N=0 

350 GOTO20 

360 CLS:IFN=0THENGOSUB1190:GOTO20 

370 PRINT"KEY IN SEARCH FIELD(1 TO 8)" 

380 A$=INKEY$:IFA$=""THEN380 

390 IFA$<"l n ORA$>"8"THEN370ELSEF=VAL(A$) -1:1=1 

400 J=1:CLS 

410 PRINTI;" n ;M$(I,F) :J=J+1 : 1=1+1 : IFI>N THEN430 :ELSEIFJ<11THEN4 

10 

420 PRINT"":GOSUB1110:LINE INPUT"" ;A$:GOTO400 

Listing continues 



One way computers are used in the 
business world is to produce and main- 
tain mailing lists. This article describes a 
mailing list program for the Color 
Computer with a Line Printer VII. 

Since some labels must contain a per- 
son's name in addition to an organiza- 
tion's name and address, the program 
allows for up to four lines on the label. 
When the label must have three or four 
names, the program automatically 
prints the address information on two 
labels, because address labels only allow 
five lines of information. 

For ease of operation, the program 
makes maximum use of INKEYS for 
program control. Additionally, each 
address line is checked for length and 
the operator cued for reentry. The pro- 
gram also allows the option of printing 
an address list with phone numbers for 
office use. This address list can be kept 
up to date and then used to correct the 
data stored in the data file on tape. 

The program allows eight data fields 
for each label. Fields 1 to 4 contain 
names of specific individuals at each or- 
ganization. Field 5 is the organization 
name while field 6 is the street address. 
The city, state, and zip code are in field 
7 with the telephone number in field 8. 

Program Operation 

After inputting the program, enter 



The Key Box 

Color Computer 
16KRAM 

Extended Color Basic 
Line Printer VII 



126 • 80 Micro, January 1983 



PCLEAR1 to clear sufficient memory. 
The main menu allows the following 
options: 

• A — adds names to the mailing list or 
starts a new list. This option provides 
user instructions for data entry. If the 
list becomes too long, the program of- 
fers the option of storing the current list 
on tape. 

• R — reads in a mailing list from a tape 
data file. 

• L — lists names on the screen. This 
option also allows the user to select oth- 
er data fields for listing on the screen. 
For example, use of field 5 lists all or- 
ganization names. 

• C — changes the mailing list. The pro- 
gram presents a new menu with four 
options: D — delete a name from the list; 
C — change one of the eight fields for 
each address; A — another address (re- 
turn to find another address); and E — 
exit this option to the main menu. The 
computer assigns a number to each ad- 
dress, and this number must be entered 
to find a specific address for deletion or 
change. The number is displayed on the 
screen during option L. 

• P — prints address labels. Radio 
Shack recommends dry-gum labels 
(26-1456) for the Line Printer VII. 
However, these labels are two across. 



Listing continued 

430 PRINT" END OF LIST " :GOSUB1110:LINE INPUT"" ;A$:GOTO20 

440 CLS:IFN=0THEN GOSUB1190 :GOTO20 

450 PRINT"RECORD MAILING LIST ON TAPE" :PRINT"" :GOSUB1130 :GOTO20 

460 CLS: PRINT "READ MAILING LIST" :GOSUB1220 :GOTO20 

470 CLS:IFN=0THENGOSUB1190:GOTO20 

480 PRINT "CHANGE" 

TO DISPLAY ADDRESS, ENTER ADDRESS # (IF UNKNOWN 



490 PRINT 
USE <L>) 
500 PRINT 
510 PRINT 
520 CLS 
530 PRINT 
540 PRINT 
550 PRINT 



'TO EXIT THIS MODE PRESS ENTER " 

':LINE INPUT"NUMBER";A$:I=VAL(A$) : IFA$=""THEN20 



<OHANGE A FIELD" 



<D>ELETE NAME 

<A>NOTHER NAME " 

<E>XIT" 

560 FORJ=0TOM:PRINTJ+1;M$(I,J) :NEXT 
570 PRINT"KEY IN SELECTION" 
580 A$=INKEY$:IFA$=""THEN580 
590 IFA$O"C"THEN660 

600 PRINT"TYPE IN THE NUMBER OF FIELD AND THEN ENTER THE NEW VAL 
UE" 

610 PRINT"KEY IN FIELD(1 TO 8)" 
620 A$=INKEY$:IFA$=""THEN620 

630 IFA$<"1"ORA$>"8"THEN610ELSEJ=VAL(A$)-1 

640 LINE INPUT"NEW ITEM" ;M$(I , J) : IF LEN(M$(I , J) )<L+1 THEN520 
650 PRINT"T0O LONG, REENTER" :G0T06 40 
660 IFA$O"E"THEN680 
670 GOTO20 
680 IFA$="A"THEN470 

690 IFA$O"D"THEN520ELSEM$(I,0)="":GOSUB1300:GOTO470 
700 CLS:IFN=0THENGOSUB1190:GOTO20 
710 PRINT"PRINT MAILING LABELS" 
720 PRINT"DO YOU WANT A TRIAL RUN(Y/N)?" 
730 A$=INKEY$:IFA$=""THEN730 
740 IFA$="N"THEN760 

750 FORJ=1TO2:I=1:GOSUB1330:NEXT:GOTO720 

760 PRINT"PRESS <P> TO START PRINTING, <E> TO EXIT" 

770 A$=INKEY$:IFA$=""THEN770 
780 IFA$="E"THEN20 
790 1=1 
800 GOSUB1330: 1=1+1 

Listing continues 



COPY MODEL III, SCRIPSIT/VISICALC 



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•See List of Advertisers on Page 435 



80 Micro, January 1983 • 127 



Therefore, this option prints two identi- 
cal labels for each address. This option 
allows a trial run of two labels to align 
the printer. 

#D— prints address list with phone 
numbers. 

• W — writes entire address list to a tape 
data file. 

• E — end. 

Program Structure 

In line 10, variable T controls the to- 
tal number of addresses in the list while 
L controls the length of each address 
field. Clear additional string space if T 
is increased. 

Lines 20-130 are the main menu. 
Lines 140-350 are the A option. Delete 
lines 150-220 if data entry instructions 
are not required. 

Lines 360-430 are the L option, lines 
440-450 the W option, line 460 the R 
option, lines 470-690 the C option, lines 
700-850 the P option, lines 860-930 the 
D option, and lines 1000-1630 the vari- 
ous subroutines called from the main 
program. ■ 

Gerald Sprouse can be reached at 9977 
Caminto Chirimolla, San Diego, CA 
92131. 



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^181 



Listing continued 

810 IFK=N THEN800 

820 PRINT"DO YOU WANT TO READ IN ANY MORE TAPES (Y/N) ?" 

830 A$=INKEY$:IFA$= nn THEN830 

840 IFA$="Y n THENGOSUBl220 

850 GOTO20 

860 CLS:IFN=0THENGOSUB1190:GOTO20 

870 1=1 

880 GOSUB1550: 1=1+1 

890 IFK=N THEN 880 

900 PRINT n DO YOU WANT TO READ IN ANY MORE TAPES (Y/N)?" 

910 A$=INKEY$:IFA$= nn THEN910 

920 IFA$="Y n THENGOSUB1220 

930 GOTO20 

1000 LINE INPUT"NAME 1" ;M$ (N, 0) : IF LEN(M$ (N f 0) ) >L THEN GOSUB1100 

:GOTO1000 

1010 IF M$(N,0)=""THEN1090 



;M$(N,1):IF LEN(M$(N, 1) ) >L THEN GOSUB1100 
;M$(N,2):IF LEN(M$(N f 2))>L THEN GOSUB1100 
;M$(N,3):IF LEN(M$(N, 3) ) >L THEN GOSUB1100 



1020 LINE INPUT"NAME 

:GOTO1020 

1030 LINE INPUT-NAME 

:GOTO1030 

1040 LINE INPUT-NAME 

:GOTO1040 

1050 LINE INPUT-ORGANIZATION" ;M$(N f 4) : IF LEN(M$(N f 4) ) >L THEN GOS 

UB1100:GOTO1050 

1060 LINE INPUT "ADDRESS" ;M$(N, 5) : IF LEN(M$ (N,5) ) >L THEN GOSUB110 

0:GOTO1060 

1070 LINE INPUT"CITY,STATE,ZIP";M$(N,6) :IF LEN(M$(N f 6) ) >L THEN G 

OSUB1100:GOTO1070 

1080 LINE INPUT"TELEPHONE";M$(N,7) 

1090 RETURN 

1100 PRINT-TOO LONG, REENTER" : RETURN 

1110 PRINT-PRESS ENTER TO CONTINUE" ;: RETURN 

1120 PRINT"NO DATA IN MEMORY" : RETURN 

1130 GOSUB1200 

1140 A$=INKEY$:IFA$=""THEN1140 

1150 IFA$="E"THENPRINT"":RETURN 

1160 PRINT "RECORDING DATA" :OPEN"0" ,-1 , "DATA" 

1170 FORI=1TON:PRINT#-1,M$(I,0) ,M$(I,1) ,M$(I,2) ,M$(I,3) ,M$(I,4) , 

M$(I,5) ,M$(I,6) ,M$(I,7) :NEXT 

1180 CLOSE #-1: RETURN 

1190 GOSUB1120:GOSUB1110:LINE INPUT" ";A$: RETURN 

1200 PRINT"SETUP THE RECORDER AND PRESS <R> WHEN READY": PRINT 

"<E> TO EXIT" 

1210 RETURN 

1220 GOSUB1200 

1230 A$=INKEY$:IFA$=""THEN1230 

1240 IFA$="E n THEN RETURN 

1250 PRINT-READING DATA" : OPEN" I " ,-1 , "DATA" :N=1 

1260 IF EOF(-l) THEN 1290 

1270 INPUT#-l r M$(N,0) ,M$(N,1) ,M$(N,2) ,M$(N,3) ,M$(N,4) r M$(N,5) ,M$ 

(N,6) ,M$(N,7) 

1280 N=N+1:GOTO1260 

1290 CLOSE#-l:N=N-l: RETURN 

CLS:PRINT"RECOVERING SPACE" 

N=N-l:FORJ=I TO N:FORK=0 TO 7 :M$( J,K) =M$ ( J+l , K) :NEXT:NEXT 

RETURN 

IFM$(I,2)="" THEN 1430 
1340 PRINT#-2,M$(I,0) ;TAB(42) ;M$(I,0) 
1350 PRINT#-2,M$(I,1) ;TAB(42) ;M$(I,1) 
1360 PRINT#-2,M$(I,2) ;TAB(42) ;M$(I,2) 
1370 PRINT#-2,M$(I,3) ;TAB(42) ;M$(I,3) 
1380 PRINT#-2,"":PRINT#-2, B " 

PRINT#-2,M$(I,4) ;TAB(42) ;M$(I,4) 

PRINT#-2,M$(I,5) ;TAB(42) ;M$(I,5) 

PRINT#-2,M$(I,6) ;TAB(42) ;M$(I,6) 

PRINT#-2 , " " : PRINT#-2 , " " : PRINT#-2 , " " : RETURN 

IFM$(I,1)="" THEN 1500 

PRINT#-2,M$(I f 0) ;TAB(42) ;M$(I,0) 
1450 PRINT#-2,M$(I,1) ;TAB(42) ;M$(I,1) 
1460 PRINT#-2,M$(I,4) ;TAB(42) ;M$(I,4) 
1470 PRINT#-2,M$(I,5) ;TAB(42) ;M$(I,5) 
1480 PRINT#-2,M$(I r 6) ;TAB(42) ;M$(I,6) 
1490 PRINT* -2,"": RETURN 
1500 PRINT#-2,M$(I f 0) ;TAB(42) ;M$(I,0) 
1510 PRINT#-2,M$(I,4) ;TAB(42) ;M$(I,4) 
1520 PRINT#-2,M$(I,5) ;TAB(42) ;M$(I,5) 
1530 PRINT#-2,M$(I,6) ;TAB(42) ;M$(I,6) 
1540 PRINT#-2 , " " : PRINT#-2 , " " : RETURN 
1550 PRINT#-2,M$(I,0) :IFM$(I ,1) =""THEN1590 
1560 PRINT#-2,M$(I,1) :IFM$(I, 2) =""THEN1590 
1570 PRINT#-2 f M$(I,2) : IFM$(I ,3) =""THEN1590 
1580 PRINT#-2,M$(I,3) 
1590 PRINT#-2,M$(I,4) 
1600 PRINT#-2,M$(I f 5) 
1610 PRINT#-2,M$(I,6) 
1620 PRINT#-2,M$(I,7) 
1630 PRINT#-2 , " " : PRINT#-2 , " " : RETURN 

Listing continues 



1300 
1310 
1320 
1330 



1390 
1400 
1410 
1420 
1430 
1440 



128 • 80 Micro, January 1983 



. 




<r-4- 





Kandrorried; 



m m 



'■■-: 



j---'- 



What some have called "the best kept 

secret in the game software industry". 

Unleashed here are six new software 

games blending advanced graphics with precise elements of 

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Beyond these six new games are 26 more for you to consider . . . 

all we believe are the best software values for your money! 



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LEGIONNAIRE-Real-time simulation of G.F.S. SORCERESS-Sci-Fi adventure game, 

tactical combat in Caesar's time. YOU as Caesar YOU are Joe Justin trying to clear yourself of a 



command up to ten legions. Finest full-color 
graphics plus payability way beyond the state 
of the art! Cassette . . . $35.00 

V.C.— Faithfully recreates unconventional 
conflict in Viet Nam. YOU command chopper 
and artillery units, and face task of protecting 
civilian population where the enemy hides 
among the people. Cassette . . . $20.00 
Diskette . . . $25.00 



false charge of mutiny and get back to the 
Galactic Federation Starship "Sorceress". 
Beautiful full-color manuals provide useful clues. 
Cassette . . . $30.00 Diskette . . . $35.00 

ANDROMEDA CONQUEST-Vast scale 
space strategy game of galactic colonizing and 
conquest among unique star systems with 
strange life forms and alien technologies that 
provide exciting exploration and battle. 
Cassette. . . $18.00 Diskette . . . $23.00 



" Trademarks (or Apple Computer. Warner Communications. Tandy Corp . 
International Business Machines and Commodore International Ltd 

Available at finer 
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MOON PATROL-Arcade Pak™ game of 
lunar invasion. Beats any quarter-gobbling game 
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present new attackers to battle. Fast, furious and 
fun! Cassette . . . $25.00 

TELENGARD— Dungeon adventure in a 
mysterious underworld with 50 levels of ever- 
more-complex mazes to explore. Real time 
fantasy and role-playing game. Using wits, 
magic and fast thinking, gamers fight monsters 
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Diskette . . . $28.00 

If your favorite dealer fails to have 
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microcomputer games 

' REGISTERED TRADEMARK OK MICROCOMPUTER GAMES. INC "DIVISION OF 

The AVALON HILL Game Company 



Avalon Hill MICROCOMPUTER GAMES 

are compatible with the following computer systems: 

Apple II- 

Atari 4/800* 

TRS-80 Models l/III & Color® 

IBM P.C.® 

Commodore VIC-20. CBM PET & 2001* 



For specific information, such as 
machine compatibility, memory requirements. 

cassette or diskette availability and price. 

call us toll-free 1-800-638-9292 and ask for 

Operator 10 or write to: 

Avalon Hill Microcomputer Games. Dept. C-10 

4517 Harford Road, Baltimore. MD 21214 











PLEASE ANSWER THESE 5 QUESTIONS 

YES NO 

1. Do you have information that must be kept organized and — — 
accessible? I — I I — I 

2. Do you ever need to perform statistical analyses? L- 

3. Would you like to have a tool that will allow you greater flexibility ._. 
in managing your own or your company's money? 

4. Could you use a mail list program that will be easy to use, 
maintain an unlimited number of names, allow you great sorting 
flexibility, and even interact with a word processor? 

5. Do you own or have access to a TRS-80 microcomputer? 

If you answered yes" to any of these questions, we can be of assistance to 
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Maxi Manager is a remarkable data base manager. Its fast I 
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me sophistication of its data entry, management, and printina caoa- / ».., ^ 

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The program now includes Maxi Utility, which allows you to I record,n 9 and analysis for business and personal finance. The system 

rescue files on diskettes that have been damaged by excessive wear or l ,eatures 223 income and expense accounts, each of which will handle 

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sSJITSSZTS! mm. , I mana 9ing money effectively. 

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2. Has virtually unlimited storaqe capacity I u ..' f ? ' e moSt use,ul s,a, ' s,,cal analysis package en the 

3. Interfaces with the major word processors to Generate form / ™ arkef ,odav - " was developed to allow maximum flexibility in 
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4. Pnnts mailing labels up to tour-across in any format desired / com Ponents of statistical analysis: 

£Sf.™o." a '' y « un '' m 'L ed codin 9 capabilities with thirteen fields of I I c °mplete menu-driven codebook creation and editina 
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THE 

BUSINESS 

DIVISION 




Send $1.00 for our 16 page booklet 
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(305) 830-8194 ^20 




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What is Maxi CRAS? 

Maxi CRAS (for Check Register Accounting 
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$50.00 worth of gas and the $2.00 worth of milk to the 
$250.00 you owed him for the new windshield wiper, and 
write a check for $302.00. Many systems would force 
you to assign this check to a single account. But Maxi 
CRAS lets you charge $250.00 to AUTO REPAIRS, 
$50.00 to your GAS & OIL account, and $2.00 to your 
FOOD account. Six months, or even six years from now, 
you'll still know exactly what that $302.00 went for. 
That's power! 

I'm interested. Tell me more! 

Organizing the data is just half the picture. Maxi 
CRAS provides six essential reports and statements in 
a fraction of the time required to do them by hand. At 
tax time, you'll have all the data you need at your 
fingertips. No more sifting through shoeboxes full of 
cancelled checks! 



MAXI CRAS 

By Dale Kubler 

For your TRS-80 Model I or III with 48K, 

two disk drives, and an 80-column printer. 

$99.95 

Soon to be released for IBM /PC 

THE BUSINESS DIVISION 

BOX 3435 • LONG WOOD, FLORIDA 32750 

(305)862-6917 




For detailed forecasting and budgeting, Maxi 
CRAS now interfaces EASILY with VISICALCf™), the 
electronic spreadsheet program sold by Radio Shack. A 
Maxi CRAS exclusive! 



The Last Check Register Accounting System 

You'll Ever Need! 
Strong statement? Check out these features! 



• Write checks by hand, or print automatically 
on single or continuous form checks (NEBS 9020). 

• Data Entry routine second to none — saves time 
AND eliminates errors. You don't need to be a 
computer expert to use Maxi CRAS. 

• The best selection of printed reports available — 
complete check register, income and expense 
subtotals, bank statement reconciliation, list of 
check register notes, and an account distribution 
statement. Compare! 

• For even more detailed analysis, Maxi CRAS data 
is readable by VISICALAC<™). 

• Checkbook balance is constantly updated and in- 
stantly accessible. No more embarrassing over- 
drafts! 

• A notes option can be used to flag tax-deductible 
transactions. 

• Handles up to 223 income AND expense ac- 
counts. Many other systems only allow ONE in- 
come account. 

• Assign transactions to a single account, or 
distribute over multiple accounts. Assign specific 
amounts, or pro-rate by fraction or percentage. 
Cash transactions can be recorded in any ac- 
count without affecting check-book balance. 

• Check Address data base stores up to 40 ad- 
dresses and automatically prints them on your 
checks. 

• Fast and easy bank statement reconciliation. 
Compare! 

• Maxi CRAS is supplied with a complete User's 
Manual, sample printouts, and TDOS, a special 
version of the DOSPLUS operating system. 

WE INVITE YOU TO COMPARE. 

Compare Maxi CRAS with any other system 
available. We did, and we're sure you'll find Maxi 
CRAS to be the most versatile, easy to use Check 
Register system available — at any price! 



fSee List of Advertisers on Page 435 



Micro, January 1983 • 131 



HARDWARE 



Finally, make a powerful Peripheral Support Interface. 



Hardware Hacker— Part IV 



Philip M. Van Praag 

1630 West Jagged Rock Road 

Tucson, AZ 85704 



My final article integrates 
the 32K Memory Mod, 
Centronics-Compatible Printer 
Interface, and Double Density 



Disk Controller articles into a 
common Peripheral Support In- 
terface (PSI) system. 

As mentioned in each pre- 
vious article, the individual pro- 
jects are capable of stand-alone 
operation. Separate PC boards 
for each allow tailoring the 
system to your needs. Gradual 
investment will produce a com- 
plex, powerful adjunct to the 
TRS-80. In addition, initial trial 
(and troubleshooting) of in- 



dividual system components is 
enhanced via the stand-alone 
operation concept. 

Additional hardware pre- 
sented in this article includes a 
ribbon cable distribution PC 
board and system cabinet con- 
struction details. The cable PC 
board simplifies board-to-board 
connections. If you have been 
building the system one board 
at a time, you have no doubt al- 
ready assembled a 40-conductor 




Photo 1 



cable/card-edge connector for 
at least one of the boards. This 
same cable can be used to con- 
nect the TRS-80 and the new 
cable PC board. Then, even if 
you build all PC boards simulta- 
neously, you can check out each 
project individually (rather than 
applying power to the entire 
system the first time). Simply at- 
tach the project board cables 
one at a time, verifying proper 
operation at each step before 
proceeding. 

The system cabinet described 
here is also mentioned in the 
Disk Controller article. There is 
no electrical reason why a differ- 
ent metal cabinet configuration 
can't be used; but this particular 
cabinet is a compromise be- 
tween cost, rapid construction, 
ease of circuit troubleshooting, 
and a handy means of elevating 
the video monitor a few inches 
closer to eye level. For those 
without facilities to prepare the 
cabinet, a completely drilled, 
punched, painted, and labelled 
version is available (see note at 
end of article). 

System Integration 

First, let's consider some 
system integration concepts, 
particularly as related to ad- 
dress/data line utilization and 



132 



Micro, January 1983 



Finally, a Spelling Checker that can SPELL! 



Electric 
Webster 

The "Cadillac" of Spelling Checkers! 

80 Microcomputing, 9/82 



• FAST andACCURA TE — No other spelling checker 

comes close! 

• INTEGRA TED — Proofs and corrects from 

within all these popular word processing 
programs: Scripsit, Newscript, Lazy Writer, 
Electric Pencil, Superscript, and CopyArt. 

• SMART — Finds and displays correct spellings instantly — no more clumsy dictionaries! 

• HYPHENATES automatically — inserts discretionary hyphens with 100% accuracy, (optional) 

• COMPLETE — One step proofing system with integrated Grammatical and Hyphenation 

features, (optional) 

No other program can claim even one of these features. 




EASY TO USE: Type your text using any of a number of 
popular word processing programs. When you are done, hit 
the appropriate key, and ELECTRIC WEBSTER proof- 
reads your document, displaying misspellings and typos 
on the screen. 

Then, Correcting Electric Webster can display each error 
separately, requesting you to enter the correct spellings for 
each. You are given the options of displaying errors in 
context, adding words to ELECTRIC WEBSTER'S 50,000 
word dictionary, or even displaying the dictionary to find 
the correct spelling. If you think you know the correct 
spelling, Electric Webster will verify it for you. 

Finally, Electric Webster CORRECTS YOUR TEXT, 
automatically inserts discretionary HYPHENS (optional), 
and points out GRAMMATICAL errors (optional), all with 
remarkable speed! 



LOW PRICES: Standard Electric Webster is available for 
$89.50 (TRS-80™ Model I & III, or Apple™) or $149.50 
(CP/M™, TRS-80™ Model II and all others.) The optional 
Correcting Feature can be added at any time ($60) as can 
Hyphenation ($50) and Grammatical ($40). During the 
closing months of 1982 only, we are offering 6 W/P integra- 
tion programs FREE (reg. $35 each) with the purchase of 
Correcting Electric Webster. 



The Ultimate PROOFING SYSTEM 



REVIEWS OF MICROPROOF (E W's predecessor): 

"There is simply no finer program available . . ." 
Creative Computing, March 1982 

"This is a very useful product and should be obtained by anyone 

who uses a word processor." 

80 Microcomputing, August 1981 

"The summary review of this program? One word — Excellent." 
Computronics, September 1981 

"In a comparative review of proofreading programs (with smaller 

dictionaries) MICROPROOF was found to be considerably faster 

than all the others, when tested against a 400 word sample 

document." 

BYTE Magazine, November 1981 

"A 1500 word document took 26 seconds to load, process and proof 
... it is very friendly and any prson able to use a word processing 
program can master it in moments." 
Info World, January 1982 

"By far, the most capable and efficient of these spelling checker 

programs." 

Microcomputing, dune 1982 

AND NOW ELECTRIC WEBSTER: 

"Actually, Electric Webster is faster than its predecessor (Micro- 
proof) . . . and spelling corrections are immediately verified 
against the dictionary before being accepted . . ." 
Microcomputing, June 1982 

"Electric Webster is the Cadillac of vocabulary programs." 
80 Microcomputing, September 1982 




CORNUCOPIA SOFTWARE 



*?<& 



Post Oficc Box 6111 Albany, California 94706 



(415)524-8098 










-See List of Advertisers on Page 435 



80 Micro, January 1983 • 133 



power supply distribution. 

Figure 1 contains a system 
view of how address lines are 
used in the PSI. The printer inter- 
face decodes A2-A15, looking 
for a 37E8 address. When 37E8 
is decoded in the presence of a 
Write (WR) command, the cur- 
rent data bus character or in- 
struction is clocked into a data 
buffer, then on to the printer. A 
busy signal tells the TRS-80 not 
to send more data until the cur- 
rent data is processed. 37E8 
together with read (RD) feeds 
the printer status (out of paper, 
fault, for example) back to the 
TRS-80. (Since AO and A1 are not 
decoded in the printer interface, 
addresses 37E9, 37EA, and 
37EB produce the same result 
as 37E8. This is not a problem, 
as these three addresses are 
never used.) 

The 32K memory mod de- 
codes A14 and A15 to activate 
one of the two 16K blocks of 
memory on the board. When A15 
is present along with row ad- 
dress strobe (RAS), the RAM 
memory block operating over 
addresses 32768-49151 is en- 
abled. When both A15 and A14 
are present along with RAS, the 
49152-65535 block is enabled. 
Two groups of addresses (A0- 
A6 and A7-A13) are multiplexed 
to the RAMs. A0-A6 contain the 
row address information for the 
RAMs, while A7-A13 contain 
column address information. 

The disk controller decodes 
A2, A3, and A5-A15, producing 
six key control signals used 
throughout the controller. These 
signals are used in the support 
circuitry for the floppy disk con- 
troller (FDC) ICs, and also within 



"Even if you build all PC boards 

simultaneously, you can check out 

each project individually (rather than 

applying power to the entire system)." 



the FDCs. There they combine 
with AO and A1 to select a 
desired FDC register. AO and 
A1 are also used with data ac- 
cess lines (DALO and DAL3- 
DAL7), write enable (WE), and 
system reset (SYSRES) to define 
the disk controller mode of 
operation. 

Figure 2 contains a system 
view of data lines used in the 
PSI. The printer interface 
receives all eight data lines, 
latching the incoming data from 
the TRS-80 and holding it for use 
by the printer. Status feedback 
information from the printer is 
gated onto data lines D4-D7. 
Thus, the printer interface alter- 
nately routes information to and 
from the printer. (It does not 
alter data in any way.) 

The 32K memory mod uses 
the data lines directly at the 
RAM data inputs. RAM data out- 
puts, however, are gated onto 
the data lines only when di- 
rected by the TRS-80 (via de- 
coding of A14, A15, and RD). As 
with the printer interface, strict 
control must be placed on when 
outputs can appear on the data 
lines. This avoids two or more 
sources trying to output data at 
the same time. 

The disk controller uses a 
gated version of the data lines 
(DAL0-DAL7) for FDC activities 



and as a decoding source for 
determining mode of operation. 
The FDC converts incoming 
TRS-80 parallel data to serial, al- 
lowing disk drive recording. Sim- 
ilarly, it converts serial read-data 
from the drives back into paral- 
lel for the TRS-80. The single 
density (SD)/double density (DD) 
decoder uses DALO and DAL3- 
DAL7, together with AO, A1 , WE, 
and SYSRES to enable either the 
single density FDC (1771) or the 
double density FDC (1791) as 
commanded by the software. 
D0-D3 are connected directly to 
a disk drive select latch, activat- 
ing the appropriate disk drive. 
Figure 3 contains a system 
view of power supply distribu- 
tion in the PSI. Sufficient 
reserve capability in the 
+ 12/ + 5/-5V power supply in 
the 32K memory mod article 
also allows it to provide + 5V for 
the printer interface and 
+ 12/-5V for the disk con- 
troller. It cannot, however, pro- 
vide the +5V needs of the disk 
controller. For this reason, a 
separate on-board +5V supply 
was included in the disk control- 
ler design. The printer interface 
PC board contains provisions 
for a simple zener diode regu- 
lator intended for the stand- 
alone application, where power 
is provided by a 6V dc wall plug- 



in supply. In the PSI, however, 
power is obtained from a pre- 
regulated +5V source; there- 
fore C3, D1, and R7 must be 
omitted from the board, and 
the +5V should be directly 
connected to C2. 

If you have already built the 
32K memory mod and are now 
building the PSI, it isagood idea 
to move the 32K memory mod to 
the PSI cabinet. This will en- 
hance system noise character- 
istics and allow multifunction 
use of the 32K memory mod's 
power supply. 

Ribbon Cable 
Distribution PC Board 

A full-size etch pattern for the 
ribbon cable distribution PC 
board is in Fig. 4. Figure 5 con- 
tains a complete description of 
all conductor destinations on 
the board, including suggested 
ribbon cable lengths when using 
the cabinet described in the 
parts list. Provisions are in- 
cluded for four ribbon cables: 
one each to the printer interface, 
32K memory mod, and disk con- 
troller boards, plus a cable to 
the TRS-80 keyboard expansion 
port card edge. Connections at 
the three PSI boards are identi- 
cal to those described in the 
individual articles. If you have 
already built the three individual 
projects, and the ribbon cable 
lengths are sufficient for the 
PSI, there is no need for wiring 
changes at these three boards. 

For simplicity and better 
adjacent-conductor isolation, 
ribbon cable connections at the 
cable PC board include all 40 
conductors of each cable. Do 
not worry about the destination 




134 



Photo 2 
Micro, January 1983 



Photo 3 



r 



PRINTER INTERFACE 



"1 



TRS-80 

ADDRESS 

8US 



37E8H 
DECODER 



^> 




PRINT INITIATION 



PRINTER STATUS FEEDBACK 
ACTIVATION FOR TRS-80 



l_ 

r 



32K MEMORY MOD 



"~1 



MPX'D 

ADDRESS 

CONTROL 



A0-A6 / A7-AI3 

ROW /COLUMN ADDRESSES 

FOR RAM MEMORY 



MEMORY 
SELECT 



DESIRED I6K RAM BLOCK 
ACTIVATION 



r 



DISK CONTROLLER 



~i 



RE /WE / 
DATA ACCESS 
DECODER 



) 5 



FDC INTERNAL 
ECODER 



37E0 WR 
37EO RD 
37EC WR 
37EC RD 



REGISTER SELECTION 



SD/DD 
SELECT 



TT 



■ FDC MODE SELECTION 



DALO, 
DAL3-DAL7 



__l 



Fig. 1. TRS-80 address bus utilization in the PSI 



r 



37 EBRD p R i N TER INTERFACE 



STATUS FEEDBACK 
FROM PRINTER 



37E8WR 
I 



-\ DO-07 DA - 
-J TO PRINTE 



ai4,ai5,ro 32K MEMORY MOD 

_JJ_ 



1 



DO- 07 RAM OUTPUT DATA 



RAM INPUT DATA 



37ECWR 



DISK CONTROLLER 



"1 



:c 



37ECRD 
I 



AO.AI 
WE.SYSRES 



ii 



SD/DD 

SELECT 

DECODER/LATC 



"J 



DAL0-DAL7 
BUFFERED I/O 
FDC OATA 



FDC MODE SELECTION 



L 



37EOWR 
I 



DISK DRIVE 

SELECT 

LATCH 



DSI-DS4 y DISK DRIVE SELECTION 



.J 



Fig. 2. TRS-80 data bus utilization in the PSI 

-See List of Advertisers on Page 435 




A ComdIete MDX-Eouiped 

TRS-80 ModEl III 

SySTEM 

From MicRO-DEsiqiN 

$ 1695 95 



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See our other ads on pages 99 & 244 



Micro, January 1983 • 135 



SOFTWARE CONCEPTS 
DALLAS TEXAS 



SPECIAL DELIVERY 

Now is the time to turn your TRS-80 and 

your text editor into a REAL word processing 

machine. 

EXCELLENT... Creative Computing Review. 

State of the Art... 80 Microcomputing 

Review. 

• Maintain your mail list 

• Print personalized FORM letters. 

• Free format labels 

• 100% machine language 

• Enter names at typist speeds 

• Use with Scripsit, Lazywriter, Electric Pencil 

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• Extract selected names 

• Boldface & underscore 

• Get your form letters past the secretary's desk! 

XTRA Special Delivery Includes 
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This is the LAST mailing list you 
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Over 2800 satisfied customers 
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(Most TRS software available at similar discounts. CALL!) 

SOFTWARE CONCEPTS 

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Our retail store is located at the SW corner of 
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(214) 458-0330 

MasterCard, Visa, American Express, COD 

«-" 43 



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32 K 

MEMORY 

MOO 



Fig. 3. Power supply distribution in the PSI. Be sure to use the ver- 
sion in the 32K Memory Mod article. Although the bare PC boards 
are the same in both the Mem Mod and Disk Controller articles, the 
components used on the board for the stand-alone disk controller 
are not suited for use as shown here. 




Fig. 4. Etch pattern for ribbon cable distribution PC board 



of every wire, just be sure no 
cable is wired backward. Be cer- 
tain that the A2-end of the rib- 
bon cables at the cable PC 
board is the same end attached 
to the A2 pads of the three proj- 
ect boards. Because of the fan- 
out required to fit the 2-inch 
wide ribbon cable into pads 
spanning 4 inches, it is a good 



idea to prepare the ribbon cable 
ends as shown in Fig. 6. Using 
an ordinary pair of scissors, trim 
a V-shaped notch with its apex 
about 1 Va inches from the cable 
end. Then separate each con- 
ductor back about Vz inch. 
Finally, strip about 1/8 inch in- 
sulation from each conductor. 
Insert the conductors in order, 



136 • 80 Micro, January 1983 



Can your VisiCalc do this? 




It can if you add VisiBridge/RPT™, from Solutions, Inc. 

$79 for TRS-80® 1, 11/16, III, Apple® II or IBM PC™, 802 229 0368. Box 989 

Montpelier, VT 05602. MASTERCARD OR VISA/Dealer inquiries welcomed! 

VisiBridge/RPT is a trademark of Solutions. Inc. VisiCalc® is a registered trademark of VisiCoro ^ 276 

TRS-8(T is a registered trademark ot Tandy Corp. IBM PC is a trademark ol IBM Corp. 



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o Z-80 "source" libraries in 

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80 Micro, January 1983 • 137 



o 








TRS-80 


DISK 


PRINT 


MEM 


X 


X 


X 


X 


A2 


A2 


A2 


A2 


X 


X 


X 


X 


A6 


A6 


A6 


A6 


A5 


A5 


A5 


A5 


A7 


A7 


A7 


A7 


X 


X 


X 


X 


A3 


A3 


A3 


A3 


A4 


X 


A4 


A4 


D2 


D2 


D2 


D2 


X 


X 


X 


X 


DO 


DO 


DO 


DO 


A1 


A1 


X 


A1 


D5 


D5 


D5 


D5 


AO 


AO 


X 


AO 


D3 


D3 


D3 


D3 


X 


X 


X 


X 


D6 


D6 


D6 


D6 


INT 


INT 


X 


X 


D1 


D1 


D1 


D1 


X 


X 


X 


X 


D7 


D7 


D7 


D7 


A9 


A9 


A9 


A9 


D4 


D4 


D4 


D4 


RD 


RD 


RD 


RD 


X 


X 


X 


X 


WR 


WR 


WR 


WR 


X 


X 


X 


X 


A8 


A8 


A8 


A8 


X 


X 


X 


X 


A11 


A11 


A11 


A11 


A14 


A14 


A14 


A14 


A15 


A15 


A15 


A15 


GND 


GND 


GND 


GND 


A12 


A12 


A12 


A12 


A13 


A13 


A13 


A13 


X 


X 


X 


X 


A10 


A10 


A10 


A10 


RAS 


X 


X 


RAS 


SR 


SR 


X 


X 












•tllpfip 



RIBBON CABLE LENGTHS: 
TRS-80 6 INCHES 

DISK 5 INCHES 

PRINT 22 INCHES 

MEMORY 14 INCHES 




X = No usage of this conductor 
SR = System Reset 



Top View (with circuit trace pattern underneath) 



Fig. 5a. Ribbon cable PC board conductor identification and sug- 
gested cable lengths. The 40-pin connector plugs into the keyboard 
with the ribbon cable exiting the bottom of the connector. 



without skipping any conductors 
or pads. If you have already at- 
tached the other end of the ca- 
bles, be absolutely certain that 
none of the cable PC board ends 
are attached backward. (Virtu- 
ally all ribbon cables have some 
sort of color-coding to identify 
sides— the simplest method is a 
red stripe along the outermost 
conductor on one side.) 

Figure 5b shows where the 
termination resistors are 
mounted on the cable PC board. 
These resistors are designated 
R33-R42 in the Disk Controller 
article. If you have already 
chosen the option of adding the 



resistors directly to the disk 
controller main PC board, do not 
add a duplicate set to the cable 
PC board. 

Figure 7 shows the proper 
routing of the ribbon cables. In- 
sert the disk controller ribbon 
cable into the circuit trace side 
of the cable PC board, and the 
other three cables from the op- 
posite side. 

If you are connecting all four 
cables to the PC board at one 
time, attach the 32K memory 
mod cable first, then the printer 
interface, disk controller, and 
finally the TRS-80 cable. This is 
the simplest attachment order, 





Fig. 5b. Ribbon cable PC board termination component placement. 
These resistors are designated R33-R42 in the disk controller 
article. 



Cabinet Construction 
and Wiring 

Figures 8 through 10 provide 
the dimension details needed 
for cabinet preparation. Figure 8 
contains dimensions for the 
front panel, Fig. 9 for the back 
panel, and Fig. 10forthe cabinet 
top. Make the rectangular cut- 
outs for the TRS-80 ribbon cable 
and the disk controller/printer in- 
terface card edge connectors by 
drilling several small holes and 
filing to the dimensions or by 
drilling one larger hole and then 
using a "nibbler" to punch the 
metal to the desired dimensions. 
(The Adel Nibbling Tool, avail- 
able from Jameco Electronics in 
Belmont, CA, 94002, at $7.50, is 
excellent for this purpose.) 

All PC boards are attached to 
the cabinet top via threaded 
standoffs. Standoff heights 
should be Vz inch for the disk 
controller, printer interface, and 
32K memory mod boards, 3 A 
inch for the power supply board, 



Fig. 6. Recommended trimming 
guide for cable-PC board end of 
ribbon cables 



particularly if the other ends 
of these cables have already 
been wired. 

The preparation and wiring of 
the ribbon cables is a tedious 
task. I rejected the alternative, 
to attach connectors to all the 
cabling. First, it would be quite 
costly; more significantly, it 
would reduce the long term 
reliability of the system by intro- 
ducing 160 mechanical connec- 
tions at the cable PC board, and 
about 80 connections at the 
three project PC boards. 



138 • 80 Micro, January 1983 



If You Do A Lot Of Editing Of 

Your BASIC Programs, Then 

This Is The Editor For You!!! 



The Full Screen Text Editor for BASIC, we were the first to give 
the TRS-80 this indispensable ability. What ability? The ability 
to edit your BASIC program with the ease of word processing. 
It is a type of word processor specifically designed to handle 
ims instead of letters and documents. 





■ The capability to change, insert and 
delete a character or characters: 

Simply position the cursor over the 
character that you wish to change and 
type in the new one. Another handy feature 
is Insert Mode, this is used to add text in the 
middle of a program line. 

■ Extend a line or insert new lines: 

Extending a line is as simple as two 
keystrokes, instantly the cursor jumps to the 
end of the program line and the editor is 
placed in the insert mode. 

■ Delete, copy or move statements: 

All you have to do is mark the line or block 
of lines and then tell the editor where to 
move or copy them. 

■ Global Search and/or change any 
specified string: 

Have you ever needed to change a lot of 
PRINT statements to LPRINTs? 

■ Macro key facility: 

Macro keys can cut your programming 
time in half. You can define each of the 26 
letter keys (A-Z) to represent BASIC 
keywords, or any letter or number 
combination up to 6 characters per key 

■ Renumber commands: 

Whats so special about this renumber 
facility? Not only can it renumber selected 
portions of your program, it also checks all 
GOTO, GOSUB, THEN and ELSE statements 
and updates them as needed! 

sSee List of Advertisers on Page 435 



You may have seen other Editor programs 
advertized that give you one, maybe two 
of these features. You may have also seen 
some of these features sold as separate 
utility programs. 

Only CAU offers a complete editing system, 
not just a word processor patched up to 
handle line numbers. 



You can order the BASIC Editor directly from 
Computer Applications Unlimited or ask your 
local computer store. 



#■1210-20 for 




only $ 




The Editor is supplied on tape with complete 
instructions to move it to disk. If you wish us to 
send the editor on disk please add $5.00 
and ask for a DISK DUMR 

Add $2.00 for shipping in the U.S. and 
Canada, $10.00 outside USA 
N.Y State Residents add applicable Sales Tax. 
Dealer inquiries Invited. 



Computer Applications Unlimited 
RO.Box214,DeptFSBE, Rye, N.Y 10580 
(914)937-6286 

^120 

ni I COMPUTER 
ML /APPLICATIONS 
iSLZJ UNLIMITED 

a dlv. of CAU, Inc. 



TRS-80 is a TM of Tandy Corp. 



80 Micro, January 1983 • 139 



— 1.75- 

-1.47- 



HOLE DIAMETERS 

A = .235 

B ■ 25 



Fig. 8. Cabinet front panel dimensions 



- 14.81 
14.062- 



J L 



t 

1.22 

A. 



Fig. 9. Cabinet rear panel dimensions 



and 1 V-2 inches for the cable PC 
board. The two power trans- 
formers are also mounted to the 
top. Thus, you can remove the 
bottom cover to allow un- 
obstructed circuit access for 
servicing. 

Wiring connections, other 
than ribbon cables, between the 
PC boards and cabinet-mounted 
components are shown on Fig. 
1 1 . Be very careful to properly in- 
sulate the transformer primary 
and power switch connections 
to eliminate potential shock 
hazard. A good way to insulate 
the power switch is to slip a 1 Vz 
inch length of large-diameter 
shrink tubing over the switch, 
after soldering the wires and 
routing them out the front side 
instead of at the rear terminal 
locations. While the shrink tub- 
ing is still hot, pinch the rear por- 
tion of it (extending out beyond 
the solder terminals) with pliers 
and hold until the tubing has 
cooled. The tubing should re- 
main pinched together. Before 
mounting the disk controller 
regulator to the outside of the 




DISK DRIVE WOES? ^ ^k Pat #4,259,705 

PRINTER INTERACTION? 

MEMORY LOSS? 

ERRATIC OPERATION? ^ 1^ y^j» , S o-i 

Don't 

Blame The 
Software! lSM 

Power Line Spikes, Surges & 

Hash could be the culprit! Floppies, printers, 

memory & processor often interact! Our patented ISOLATORS 

eliminate equipment interaction AND curb damaging Power Line 

Spikes, Surges and Hash. MONEY BACK GUARANTEE! 

• ISOLATOR (ISO-1) 3 filter isolated 3-prong sockets; integral 
Surge/Spike Suppression; 1875 W Maximum load, 1 KW load 
any socket $69.95 

• ISOLATOR (ISO-2) 2 filter isolated 3-prong socket banks; (6 
sockets total); integral Spike/Surge Suppression; 1875 W Max 
load, 1 KW either bank $69.95 

• SUPER ISOLATOR (ISO-3) similar to ISO-1 except double 
isolation & Suppression $104.95 

• SUPER ISOLATOR (ISO-1 1) similar to ISO-2 except double 
Isolation & Suppression $104.95 

• MAGNUM ISOLATOR (ISO-1 7) 4 Quad Isolated sockets; For 
ULTRA-SENSITIVE Systems $181.95 

• CIRCUIT BREAKER, any model (Add-CB) Add $9.00 

• REMOTE SWITCH, any model (Add-RS) Add $16.00 

AT YOUR MasterCard, Visa, American Express 

DEALERS ORDER TOLL FREE 1-800-225-4876 

(except AK, HI, PR & Canada) 



JS7 Electronic Specialists, Inc. ^ 

171 South Main Street, Box 389, Natick, Mass. 01760 
(617) 655-1532 



ATTACH THOSE CONDUCTORS 
SHOWN IN FIG. 12 OF 32K 
MEMORY MOD ARTICLE 




STEP I 
INSERT THE MEMORY MOD CABLE THROUGH THE 
UNDERSIDE OF THE CABLE PC BOARD AND THE 
TOPSIDE OF THE MEMORY MOD BOARD. 




ATTACH ONLY THOSE CON- 
DUCTORS SHOWN IN FIG. 5 
OF PRINTER INTERFACE 
ARTICLE 



PRINTER INTERFACE 
STEP 2 
INSERT THE PRINTER INTERFACE CABLE THROUGH 
THE UNDERSIDE OF THE CABLE PC BOARD AND THE 
TOPSIDE OF THE PRINTER INTERFACE BOARD. 





ATTACH ONLY THOSE CON- 
DUCTORS SHOWN IN FIG. 9 
OF DISK CONTROLLER 
ARTICLE 



ATTACH ALL 40 
CONDUCTORS 



STEP 3 
INSERT THE DISK CONTROLLER RIBBON CABLE 
THROUGH THE TOPSIDE (AS SHOWN HERE) OF BOTH 
THE DISK CONTROLLER AND CABLE PC BOARDS. 




STEP 4 
INSERT THE TRS-80 RIBBON CABLE THROUGH 
THE UNDERSIDE OF THE CABLE PC BOARD. 



Fig. 7. Ribbon cable routing guide 



140 • 80 Micro, January 1983 



cabinet, be sure to scrape away 
the paint in that area. The best 
way to do that is to temporarily 
place the regulator in position 
and trace its outline onto the 
cabinet. Using a small screw- 
driver, carefully scrape away the 
paint within the outline, then 
apply thermal heatsink com- 
pound before fastening the 
regulator. Attach a solder lug to 
one of the two screws to provide 
a regulator ground connection 
point inside the cabinet. 

Operation 

I have tested the PSI with two 
popular double density disk 
operating systems: DBLDOS by 
Percom, and Double Zap- 
Enhanced NEWDOS80 by Ap- 
parat. Other double density 
operating systems compatible 
with the hardware supported by 
these two systems should also 
work on the PSI. Of course, 
you can use any single density 
DOS designed for use with the 
Radio Shack Expansion Inter- 
face as well. 

Just a quick note on opera- 



tion of the keyboard Reset but- 
ton in conjunction with the reset 
enable switch position on the 
PSI. When the keyboard is not 



connected to any peripheral de- 
vices, prudent use of the Reset 
button is recommended. De- 
pending on what software is 



loaded and what the micropro- 
cessor happens to be doing at 
the time, the reset function may 
or may not do what is desired. 



625 



Fig. 10. Cabinet top panel dimensions. All holes are . 14 inch in diameter. If the cabinet will house the 32K 
memory mod, use the #1 holes (shown at right) to accommodate its larger transformer. Otherwise use 
the #2 holes. 



Do your own taxes like an expert 
with TAX/SAVER. 



TAX/SAVER: m The tax help program 
for the layman and the professional. 



Privacy. 

Built-in tax aids. Answers questions like "Is my father my 

dependent?" and "Are my deductions reasonable?" 

Tax regulations programmed in by our team of accountants. 

Type in your figures and you've done your own tax return. 

Output to video or lineprinter. (Overlays available.) 

Tax deductible. 

Manual: Tax information, lists of deductions, tax glossary. 

TAX/SAVER™ I: completes long and short forms, itemized 

deductions, interest, dividends, income averaging. 

TAX/SAVER" II: all features of TAX/SAVER™ I plus 

business income and capital gains. 

40% Discount on yearly updates. 



Reviews and Users' Comments: 

About TAX/SAVER'": 

"This is a very valuable tool" — R. Perry, Personal Computing Magazine, 

"Tax Preparation Software", December 1981 
"This is the perfect program (or those doing taxes for others (. . .good for an 
individual, too!!) — B.M., Missoula, MT (Professional Preparer) 

About TAX/FORECASTER'": 

"VERY HANDY!" — T. Pettibone, "Software Critic", 1982 ^342 

©Copyright 1982 'Registered trademark ol Tandy Corp. 



TAX/FORECASTER™, a quick tax planner for 1982-1983, lets 
you see how financial decisions will affect your taxes. Merely change 
one or more entries to see your lax refigured. 

NFVVl PROFESSIONAL TAX/FORECASTER" 
l»"-* ' adds disk storage of client filesand income averaging. 
Orders will be filled in late January to allow inclusion of new tax laws. 
TO ORDER: 



Call collect 203-324-3009 or 203-544-8777 or mail this 
coupon to: Micromatic Programming Co. 

P.O. Box 158, Georgetown, CT 06829 

Please enroll me in member's service and send: 

□ TAX/SAVER'" I @ $89.95 Manual Included 
D TAX/SAVER'" II @ $139.95 Manual Included 

□ TAX/FORECASTER'" @ $59.95 

□ PROFESSIONAL TAX/FORECASTER™ 
@ $99.95 (requires 48K) 

($15. off any TAX/FORECASTER" with any TAX/SAVER'") 

□ Tax Form Overlays (set of 6) @ $39.95 

□ Please send me more information 
Please check one: 

TRS-80* Model I □ 32K, 2 drives D 48K, 2 drives 

TRS-80* Model III □ 32K, 2 drives D 48K, 2 drives 

Add $3.50 for postage and handling, CT residents add 7'?'<> sales tax. 

Name . 



Address 
City 



.State 



.Zip 



D Check D Master Charge D Visa 
Card No. 



.Exp. date 



• See List of Advertisers on Page 435 



80 Micro, January 1983 • 141 



For example, it may or may not 
allow you to recover from a hung 
up state where you have lost 
keyboard control. It may make a 
difficult situation hopeless... 



or it may save the day! Remem- 
ber that since you have disk 
drives powered up, even though 
the read linkage from the FDC to 
the TRS-80 is broken via the re- 



set enable switch position, this 
will not prevent action on a 
faulty command from the TRS- 
80 to the FDC. Until you can 
safely predict the conse- 




RESUME 



POWER 



NOTES: 

I. LONGER LEAD ON LEOS IS THE ANODE. 

2. TOGGLE SWITCH TERMINALS SHOWN HORIZONTALLY HERE FOR CLARITY; 
IN CABINET, UNUSED TERMINAL SHOULD FACE TOWARD CABINET TOP. 

3. II7VAC IS PRESENT HERE! BE CERTAIN TO INSULATE ALL TERMINALS 
WITH SHRINK TUBING OR ELECTRICAL TAPE TO PREVENT SHOCK HAZARD. 

4. THE 6.3V XFMR SECONDARY WINDING LEADS WILL NEED TO BE EXTENDED TO REACH 
THE DISK CONTROLLER BOARD. USE SHRINK TU8ING OVER THE WIRE SPLICES. 



DISK/RESET ENABLE 



Fig. 11. Interboard connections. This diagram illustrates all wiring other than ribbon cables. Wires are 
shown above the PC boards for clarity, but will look neater if routed beneath the boards. 



quences of your planned ac- 
tivities while in reset enable 
mode, it is wise to first remove 
all disks from the drives (you 
don't need them while in reset 
enable mode anyway!). 

You can be truly proud of your 
PSI construction achievement; 
not only for the unique end prod- 
uct, but also for the knowledge 
and personal satisfaction de- 
rived from a project of this com- 
plexity. Let me hear from you. I 
would appreciate your com- 
ments and suggestions on the 
material, as well as enhance- 
ments and new features you 
would like to see.B 

You can obtain the ribbon 
cable distribution PC board for 
$7.95 and the prepared cabinet 
(predrilled, punched, painted, 
and labelled) with screws and 
threaded standoffs to mount all 
PC boards for $59.95. 

The above prices are postpaid 
in the continental U.S. Ari- 
zona residents add 4 percent 
sales tax. Order from PVP Indus- 
tries, P.O. Box 35667, Tucson, 
AZ 85740. 



COMPUTER KITS- FROM $69.95 




LNW SEMI-KITS can save you hundreds of dollars. By obtaining your own parts at the lowest 
possible cost and assembling the LNW SEMI-KITS, you can have the most highly acclaimed 
microcomputer in the industry - the LNW80. The LNW SEMI-KITS are affordable modules. You 
can start with a modest cassette system and expand to a full 4Mhz TRS-80 compatible system with 
5 or 8 inch double density disks and color at any time. 

A. LNW80 CPU - Made of high quality FR4 glass epoxy double sided circuit material, with plated- 
through holes and gold edge connector. It is fully solder-masked and silk screened. Here are just 
some of the outstanding features you will have when your . LNW80 CPU board is fully assembled: 
• 16K RAM • Color and black and white video • 480 x 192 high resolution graphics • 64 and 80 
column video • 4 Mhz Z80A CPU • Upper and lower case display • 500 and 1 000 baud cassette 
I/O -$89.95 

B. SYSTEM EXPANSION- Expandthe LNW80computerboard, TRS-80and PMC-80 computer 
with the following features: • 32K memory • Serial RS232C and 20Ma port • Real time clock • 
Parallel printer port • 5 inch single density disk controller • Expansion bus (screen printer port) • 
Onboard power supply • Solder-masked and silk screened legend -$69. 95 (tin plated contacts) - 
$84.95 (gold plated contacts) 

C. KEYBOARD- 74 key expanded professional keyboard- includes 1 2 key numeric keypad. Fully 
assembled and tested. - $99.95 

D. COMPUTER CASE -This stylish instrument-quality solid steel case and hardware kit gives your 
LNW80 that professional factory-built appearance. - $84.95 Add $12.00 for shipping. 

E. SYSTEM EXPANSION CASE- This stylish instrument-quality solid steel case and hardware kit 
gives your SYSTEM EXPANSION interface that professional factory-built appearance. - $59.95 
Add $10.00 for shipping. 

F. LNW80 CPU - HARD TO FIND PARTS KIT - $82.00 

G. LNW80 VIDEO- HARD TO FIND PARTS KIT- $31.00 

H. SYSTEM EXPANSION - HARD TO FIND PARTS KIT- $27.50 
I. LEVEL II ROM set. (6 chip set) - $1 20.00 

VISA and MasterCard accepted. Add $3.00 for shipping plus $1.00 for each additional item. All 
shipments via U PS surface. Add $2.00 for U.S. Mail. Shipments outside continental U.S.: funds must 
be U.S. dollars. Sufficient shipping costs must be included with payment. 

ORDERS & INFORMATION - (714) 544-5744 
SERVICE - (71 4) 641 -8850 



LNW Research Corp. 

2620 WALNUT Tustin. CA. 92680 



<^33 



142 • 80 Micro, January 1983 




Would you like your TRS-80® Lm - 

Model III to communicate with other 

TRS-80s? With remote databases? 

Mainframes? With STSC's APL*PLUS/80 

Application Development System, your TRS-80 can do it! 

Think of the benefits to you or to your clients when you make your 
TRS-80 part of a worldwide communications network. You'll be able 
to access and transmit data, control local devices (such as printers 
and plotters), and communicate with other TRS-80 users. And since 
the APL* PLUS/80 System is compatible with our APL*PLUS systems 
for the VAX* minicomputer series and IBM mainframes, it's easy to 
exchange, download, or upload applications between them. 

The APL* PLUS/80 System has a built-in terminal emulator, either 
for APL or for ASCII, ready for use at the touch of a key. Another touch 
of the key and you're back to using your TRS-80 as an independent 
computer in the same APL environment -without losing the connec- 
tion to the remote host! Through one keyboard, you control both 
machines in turn. Or use APL program-controlled communication to 
create your own "smart" terminal. 

Challenge to BASIC 

Develop a subroutine to group and total unordered costs by job 
number. The result is a table showing the total cost for each active 
job, in ascending job order, formatted as a report. Use the following 
CHARGES: 

8.20 5.55 1.59 995.00 2.44 14.32 .87 .79 1.01 149.03 3.42 .86 
for JOBS numbered 213 33 4 4 4 4 9 33 213 4 33 33: 
JOB TOTAL 



with system features that extend 

the power and productivity of the APL 

language, bringing our proprietary enhancements to 

your TRS-80 Model III. 

• complete APL language and system features, upwards compatible 
with our mainframe systems 

• powerful output formatter 

• array-oriented file system 

• access to regular TRSDOS or LDOS* files and subroutines 

• traditional APL symbols or mnemonic keywords 

• utility program libraries 

• the most complete set of documentation on the market. 

Open up a world of communications for yourself with the 
APL* PLUS/80 System. Mail in the coupon below with your payment 
and we'll send you the APL* PLUS/80 Application Development Sys- 
tem -everything you need to run APL on your TRS-80 Model III. If 
you'd like more details, check the box on the coupon and we'll send 
you our free information package which contains an explanation of 
the Challenge to BASIC. 

We're STSC, Inc., the leading supplier of APL software and services in the 
United States. Our APL*PLUS systems have been serving the business and pro- 
fessional wo. Id for more than 12 years. 

APL* PLUS/80 runs under TRSDOS 1.3 or LDOS 5.1 on a 48K RAM TRS-80 
Model III with two disk drives. The APL* PLUS/80 comes with a custom APL- 
character ROM and a self-adhesive keyboard label set to convert your TRS-80 
to include the APL character set. 



4 

9 

33 

213 



162.38 
$0.87 

510.62 
$9.21 



stsc 



One APL solution is: 

7 COST FOR JOB;ONCE:SP 
[1] 0NCE*-(J0B*1E38, .UJOB) /J08<-J0BlSP<-&J08l O 
[2J 'I1,CP/$/n2.2< QFMT 0NCB.il. 5] C0ST[SP>. 



JOB TOTAL ' 

'JOB- . =ONC£ 



Attn: APL* PLUS/80 Distribution 

STSC, Inc., 2115 East Jefferson Street 

Rockville, Maryland 20852 (301 ) 984-5000 (orders only) 

Yes, send me the APL*PLUS/80 System ($295* in U.S. and Canada). 

□ My check is enclosed. (Postpaid in continental U.S.) 

□ Charge my MasterCard Account * 

MasterCard Bank # 



Even if this kind of task is not among the problems you deal with, 
APL's ability to represent concise solutions can save you programming 
time and effort. 

There's more. Our APL allows you to read and write TRSDOS® files 
(such as VisiCalc* files) without leaving APL, even under program 
control. And you can direct arbitrary data from APL to the parallel 
port or RS232 port under APL program control. 

APL*PLUS/80 — A Complete Application Development System 

Would you like to have your TRS-80 reach out to the world beyond 
your desktop? Would you like to develop and deliver solutions faster 
and better for yourself or for your clients? Then you need APL* PLUS/8 



□ Charge my VISA Account # 



MasterCard/VISA expiration date 

Credit card customers add $4.00 postage and handling in conti- 
nental U.S. 

*Add applicable state and local sales taxes in CA, CO, CT, IL, MA, 
MD, MI, NC, NM, NY, PA, TX, WA. 
I'd like to know more about the APL*PLUS/80 System. 
□ Send me your free information package. 

Name 

Address 



City 

Phone ( 



State 



_) 



Zip 



APL* PLUS is a service mark and trademark of STSC. Inc., registered in the United States Patent and Trademark Office. VAX is a registered trademark of 
Digital Equipment Corporation. TRS-80 and TRSDOS are registered trademarks of Tandy Corporation. LDOS is a registered trademark of Logical Systems, Inc. 

VisiCalc is a registered trademark of VisiCorp. 



0-183 



OPS 

PROGRRm 
/TOR6 



Last Chance: Galaxy of 



DEMISE 




By Case from Acorn 
A fast-action space game that's very challenging! 
You must destroy the aliens with lasers and "smart 
bombs." Then, make your way carefully through a 
meteor storm and a rocky tunnel. Great sound ef- 
fects; keyboard control. 

16K Tape or Disk, $19.95 



KING 
OF THE 
JUNGLE 

By Vandewalle from Acorn 

An unusual combination of fast pinball action plus 
the challenges and dangers of an arcade game. 
Keep the ball in play, scoring points as it caroms 
from obstacle to obstacle, while wandering through 
the jungle searching for the hidden crown. And try to 
avoid the deadly Cobra. Lots of action, sound and 
fun! Choice of 3 screens. Can be used with Trisstick 
joystick. 

16K Tape or Disk, $19.95 




EVADE 




By Knight from Acorn 
You're in charge of the USS Krestan, an interstellar 
tri-ship. If you defeat the enemy aliens you en- 
counter, you get a chance to earn extra points by 
successfully docking with a larger ship. Then come 
the evil Malicians and dangerous meteor showers. 
Never a dull moment with this one! 

16K Tape or Disk, $19.95 



MYSTERIOUS 
ADVENTURE 

ARROW OF DEATH, 
PART1 

By Brian Howarth from Acorn 
Proper English only! This British import is Acorn Soft- 
ware's first adventure and it meets their reputation for 
high quality. The vocabulary you use in this adventure 
must conform to proper English standards— not the 
barbaric tongue spoken here in the colonies! You and 
Sorcerer Zardra must restore the kingdom from the 
engulfing sense of bitterness and ill feeling that 
forced the ruler to flee the palace. 

16K Tape or 32K Disk, $19.95 
Hint Sheet, $1.00 




PANIK 




By Demas from Fantastic 

An arcade style game of a fascinating future world 
with high-res graphics and voice. Filled with action 
and excitement; in machine language. 

16KTape, $19.95 32K Disk, $24.95 



ARMORED 
PATROL 




By Westmoreland & Gilman from Adventure 
As commander of a lumbering T-36 tank you have the 
firepower to destroy the enemy— if you can find them. 
They may be hiding behind the houses scattered about, 
the bleak terrain and your only view is thru the drivers 
port (your screen). Impressive animation in this ar- 
cade game. 

1 6K Tape, $1 9.95 32K Disk, $24.95 



COMPUTER 

FOOTBALL 

STRATEGY 

From Avalon Hill 

Exciting computer version of the famous board 
game. You'll have to think fast as you plan the offen- 
sive and defensive formations for your team. Play 
against the computer or a friend. 

32K Tape, $20.95 





ASYLUM 

From Med Systems ** 

You are sitting alone at 2 AM. Your eyes are bloodshot 

as you peer into your computer's screen and cry, "I 

must be CRAZY!" If this has never happened to you, 

you've never tried ASYLUM. It's Med Systems most 

ambitious 3-D graphics adventure yet! 

ASYLUM places you on a cot in a small (padded?) 

room. Periodically the janitor lobs a hand grenade 

through the window. What you do next could mean 

escape— or disaster. 



16K Tape, $19.95 
Also available: 

ASYLUM II 

16K Tape, $19.95 



32K Disk, $22.95 



32K Disk, $22.95 



STRIKE 
FORCE 




From Melbourne House 
You are the warrior-savior of cities under relentless 
alien attack. You're armed with rapid-fire missiles, 
radar and incendiary star-shells; but you'll need your 
fastest thinking and instantaneous response to pro- 
tect yourself and your people. Great real-time 
graphics! 

16K Tape, $15.95 32K Disk, $19.95 



PENETRATOR 




From Melbourne House 
Armed with missiles and bombs, you must fly your 
fighter to the enemy's cache of neutron bombs and 
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rugged terrain, caverns and manmade obstacles — not 
to mention enemy radar, missiles and paratroopers. This 
new departure in arcade gaming allows you to set up 
your own terrain and enemy emplacements, then save 
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as you like. Joystick compatible. 

16K Tape or 32K Disk, $24.95 



SEA 
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Underwater adventure is yours as you command a 
nuclear sub armed with deadly missiles and 
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underwater mountains; watch out for depth charges 
being fired by overhead ships. . .and don't run out of 
air! Scrolling sea bottom for added excitement. 

16K Tape, $19.95 
32K Disk, $24.95 



REAR 
GUARD 




By Neil Larimer from Adventure Int. 
A space battle between your cruiser and wave-after- 
wave of enemy ships. You can destroy them with 
your energy darts or you can ram them — as long as 
your shields are intact. The action takes place on a 
continuous horizontal landscape. You control the 
altitude and speed of your craft as you pursue the 
enemy. Skill level 1 is exciting, and there are four 
more levels available. 

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144 • 80 Micro, January 1983 



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From Soft Sector Marketing 
This is the fast-action arcade game you've been 
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they split into additional segments or metamorphose 
into different shapes; when you destroy a caterpillar, 
the new one that replaces it is a segment longer than 
the original! 

16K Tape, $15.95 
32K Disk, $19.95 



HYPERLIGHT 
PATROL 





By Warren Green from Fantastic 
Realistic space conflict simulation with continuous 
projection map display that shows you complete 
globe of space around your airship: front, sides, 
back, above and below. Your ship — and the 
enemy's — can maneuver in 3-D space, and can 
move by hyperlight jumps. You can only learn by 
playing what are the best strategies and tactics for 
survival. "Talks" through cassette port. 

48K Disk, $19.95 

THE 

WYLDE 

Warriors 
of RAS, 
Vol.3 

By Masteller from Med Systems 
The newest in this fascinating series of adventure/ 
role playing games. You create the characters, then 
play the game, solving all its complex challenges. 
Save the games, and the characters. Characters are 
interchangeable among the 3 volumes. Machine 
language, great graphics. No "rules" to consult; no 
waiting for the computer. 

48K Tape or Disk, $29.95 
Also available: 
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48K Tape or Disk, 
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BOUNCEOIDS 

From Cornsoft 
We're not sure what they are, but they're huge and 
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kill with one touch. Your mission is to destroy them 
with your new class 4 annihilator. Then there are the 
terrible bugs coming out of null space to crunch you 
to smithereens. You'll need coordination, strategy 
and courage! Joystick-compatible. 

1 6K Tape, $1 5.95 1 6K Disk, $1 9.95 





SKYSCRAPER 

By Fine from Superior 
3-part maze game for the nimble-fingered. First, you 
must move through maze while avoiding barrels 
coming at you; second, you must look out for fires 
that break out randomly on screen; third, you ride 
elevators up and down from platform to platform. 
The sky's the limit. . .how far can you go? 1 or 2 
player game with sound; joystick compatible. 

32K Tape, $19.95 32KDisk,$21.95 



DEFIANCE 




From Fantastic 
The first talking space simulation! You're defending 
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of Planets and the Klingon Empire. You have just 
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yourself and the Federation. "Talks" through cas- 
sette port; joystick compatible. 

48K Disk, $24.95 



DUNZHIN 

Warriors of RAS, 
Vol.1 




By Masteller from Med Systems 
The first adventure/role playing game to combine 
fast graphics, fast response time and complete com- 
puter implementation. DUNZHIN places you in a 
many-level dungeon, filled with demons and goblins. 
You must search for hidden treasures, but only one 
will win the game. In this series you create the char- 
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them in other volumes. 

48K Tape or Disk, $29.95 



LEAPER 




From Cedar Software 
Fast action, machine language game for one or 2 
players. Your frog must dodge traffic and cross river 
on fast-moving logs. Ready, set . . . LEAP! 

16K Tape, $15.95 16K Disk, $19.95 



INSTANT SORT/ 
SEARCH DATABASE 

By G. Hatton From Acorn 

A database program that allows the user to store a 
large number of files in the form of lists, and pro- 
vides the user a means to retrieve specific items of 
information from the file. Written in machine lan- 
guage, ISS can provide a multitude of sorts, sub- 
sorts, searches and categorizations in seconds. Be- 
cause the processing is done in memory, it is ex- 
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16K Tape or 32 K Disk, $49.95 




By Richard Wilkes from Acorn 

Using your Superscript modified Scripsit Word Pro- 
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32K Disk, $49.95 Use Model I Scripsit 



MONEY 
MANAGER 




By Andrew P. Bartorillo from Acorn 
A complete management tool for the home budget, it 
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POWER 
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By Kim Watt from Powersoft 
A graphic screen editor that works with all major 
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Disk, $39.95 




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80 Micro, January 1983 • 145 



REVIEW 



A Pascal for All Seasons 



by Bruce Powel Douglass 



• •*•• 

Alcor Pascal 

Alcor Systems 

800 W. Garland Ave. 

Suite 100 

Garland, TX 75040 

Models I and HI 

48K RAM, one disk drive 

Alcor Pascal System $199 

Advanced Development Package $125 

Manual $30 



> Alcor Systems has produced an en- 
hanced Pascal that thoroughly removes 
my reservations about Pascal being a 
serious applications programming 
language. 

Alcor Pascal is a compiled language 
that executes 10 to 20 times faster for 
most programs than interpreted Basic. 
It runs on all DOSes and comes on three 
disks for the Model I, and two disks for 
the Model III, including an 8K data- 
base program used for tutorial. It com- 
piles quickly and compiled programs 
can be sold without paying royal- 
ty fees. 

Alcor also provides a one-year service 
contract that includes upgrades and 
patches. A benefit of Pascal programs 
is that they are portable to other ma- 
chines, so that a program compiled 
under TRS-80 Model I will run with the 
CP/M run-time system for Alcor Pas- 
cal as-is. 

The Manual 

Alcor Pascal's 250-page manual is 
well organized and referenced, and the 
print is easy to read. It is divided into 
four main sections: Editor, System, Tu- 
torial, and Reference. 

The particularly outstanding sections 

146 • 80 Micro, January 1983 



If procedure-oriented 
languages intrigue 
you, Alcor Pascal may be 
the answer to your needs. 

of the manual are the Tutorial and Ref- 
erence sections. The Tutorial can serve 
as a useful introduction or refresher to 
the world of Pascal. To learn the ins 
and outs will take a more in-depth treat- 
ment than is presented here, but never- 
theless, the tutorial, with all its examples 
and explanations, is certainly an aid. 

The Reference section is a complete 
reference on Alcor Pascal, including the 
standard Pascal procedures implement- 
ed, and the many enhancements. Each 
Pascal construct is explained, a short 
syntax diagram is given, and then ex- 
amples follow. 

The System section describes the sys- 
tem implementation on the TRS-80 
Models I and III. It discusses the proce- 
dures of compiling and linking com- 
piled code, as well as the compile-time 
error messages and the TRS-80 proce- 
dure and function library supported by 
Alcor Pascal. The Editor section shows 
the various Editor commands for the 
creation of Pascal source code to be fed 
to the compiler. 

The Programs 

The programs in the Alcor Pascal 
system work well. The Editor is a full- 
screen text editor. It is easy to use, al- 
though it is a little slow. I preferred to 
use my Newscript word processor to 
enter the Pascal programs, but for those 
without such a word processor, the 
Editor will come in handy. 

The Editor commands can be ac- 
cessed by either entering a command 



mode or by hitting certain predefined 
key sequences. The Editor supports 
quite a few options, such as full cursor 
movement (including tabbing right and 
left; scrolling up, down, left, or right; 
moving cursor to top of screen; and 
moving cursor to beginning or end of 
line), text deletion and insertion, and 
global modifications (including splitting 
and merging program lines, and 
searching and replacing strings). You 
can also insert special characters like 
hex 7B and 7D (curly brackets, which 
are used to enclose comments). 

Editor allows you to edit new or old 
programs, and the maximum size of 
your data file is limited to the free space 
on a single disk. Editor has an on-line 
help menu for any topic. Editor pro- 
vides a useful environment for the Pas- 
cal program development. 

The other programs of note are the 
compiler, the linking loader, and the 
run-time module. The compiler comes 
in two formats. The first format is a 
single program that compiles your 
source program into a compact format 
called p-code or pseudo-code. Pseudo- 
code is much more compact than the 
original program and executes much 
faster than Basic. The Advanced Devel- 
opment Package, described later, can 
take this code and optimize it (reducing 
it in size by 20 percent to 30 percent) or 
generate true Z80 machine code, which 
executes even faster than the p-code. 

The second format breaks up the 
compiler into several programs that use 
a common overlay area. This permits 
much more room for the symbol table 
generated by your source program dur- 
ing the compile process, thereby allow- 
ing much larger programs to be com- 
piled. The efficiency of the compiler 
and the compactness of the code is dem- 
onstrated by the fact that the compiler 






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Plus, the source code for a small disk 
operation system (S/OS) is included as a bonus. 
This S/OS contains all of the routines described 
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and interrupt functions should be incorporated 
into a working system. 

On machine language disk I/O. 

Machine-Language Disk I/O & 
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system is all about, what Tracks and Sector are. 



the Western Digital Floppy Disk Controller 1771 
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selected drives' status, how to test and make 
sure a disk is in a drive or if a drive is on the 
system (on-line), the Head Restore command, 
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Machine-Language Disk I/O & Other 
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error codes with their meanings, and much 
more. 

Plus many other handy programs, 
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load-format displayer, a file oriented full screen 
file editor, and a FULL BLOWN smart terminal 
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Machine-Language Disk I/O & 
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itself is written in Pascal. It consists of 
over 8,500 lines of source code — and it 
still can execute in a 48K machine. 

It is simple to compile a Pascal pro- 
gram. After you have written your pro- 
gram, you can execute the compiler in 
either of two ways. The first way is by 
executing the DOS command Pascal 
Filespec, where Filespec is the source- 
code program to compile. Here, the 
compiler searches for FILESPEC/ 
PCL, sends the listing to the screen, and 
sends the object code the file 
FILESPEC/PCL. Using the second 
format of Pascal, you will be asked for 
the names of the source and object-code 
files, and will be asked where to direct 
the listing. 

Alcor Pascal has three default-device 
definitions that can be used. ':L' sends 
the listing to the line printer, ':C or 
Enter sends the listing to the screen, and 
':D' is a dummy device, used to discard 
output. Alternatively, you can output 
the listing to a disk file by specifying the 
name of the file. These default devices 
are available for all outputs from the 
Alcor Pascal system, including the com- 
piler, linker, and compiled programs. 

The ability to route the output of the 
program is handy not only for program 
execution, but also for looking at the 



compile process for errors. If many er- 
rors occur, printing the listing that is 
created during the compile process gives 
you a complete error listing with notes 
and arrows indicating the exact place 
each one occurred. Then you can take 
the printout and edit your source code 
to remove the errors. 

The compiler uses a single-pass, re- 
cursive-descent parser that operates 
quickly. Variable names can be eight 
characters in length and use the same 
amount of space regardless of length. 
This is handy, so you can use long vari- 
able names, to aid the readability of 
your programs. How many times have 
you wondered what QZ was? Now, you 
can use a descriptive label, such as 
Total, Result, or Seedcost for variables 
without increasing the size of the pro- 
gram and without increasing its run- 
time. Variables can include the charac- 
ters "$" and "-" in their names. 

The compiler supports several op- 
tions. There are compiler directives that 
tell the compiler to use double precision 
for all real numbers, or change the be- 
havior of looping variables, conditional 
compilation, to disable code generation 
(used to build libraries), and more. 

It is nice to have double precision, but 
the manual does not state that the tran- 



scendental functions are single precision 
regardless of the declared precision. 
This is because Alcor Pascal uses ROM 
routines wherever possible, and they are 
single precision for these functions. Of 
course, with Alcor Pascal you can 
create libraries with your double- 
precision transcendental subroutines 
and link them with your compiled pro- 
grams as desired. 

Conditional compilation is very help- 
ful for program development. It allows 
you to specify a Boolean variable and 
use the value of this variable to control 
the compilation of parts of the source 
code. For example, you can have de- 
bugging routines throughout your 
source code that you do not want to be 
in the compiled program after the pro- 
gram is debugged. One way to get rid of 
them is to remove each occurrence of 
the debugging code. With Alcor Pascal 
you can preface each debugging routine 
with a conditional compilation state- 
ment and by changing the value of a 
single variable at the start of your pro- 
gram, you can eliminate all the debug- 
ging code from the final compiled pro- 
gram. Once you get used to using this 
kind of debugging procedure, it is sorely 
missed in other languages. 

The Nullbody compiler option can 



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CO-DIR 2.0 is a utility that 
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is not a program you will use only 
once, since any DOS command can be 
entered faster and easier using 
CO-DIR. Dos commands available 
from CO-DIR include Execute 
program, Copy, Chain/Do, 
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CO-DIR requires Newdos-80 or 
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NFOEX-80 



BULLETIN BOARD SYSTEM 

This package contains all the 
software necessary to setup and 
operate a Bulletin Board System 
(BBS). The system will auto- 
matically answer phone calls, 
print a welcome message, ask for 
the callers name and location, and 
prints bulletins or advertise- 
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caller to leave messages for other 
callers, and read or delete 
messages addressed to them. The 
system supports downloading of 
program and text files, and has a 
chat mode to allow the caller to 
type directly to the System 
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Requires TRS-80 Model 3 (or Model 
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Regular price: $149.95 
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DEALER INQUIRIES INVITED - ACCEPTING SOFTWARE FOR REVIEW 
24 HOUR BBS ON LINE AT 305-965-1044 ^-332 



148 • 80 Micro, January 1983 



VIZ. A. CON 

A CONSOLIDATION SYSTEM 

for VISICALC users 

New product adds 3-dimensionai 
capability to any VISICALC model 

Now with the help of VIZ.A.CON you can combine 
multiple "'pages" of data from a model for heirarchical 
consolidations (eg. Dept., Div., Co.) or for summations 
over periods of time (eg. Week, Month, Quarter, Year- 
to-date). 

Typical uses are to combine weekly sales reports or 
departmental budget data. You can create a complete 
network of consolidaton processes and modify it any 
time (eg. for Merger & Acquisition analysis). 

Special formulas (eg. ratios, percentages) can be 
recalculated after any consolidation. VISICALC 
precision is maintained for all data. You can customize 
titles, row and column headings, footnotes, etc, for 
each report. 

VIZ. A. CON creates data files usable with VISICALC. 
After VISICALC "what if" games, use VIZ. A. CON to 
find out what happened. 



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80 Micro, January 1983 • 149 



disable code generation for a pro- 
cedure, function, or program. This op- 
tion lets you compile just the procedures 
used in a program without compiling 
the program itself, and in this way, you 
can build and compile subroutine 
libraries. 

The Alcor linking loader enables you 
to build self-contained /CMD files, and 
create procedure and function libraries 
of commonly used routines and link 
them with compiled programs. 

The run-time module contains all the 
machine-language subroutines needed 
to interpret and execute the p-code in- 
structions. If desired, the linking loader 
can create a command file so that a sep- 
arate run-time module is not needed. 
Generally, you will have a compiled 
program on disk with the file extension 
/OBJ if created by the compiler, /OPT 
if processed by the Optimizer, and 
/COD if turned into native machine 
code by CODEGEN (more on the latter 
two programs later in the section on the 
Advanced Development Package). To 
run these files, execute the command 
line RUN filespec <stack> . The file- 
spec names the compiled object code 
file to be executed. The stack parameter 
is optional, and specifies the amount of 
stack space allocated to the program. 



When the program terminates, the 
memory location at termination and the 
amount of stack and heap space are 
displayed. 

The Language 

Alcor Pascal is a complete implemen- 
tation of Jensen and Wirth Pascal plus 
many enhancements. In order to ap- 
preciate the enhancements, you must 
understand a little bit about standard 
Pascal. 

Pascal was developed to be a begin- 
ner's language and approaches pro- 
gramming differently than Basic. It 
lends itself to writing readable programs 
and many programming problems that 
seem difficult in Basic are easier in 
Pascal. 

When you write a Pascal program, it 
is not a collection of GOSUBs and 
GOTOs. It uses named functions and 
procedures to perform tasks. Thus, 
Pascal aids the conceptual development 
of a programming task. To program in 
Pascal, you can use either top-down or 
bottom-up style. In top-down program- 
ming, you develop the main program 
first and use black boxes called proce- 
dures and functions and build the pro- 
gram from the overall program into 
smaller and smaller problems, solving 



each one at a time. In bottom-up pro- 
gramming, you decide what pieces you 
need and build them, and work your 
way up to the overall program. 

In either case, it is better than the 
usual blustering bombshell approach 
taken by many Basic programmers. 
Pascal allows you to develop the prob- 
lem conceptually and then allows you to 
easily translate the conceptual solutions 
into procedures and functions. That is 
why Pascal is called a procedure-orient- 
ed language. So the difference between 
Pascal and Basic is primarily one of 
philosophy. 

Pascal has other niceties, too. You 
can define your own variable types, 
such as Color = (Red, Black, Blue). A 
powerful data type is the Record. In Ba- 
sic, if you have a data base with custom- 
er's name, age, address, and so on, the 
typical procedure would be to store 
them in separate arrays; use a string ar- 
ray for the names, an integer array for 
the age, another string array for the ad- 
dress, and so on. In Pascal, you can de- 
fine Record to contain all the data. You 
might think of it as a more general-pur- 
pose type of array. 

Pascal has several looping constructs, 
whereas Basic has only one: the For . . . 
Next loop. In Pascal, you can have 



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For . . . Next, Repeat . . . Until, and 
While. Almost all jumping constructs, 
like GOTO, can be replaced with these. 
One thing I don't like about Pascal's 
For . . . Next loop is that the only 
variable type allowed for the loop is in- 
teger, and you can only increment (or 
decrement) by one. This is more than 
made up for by the other looping con- 
structs, however. 

Pascal also has more conditional 
statements. Not only is there the ever- 
popular If . . .Then, but there is also 
Case, which allows you to easily direct 
program flow when a number of condi- 
tions exist. A major fault of standard 
Pascal is that if none of the cases is met, 
the program will bomb. Alcor does it 
right, and includes an Otherwise clause 
to take care of all other cases to keep the 
program from bombing. 

Another thing I don't like about stan- 
dard Pascal is the pedantry of the lan- 
guage. For example, if you have an inte- 
ger variable A and a real variable B, you 
cannot just set B : = A, because they are 
different types. You must use a transfer 
function to move the values. Alcor Pas- 
cal allows you to cross-type your vari- 
ables and use an assignment statement 
to move the value from one type of vari- 
able to another. You can readily cross- 



type from Integer to Real, but you can- 
not easily cross-type Real with Pointer. 

Although a few Disk Basics (such as 
MULTIDOS's Superbasic) support dy- 
namic variables, microcomputers gen- 
erally lack it. Typically, once a variable 
or an array is created, it sits around in 
the variable table and in memory taking 
up room, even though you may need 
the space for something else. You can 
Clear the variables, but you cannot de- 
lete a single array, or just a few strings. 
Pascal lets you do just that. 

You can request a new storage loca- 
tion for a variable by invoking the Pas- 
cal procedure New. The procedure Dis- 
pose frees that memory. It does this 
through the use of a special variable 
type called Pointer. This is useful when 
you don't know ahead of time the 
amount of memory that a program will 
require. Also, you can use these pointer 
variables to link a list of items (which 
may be any variable type), creating a 
linked list. 

The memory space used by New and 
Dispose is called the Heap. The rest of 
nonprotected memory is used by the 
stack. You can specify the relative 
amounts of Heap and Stack used by the 
program at run time by entering RUN 
filespec <stack>. The stack informa- 



tion is optional. The default is to use 
half the free memory for the stack and 
the other half for the heap. If you don't 
use much heap, then you might want to 
let the stack have more of the free mem- 
ory space. 

Alcor Pascal supports TRS-80 graph- 
ics functions PEEK and POKE, IN- 
KEY$, and INP, OUT, easy access to 
machine-language subroutines, plus a 
full complement of string functions. 
The graphics routine has what I consid- 
er to be a small bug, although the sys- 
tems programmer I talked to at Alcor 
disagrees with that assessment. If you 
set a point on the screen and the screen 
has not been cleared with ClearGraph- 
ics, then spurious points are also set 
besides the one you asked for. The fix 
for that is easy. You simply check the 
byte to see that it is in graphics mode 
before ORing in the new pixel to be set; 
if it is not, then stuff an 80H there and 
then proceed. However, the Clear- 
Graphics command will work also. 

The User function is similar to USR 
in Basic and passes the value to the HL 
register pair. Even better is the CALLS 
function that allows you to set all the 
registers from Pascal. 

IOSERROR, HPSERROR, and 
FILESSTATUS allow you to recover 



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80 Micro, January 1983 • 151 



from I/O and heap errors without the 
program crashing. This is one of the 
changes necessary to make Pascal a real 
programming language. 

Alcor Pascal has all the string func- 
tions of familiar Disk Basic plus a few 
more, such as compare two strings, de- 
lete characters in the middle of a string, 
insert a substring into the middle of a 
string, and replace a substring in the 
middle of a string. For standard Basic 
programmers, these functions are great! 

Advanced Development Package 

The Advanced Development Pack- 
age (ADP) is another incredibly useful 
tool for program development. It con- 
sists of two programs (Optimize and 
CODEGEN) and a data file. 

Optimize takes your compiled p-code 
program and optimizes it for space. 
You will usually see an increase in 
speed of the program, but it is not 
generally that significant. For long 
programs (greater than 1,000 lines) 
or for programs that use a lot of space, 
this program can make the difference 
between having a working program and 
a failure. 

CODEGEN performs essentially the 
same compaction as Optimize, but then 
goes on to produce native Z80 machine 



code. Normally, this increases the size 
of the program by a factor of two or 
three, and speeds up the program by a 
factor of three to five. CODEGEN pro- 
duces machine-language code, but it 
also produces Assembly-language 
source code if you wish. Unfortunately, 
the source code is in extended 8080 
mnemonics. 

One little trick that CODEGEN 
allows is that you can compile a dummy 
procedure and then CODEGEN it. 
Then take the object code output from 
your editor/assembler and insert it into 
the dummy procedure. The compiler 
and CODEGEN generate the appropri- 
ate addresses and provide the structure 
for easy insertion of machine-language 
routines that actually perform the func- 
tion of the procedure. 

Both these programs are great, but 
what about big, bulky programs? Of- 
ten, in these types of programs, a small 
section of code is slowing down the rest 
of the program. Through the use of the 
linking loader, you can link CODE- 
GENed files with Optimized files and 
have a small and much faster program. 
Remember that the linking loader al- 
lows you to create subroutine libraries 
and link the various parts of a program 
together. It turns out that through judi- 



cious design, you can CODEGEN cer- 
tain of your compiled modules, Opti- 
mize others, and use the linking loader 
to bring both together into a single ap- 
plication program. The net result of all 
this is that the Advanced Development 
Package lets you create smaller and 
faster versions of an already fast com- 
piled program. If you program for a liv- 
ing, the Advanced Development Pack- 
age is for you. 

Alcor Pascal is an excellent imple- 
mentation of an enhanced Pascal. It has 
an excellent manual, complete with a 
usable tutorial, reference guide, and 
system-implementation source. Alcor 
Pascal comes with its own full-screen 
text editor and linking loader. It has 
many important enhancements includ- 
ing graphics, port I/O, double-preci- 
sion arithmetic, many string and other 
TRS-80 functions, plus patches to allow 
random-access records, and error trap- 
ping. This is the first serious Pascal I 
have seen. In terms of the power of the 
language, it is in the same league as Mi- 
crosoft Basic, and is more efficient in a 
number of aspects. ■ 

Bruce Powel Douglass, 80 Micro 's 
"Copernica Mathematica" column- 
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80 Micro, January 1983 • 153 



TUTORIAL 



How to Copyright 



by Anthony T. Scarpelli 



It's sad but true — some people have 
no qualms about using the results of 
your programming efforts for their own 
benefit, without compensating or even 
acknowledging you. You are the loser, 
of course, unless you protected those ef- 
forts. That's where copyrights come in. 

I'll tell you a little about copyright, 
how to get the necessary forms, what to 
do with them, and show you what an 
easy process it is to get Uncle Sam to 
help protect the programs you write. 

Your Rights with a Copyright 

On January 1, 1978 the Copyright 
Act of 1976 (title 17 of the United States 
Code) came into effect. The first gen- 
eral revision of the law since 1909, this 
act defines copyright and the copyright 
system. 

A bill (HR 6933) that became Public 
Law 96-517 in December 1980 amended 
title 17. Both the revision and the 
amendment had an enormous effect on 
computer programmers — now pro- 
grams could be copyrighted. In addi- 
tion, owners of programs are autho- 
rized to make copies if it is essential to 
the program or for archival purposes. 

But what is a copyright? A copyright 
gives you, the original author, the right 
to reproduce, prepare derivative works, 
and distribute by sale, rental, lease or 
lending the copyrighted material. If 
anyone else does any of the above with- 
out your permission, you have the right 
to take that person to court. 

The interesting thing about copyright 
is that your work is protected as soon as 
it is placed in a fixed form. When you 
produce a listing of your program on 
paper, disk or tape, you are protected. 

However, if someone hires you to 
write a program, or if your everyday job 
is to write programs, then the pro- 
grams, the copyright, and its protection 
belong to the person who hired you or 
to your company (unless you made pre- 

154 • 80 Micro, January 1983 



You've worked hard on 
your program and you 
want to protect your code 
from theft, but how? 



vious agreements). And if you write a 
program with someone else, you are co- 
owners of that program unless you 
agree to the contrary. If you make pre- 
vious agreements, they should be in 
writing, dated, signed by both parties, 
and (if possible) notarized. 

Before the Copyright Act of 1 976 you 
could secure a statutory copyright just 
by publishing your work and including 
a notice of copyright on it. Now, pub- 
lishing is not necessary. There are, how- 
ever, certain advantages to having your 
work published. 

Any time you publish a work, it must 
have on it a notice of copyright: the 
copyright symbol (the letter C in a cir- 
cle), the word "Copyright," or the ab- 
breviation "Copr."; the year of first 
publication; and the name of the copy- 
right owner. For example, Copr. John 
Doe 1982. 

Works published with the notice of 
copyright are subject to mandatory de- 
posit with the Library of Congress. You 
must send the Copyright Office two 
copies of the work within three months 
of publication. (Failure to do so can get 
you a fine or other penalties.) Just 
think — your own version of Star Trek 
can reside among the other famous 
works in this great library! 

If your work is unpublished, the 
copyright notice is not required. If the 
work leaves your control, it is a good 
idea to include the notice. For instance, 
if you send your newly created program 
to an acquaintance for review before 
publication, that little notice might per- 



suade that person to only review it and 
not copy it. 

If notice of copyright was inadver- 
tently left out of a published work, you 
have five years from first publication to 
try, with reasonable effort, to put that 
notice on all the copies distributed to the 
public in the U.S., though the copyright 
still exists for those works. 

Some Other Requirements 

Your copyright is a personal-property 
right. This means state laws and regula- 
tions can affect it. If you want to will 
your copyright to someone, or transfer 
the rights to someone else, you should 
consult an attorney. Also, any transfer 
of exclusive rights has to be in writing 
and signed by the owner of the rights (or 
the owner's agent). These transfers are 
usually done by contract, and when 
done, although not required, should be 
recorded in the Copyright Office. You 
should write to the Copyright Office for 
information on recording the transfers, 
and on transfers in general. 

What about protection in other coun- 
tries? Although there is no international 
copyright, the U.S. is a member of the 
Universal Copyright Convention 
(UCC). A member can thus claim pro- 
tection under the UCC as long as the 
work bears the notice of copyright in 
the form and position specified. 

However, before publishing in an- 
other country, find out exactly what 
protection exists in that country. Some 
countries offer little or even no protec- 
tion for foreign works. Circular R38a 
lists countries that maintain copyright 
relations with the U.S. 

Unpublished works are always pro- 
tected regardless of the citizenship or 
domicile of the author. 

Ready, Set, Register! 

The persons legally entitled to submit 
a registration application form are the 



author, the employer or other person 
for whom the work was prepared, the 
copyright claimant (the person or or- 
ganization who has legal title to the 
work), the owner of exclusive rights, or 
any authorized agent of any of the 
above. And you don't need a lawyer to 
register. 

What you do need is Application 
Form TX from the Copyright Office, 
Library of Congress, Washington, DC 
20559. When ordering the form, be sure 
to ask for instructions. Also request 
Circular Rl, "Copyright Basics." This 
particular circular contains all the im- 
portant information you need to know 
about copyrighting, and was the source 
of the information in this article. The 
forms and circular are free. 

Added Protection 

Even though your works are protect- 
ed by law when they are put into a fixed 
form, and even though they might be 
published, the process of registering 
them with the Copyright Office gives 
you certain advantages. For instance, a 
registered work establishes a public rec- 
ord of the copyright. It is also usually 
necessary to have your work registered 
before you can file any suits. If you reg- 
ister your work within five years of pub- 
lication, it will indicate to the court that 
your copyright and the facts stated in 
the registration certificate are valid. 

If you can register your works three 
months after publication, or prior to an 
infringement of your work, you will be 
able to collect both attorney's fees as 
well as damages in court actions. You 
can register a work any time within the 
life of the copyright and collect damages. 

How long does a copyright last? The 
life of the copyright is the total length of 
time you are protected. Any work put 
into fixed form after January 1, 1978 
will be protected for the life of the 
author plus 50 years. If two or more 
authors are involved, then protection is 
good for 50 years after the death of the 
last surviving author. If the work was 
made for hire, or if it was anonymous 
or if you didn't put your name on it or 
used a pseudonym (unless your true 
name is in the records), then the dura- 
tion of the copyright is 75 years from 
publication or 100 years from creation, 
whichever is shorter. 

A work created before 1978, but not 
published or registered, is automatically 
brought under the new law's protection. 
If the work was previously published or 
registered, you have to renew it to re- 
ceive the added protection. Since the 
change can cause confusion in what is 
and what is not protected, Circulars 



CERTIFICATE OF COPYRIGHT REGISTRATION 



This certificate, issued under Ihe seal of the Copyright 
Office in accordance with the provisions of section 41 0(a) 
of title 1 7, United States Code, attests that copyright reg- 
istration has been made for the work identified below. The 
information in this certificate has been made a part of the 
Copyright Office records. 



FORM VA 

UNITED STATES COPYRIGHT OFFICE 



6\>LytJ^ oC c%L*Lj-y 



REGISTER OF COPYRIGHTS 
United Stales ol America 



REGISTRATION 



VA 



86-494 



9 NOV 1881 



(Day! (Vei 



© 



(?) 

0-ealion 

and 

PuWlc-tkan 



© 



DO NOT WRITE ABOVE THIS LINE. IF YOU NEED MORE SPACE, USE CONTINUATION SHEET (FORM VA/CON) 



TITLE OF THIS WORK: 



"RGN/£U//r{_ OR Ttt£ &K-OTVrefiJtK>OV> OF Ttt€ 



Ja&^tE^&idian viu-Ase- 



PUBLICATION AS A CONTRIBUTION: 111 this work ^ 
collective work in which Ihe contribution appeared.) 

T:ieol Collective Work 



NATURE OF THIS WORK: iSee instt 
INic, DSAWiMlSr 



OllKMon. g ve information about Ihe 



IMPORTANT: 



s Generally the employe. 



s prepared) as "Author' 



NAME OF AUTHOR: fr^ N £ l/At>£ B OMCOfcU|5 



AUTHORS NATIONALITY OR DOMICILE: 

Cimenof H..*?.-t*S, I or 1 Domiciled.. 



_/<_ 



AUTHOR OF: (Briefly describe nature of this author s contribution) 



DATES OF BIRTH AND DEATH 
8o,n f\A-9 D-d 



WAS THIS AUTHORS CONTRIBUTION TO 



NAME OF AUTHOR: 



AUTHOR'S NATIONALITY OR DOMICILE: 

C««nof { o. 



AUTHOR OF: (Briefly describe natute of this author's contribution) 



NAME OF AUTHOR: 



Pseudofiymoui 7 Yn 



Iribulion to the work a "woik made lor hie 



AUTHOR'S NATIONALITY OR DOMICILE: 

Citizen of 1 Or 1 Domiciled in 



AUTHOR OF: (Brief) 






DATES OF BIRTH AND DEATH: 
Born Died 



WAS THIS AUTHOR'S CONTRIBUTION TO 
THE WORK: 

Anonymous* Yet No 



t derailed 



ol 



YEAR IN WHICH CREATION OF THIS WORK WAS COMPLETED: 

Yea, I ISO 



DATE AND NATION OF FIRST PUBLICATION: 
Date (o IO ' 2 I 

Nal«,n /U S.A 

(Complete this block < 



'Day) 
>l C<*xitry| 



NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) OF COPYRIGHT CLAIM ANT(S I: 

48 P&TZtZSBORDU&H ST. 



TRANSFER: (If ihe copynghi claimant. (s) named here in space 4 me different In 
cld-mani(s) obtained ownership of the copynghi.) 



»hor(sl named in space 2. give a brief s 



Complete of applicable spaces (numbers 5-9) on the reverse side of this page 
1 FoSou delated instructions attached • Sign the form at line 8 



pk. 



R15a, R15t, and R22, available from 
the Copyright Office, provide more de- 
tailed information on this subject. 

Form TX is not difficult to fill out; 
just print or type the information. 
There are three pages to the form, with 
the instructions attached to both sides 
of the page you fill in. There is also a 
continuation form if you need more 
space, but the instructions discourage 
using it. 

When you send the completed form 
TX, you must also include two copies of 
the work if it has already been published 
(if it hasn't been published, only one 
copy is required). If your work is a com- 
puter program, the copy should be a 
printed listing of the program. It's a 
good idea to include your name on each 
page, and also number them. 

There is a cost for the registration 
process, so you must also include a 
check, money order, or bank draft for 
$10 made out to the Register of Copy- 
rights, and securely attach it to the ap- 
plication. 



It will take about three weeks to get 
the forms, and about a month after 
mailing the forms, you will receive the 
certificate of registration. This is merely 
a photocopy of the form TX you filled 
out, but now with an official seal, an of- 
ficial signature, and a number on it. 
You must refer to this number if you 
ever have to do any other business with 
the Copyright Office concerning this 
work. This is a legal document, so keep 
it in a safe place, and also keep a copy 
of the work you created with it. 

This simple process gives you the pro- 
tection you need. However, if someone 
copies your work without permission, 
and you want to initialize a court action, 
get a good copyright lawyer. If you do 
go to court, the key to winning or losing 
could be the copyright symbol. ■ 



Anthony Scarpelli can be reached at 
98 Foxcroft Drive, Scarborough, ME 
04074. 



80 Micro, January 1983 • 155 



SCIENCE/MATH 



<§M3> 



LOAD 80 



Planetary Orbits 



by Don Carrera 



I 



f you're interested in knowing a planet's 
location at some time in the past or future, 
use this program to calculate its position. 



Here's a program that tells you the 
location of the planets so you don't 
have to look up their positions in the 
Astronomical Almanac. Would you 
like to find out where the planets will be 
several years from now? If so, you 
should enjoy this program. It finds 
planet positions from 1500 A.D. to 
2460 A.D. 

The results have to be compared 
against a source. When the positions of 
more than two bodies are needed, you 
can obtain accurate answers by solving 
a system of differential equations. For 




— ECLIPTIC 



P — Planet at perihelion 

1 — Inclination 

VE — Vernal equinox 

AN — Longitude of ascending node, measured in 

plane of ecliptic 

oj — argument of perihelion, measured in the orbit 

plane 

PER — Longitude of perihelion 

Q — Ascending node; intersection of orbit with the 

ecliptic going from south to north of the ecliptic 



our solar system, you'll need at least 
nine equations, one for each planet. 
Usually, you'll need to solve more equa- 
tions, because some of the larger aster- 
oids are included. In addition, the Earth 
should be represented as the Earth- 
moon system, with its center of gravity 
located about 3,000 miles away from 
the true center of Earth. The sun and 
planets should not be modeled as 
spheres but as ellipsoids. 

Solving this system requires more 
than the 16K of memory for a Basic 
program. A home computer would be 
slow at getting results, too. It's slow be- 
cause to find a planet's position at any 
time, you must find its position at all in- 
tervening times. So, to find Jupiter's 
position in 1750 A.D., you have to find 



156 



Fig. I. Orbit Elements 
Micro, January 1983 



Planet 


Degree of Error 


Mercury 


.023 


Venus 


.028 


Mars 


.019 


Jupiter 


.010 


Saturn 


.008 


Uranus 


.007 


Neptune 


.007 


Pluto 


.008 


Table 1. The combined maximum degree of 


error for the four 


types of errors. 



where it was in 1981, 1980, 1979, and so 
on, preferably at 1-10 day intervals. 
That makes for a lot of computing. 

Solutions to these equations have 
been done on large computers, going 
backward and forward hundreds of 
thousands of years. These solutions give 
near-term accuracies (tens to hundreds 
of years) of .0000001 degrees in longi- 
tude for the inner planets. Mutual Oc- 
cupations of Planets: 1557 to 2230 pro- 
vides the positions for several different 
planets at widely spaced times. It gives 
an exact time for the location of two 
planets when seen from the Earth. I 
have checked planet locations from this 
program against data in the Astronomi- 
cal Almanac (formerly Ephemeris) for 
various dates in 1935, 1953, 1963, 1971, 
1980, and 1981. 

The Comet Halley Handbook, an 
Observer's Guide gives positions for 
Halley's comet from 1981 to 1987. I 
used it to check my calculations. For 
dates within a few years of 1982, pro- 
gram errors are less than .2 degrees in 
heliocentric longitude for the planets. 

Orbit Theory 

The plane of Earth's orbit around the 
sun is called the ecliptic. It provides the 
reference plane for determining a 
planet's heliocentric latitude. The point 



The Key Box 

Model I or Model III 

16K RAM 

Cassette or Disk Basic 



at which the sun appears to cross Earth's 
orbit is the vernal equinox. This is the 
zero reference point for measuring helio- 
centric longitude. The distance of a 
planet from the sun is given in terms of 
astronomical units. An astronomical 
unit is the mean distance of Earth 
from the sun and equals about 92.9 mil- 
lion miles. 

If the sun and only one other planet 
existed, that planet's orbit would be an 
ellipse. Since more than one planet ex- 
ists, the true orbit is a "bumpy" ellipse. 
Not only does the sun attract planet A, 
but planet B also attracts planet A, with 
the sun's attraction being stronger. The 
resulting is considered an ellipse with 
many small bumps or perturbations. 

To completely describe a body's posi- 
tion in space, you need six constants. 
Three constants determine the body's 
position in its own orbit. Three other 
constants show the orientation of the 
orbit with respect to the chosen coordi- 
nate system. 

The orbit in space is defined by its in- 
clination to the ecliptic, the longitude of 
the ascending node, and the longitude 
of perihelion (see Fig. 1). The inclina- 
tion is measured in degrees and is posi- 
tive if the planet orbits in the same di- 
rection as Earth. The ascending node 
refers to the intersection of a planet's 
orbit with the ecliptic. Since the orbit is 
a circle and the ecliptic is a plane, the 
two intersect in only two points. One 
point, the ascending node, occurs when 
the planet travels from below the eclip- 
tic to above it. At the other point, the 
descending node, the planet is traveling 
from above the ecliptic to below. 

Eccentricity, the semi-major axis, 
and the mean anomaly are needed to lo- 
cate the planet in its orbit. (See the side- 
bar and Figs. 2a and 2b.) The mean ano- 
maly varies from 0-360 degrees and is 
not "constant." You can find it by us- 
ing two other constants: the mean daily 
motion (N) and the time when the plan- 
et passed its perihelion point (TPP). 

To find the mean anomaly (MA), 
multiply the planet's mean daily motion 
by the number of days since it was at its 
previous perihelion: 

MA = N * (JD-TPP) 

JD (Julian day) is the day for which you 
want the planet's position. The time of 
perihelion passage is the Julian day of 
the most previous perihelion passage. In 
the program, I've used June 10, 1980, as 
my reference day, which has a Julian 
day number of 2 ^^*1^1 00.5. The perihel- 
ion passage for Mercury for example, is 
May 17, 1980, at 6:29 a.m., correspond- 



ing to Julian day 2443976.770. 

If Mercury is at its perihelion point, 
then the mean anomaly of Mercury is 
zero degrees by definition. In that case, 
JD will be the same as TPP. (Don't con- 
fuse this zero-degree reference with the 
zero reference point for measuring a 
planet's longitude. For Mercury to be at 
the zero-degree longitude position, it 
would have to be located at the vernal 
equinox.) No planet has its perihelion at 
the vernal equinox at this time. The 
above method for finding the mean ano- 
maly works well if you know a planet's 
previous perihelion time. The method 
isn't good if you want one formula to 
cover a long time period. Remember, 
the other planets are attracting Mer- 
cury, changing its perihelion. 

About every 88 days, Mercury passes 
through perihelion at a slightly different 
point, so you must make a correction to 
the calculation of the mean anomaly. 

MA = N * (JD-DPP)-(DP- 1.3965) * DJ 

Specifically for Mercury: 

M = 4.0923388 * (JD-24443976.770)- 
(1.5555-1.3965) * TJ. 

TJ is the number of centuries between 
June 10, 1980, and the Julian day of in- 
terest. The difference of .159 degrees 
(1.5555-1.3965) is the real advance of 
Mercury's perihelion in degrees per cen- 
tury. With this correction, keep TPP as 
a fixed number (see Fig. 3). 

Since I'm trying to solve for planet 
positions using a closed formula, the 
constants to which I refer must be mod- 
ified with time to maintain their accur- 
acy. The constants are the primary ap- 
proximations to the true value of a 
quantity. The first-order modifications 
that I showed for the mean anomaly ap- 
ply in a similar manner to four of the 
constants. The perihelion passage 
(TPP) is a known number and will not 




MA = Mean anomaly = angle XOZ ~ 68° 

TA = True anomaly = angle PSB ~ 155° 

s = Sun, at one focus of ellipse 

B = Planet 

AreaXOZX = Area PSBP by definition of mean 

anomaly 

Eccentric of eclispe ~ .81 

Fig. 2a Mean anomaly circle 



change. Mercury, for example, really 
was at its closest point to the sun on 
May 17, 1980, at 6:29 a.m. 

The mean daily motion (N) and semi- 
major axis (A) are constant over tens of 
thousands of years. No correction is 
made to them for the 900-year period of 
this program. The other four constants 
do change and can result in errors of 




EA = Eccentric anomaly = angle POE = 111 
TA = True anomaly = angle PSB =115° 
Area PQEP _ Area PSPB hy 

na 2 nab 

definition of eccentric anomaly 
B = Planet 

Eccentricity of ellispe shown = .81 
a = Semi-major axis of orbit ellipse 
b = Semi-minor axis 

Fig. 2b. Eccentric anomaly circle 



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Micro, January 1983 • 157 



heliocentric longitude if corrections 
aren't made. 

The longitude of the ascending node 
and the longitude of perihelion change 
by over one degree per century. The 
changes in eccentricity and inclina- 
tion are smaller, but you must con- 
der them. 

The large changes in the ascending 
node and perihelion result from a 
change in the position of the vernal 
equinox. The vernal equinox changes 
because of the precession of Earth on its 
axis. The moon's orbit is inclined about 
five degrees toward Earth's equator. 
Since Earth is not a perfect sphere, the 
moon's orbital inclination causes an un- 
even torque on the spinning earth. 
Earth precesses, or slowly changes, the 
direction in which its axis points. The 
vernal equinox is tied to a coordinate 
system centered on the earth's axis and 
equator, so our reference zero shifts 
slightly from year to year. It changes by 
1.3965 degrees per century. 

Imagine that the gravitational pull of 
the other planets doesn't change the 
perihelion of planet A. The perihelion 
would still change each year because of 
the shift of the vernal equinox. The ver- 
nal equinox was established as a refer- 
ence point thousands of years ago, and 
it's doubtful a stationary reference will 
be agreed upon soon. You just have to 
account for precession, and this is easy 
to do. 

The Program 

See Table 3 for an index to the pro- 
gram sections. Here I'll explain the 
computing algorithms. 

Run the program, and a brief de- 
scription appears on the screen. Press 
any key to continue. You must select the 
coordinate system you want. Type 1 if 
you want heliocentric; type 2 if you want 
geocentric. Then, enter the year. It must 
be between 1 500 and 2460 and must be a 




VE 1982& VE 198 , = Vernal equinox for 1982, 1981 

P 1982 &P 1981 = Perihelion for 1982, 1981 

a = precession change of VE = 1.3956° per 

century 

(i = real perihelion change due to gravitational at- 

tration of other planets. Exact value depends on 

the planet. 

DP = a +p. DP is data in the program. 

Fig. 3. Precession and Perihelion changes 
158 • 80 Micro, January 1983 



whole number. Next enter the month (an 
integer from 1-12). Finally, enter the 
day; this can have up to two decimal 
places, for example, 3.25 means 6:00 
a.m. on the third day of the month, 
Greenwich Mean Time. If you want lo- 
cal time, you have to make the conver- 
sion yourself. For example, 3.25 would 
be 1:00 a.m., Eastern Standard Time. 

Heliocentric Calculation 

All planet data is read in line 920. 
Lines 930-960 convert the constants for 
June 10, 1980, to the correct values for 



the Julian day of interest. To find the 
heliocentric coordinates, calculate the 
mean anomaly, using JD,TPP and N. 



MA = (N*(JD-TPP)-(DP-1 .3965)*TJ)/K2 

Then, find the eccentric anomaly. Kep- 
ler's Equation, relating eccentric to 
mean anomaly, is: 

MA = EA-ECC*SIN(EA) 

You must rearrange this equation and 



Definitions 



Terms 

Celestial Equator: Coplanar 
with Earth's equator. It is the zero 
reference plane for geocentric decli- 
nation. 

Declination (CL): The angular 
distance from the plane of Earth's 
equator to a planet. The highest 
value is for Pluto, whose declina- 
tion will vary from -40.5 to +40.5 
degrees over its 248-year orbit. 

Eccentric Anomaly (EA): An in- 
termediate angle for finding 
orbits. It is angle POE in Figure 
2b. 

Eccentricity (ECC and EICC): 
Measure of the deviation of the 
true orbit from a circle. If eccen- 
tricity is one, the orbit is a para- 
bola, and is not a closed orbit. The 
eccentricity of Halley's comet is 
very near one, so that its orbit is a 
highly elongated ellipse. Earth's ec- 
centricity is near zero, so its orbit is 
almost circular. 

Ecliptic: The plane of Earth's or- 
bit. Zero reference for heliocentric 
latitudes. 

Inclination (I and II): The angle 
that a body's orbit makes with the 
ecliptic. Inclinations are positive if 
the body orbits in the same direc- 
tion as Earth, and are negative if 
the body orbits in the opposite 
direction. Halley's comet has a 
-17.5 degree inclination. 

Julian day (JD): Noon on 
January 1, 4713 B.C., has been de- 
fined as the start of day number 
one for astronomical purposes. 
The Julian day number for a partic- 
ular date is the number of days that 
have passed since January 1, 4713 
B.C. The Julian day for the start of 
the day June 10, 1980, is 



2444400.5; noon on June 10, 1980, 
is 2444401.0. 

Longitude of the Ascending 
Node (AN and A IN): The angle, 
measured from the vernal equinox, 
at which the planet's orbit in- 
tersects the ecliptic. The planet 
must be going from below the eclip- 
tic to above the ecliptic. 

Longitude of Perihelion (PER 
and PIER): The angle, measured 
from the vernal equinox, at which 
the planet is closest to the sun. It is 
measured from the vernal equinox 
to the longitude of the ascending 
node along the ecliptic, then in the 
orbit plane from the longitude of 
the ascending node to perihelion. It 
is the sum of two angles measured 
in different planes. 

Mean Anomaly (MA): The 
angle, measured from the planet's 
perihelion, to the sun, and back to 
the planet's position, that would be 
described if the planet moved in a 
circular orbit of radius less than the 
semi-major axis. (See Fig. 2a.) I use 
two other constants (mean daily 
motion and time of perihelion pas- 
sage) to calculate mean anomaly, 
since the mean anomaly changes 
rapidly. For Earth, the mean an- 
omaly varies from 0-360 degrees 
every 365.25 days. For Mercury, 
the mean anomaly varies from 
0-360 degrees every 88 days. 

Mean Daily Motion (N): The 
average number of degrees that a 
planet moves around the sun dur- 
ing each 24-hour day. The value 
ranges from over four degrees per 
day for Mercury to less than .004 
degrees per day for Pluto. 

Continues on p. 162 




The LAZY WRITER 

word processing system 
by David Welsh 







LAZY WRITER has earned the 

Professional Software Programmers 

Association Seal of Approval 



SIMPLE FACTS ABOUT LAZY WRITER! 

It's FAST! — written in machine code, not BASIC! 

It works with ANY printer, not just Radio Shack printers! You can put control codes for your printer 
anywhere in text (including in the middle of a word) to make use of any type fonts or movements 
your printer can make. 

To make it even easier for you, you get information sheets on using LAZY WRITER with your printer. 
This extra help is available for these printers: Epson MX-80 with or without Graftrax, the 
C. Itoh F10 Starwriter, the C. Itoh 8510 Prowriter dot matrix, the Centronics 739, the 
Microline 83, the RS Daisy Wheel II, the RS Line Printer VIII. 

The manual is written in plain English, and is easy to follow. Because some of you want even more 
help, we're working on LAZYBOOK, a complete guide to word processing with your TRS-80 and 
LAZY WRITER. 

Want your text proportionally spaced? We have proportional programs for these printers: RS Daisy 
II, Centronics 739, Qume Sprint 5, C. Itoh F10 Starwriter, C. Itoh 8510 Prowriter, RS Line 
Printer VIII. 

Want extras for your word processor? You can buy LAZYDRAW, LAZYDO, LAZYCALC, LAZYTAB, or 
LAZYDOC. With all these extras, you can draw pictures, do math, align decimals, and get 
automatic insertion of words or paragraphs into standard documents. We'll soon be offering 
LAZYMERGE to merge text files with a mailing list and LAZYFONT to create type fonts for 
your dot matrix printer. LAZY WRITER is a growing SYSTEM of programs that do what you want! 

Every LAZY WRITER owner receives free copies of a newsletter that is full of information on 
effective word processing, written with the layman in mind. 

FAST! EASY! POWERFUL! 

"This program enjoys some of the best manufacturer support 
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expected to provide ongoing utility for even the most demanding 
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"LAZY WRITER is GREAT! Our Customers and ourselves all agree 
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80 Micro, January 1983 • 159 



then solve it using iterations. EA is esti- 
mated in line 980. 

EA = MA + ECC*SIN(MA) 

Then an intermediate angle MO is found 
in line 990. 

MO = EA-ECC*SIN(EA) 

A correction to the estimate for EA is 
made using MA and MO. 

DL = (MA-M0)/(1-ECC*COS(EA)) 



This difference is added to EA to yield a 
new value for EA. 

EA=EA+DL 



If DL is less than .0001 radians, the 
iteration continues, going back to line 
990. Two iterations are all that are need- 
ed for the planets; Halley's comet may 
require up to five iterations since its ec- 
centricity is so near to 1. Once EA is 
found, the distance from the sun is 
found in line 1030. 



Julien Day is 2445318. 5 








12/15/1982 GMT 






Dist to Sun 




Helio Lon. 


Helio Lat. 






A.U. 




(DEG) 


(DEG) 


MER 




0.42 




310.3 


-6.9 


VEN 




0.73 




286.4 


-1.7 


EAR 




0.98 




82.7 


0.0 


MAR 




1.38 




331.6 


-1.8 


JUP 




5.39 




233.3 


1.0 


SAT 




9.73 




207.0 


2.5 


URA 




18.90 




245.2 


0.1 


NEP 




30.25 




266.8 


1.2 


PLU 




29.92 




207.2 


17.0 


HAL 




10.71 




102.9 


-12.1 


Want geocentric coordinates for same 


date? Y/N 










Fig. 


4. Heliocentric printout 





R(B) = A*(l-ECC*COS(EA)) 

The formula above is derived from the 
properties of an ellipse. You can now 
find the true anomaly (true angle) of a 
planet. 



TA = 57.295*2*ATN 



/i 

/r i+ECC l , TAN (EA/2)) 



As this formula shows, if the eccentric- 
ity is zero, the true anomaly equals the 
eccentric anomaly. Another in- 
termediate number, the argument of 
latitude (U), is then calculated. Finding 
U lets you make a small correction in 
the heliocentric longitude as a result of a 
planet's orbit inclination. 

U = TA + PER-AN 

The value of U must be brought with- 
in the range of 0-360 degrees. Then you 
can find the longitude L(B). 

L(B) = AN + 57.295* ATN(COS(I))*TAN(U)) 

This is the heliocentric longitude that is 
printed out after it is brought within 
0-360 degrees. Notice in the equation 
for L(B) that if the inclination is small, 
COS(I) is approximately 1, and L(B) 
could be approximated as: 



CONVERT YOUR TRS-80 MODEL-I OR III INTO A 

DEVELOPMENT 



SYSTEM 



Complete instructions and sample 
schematics are included to help you 
design your own simple stand-alone 
microcomputer systems. THESE 
SYSTEMS CAN BE AS SIMPLE AS 
FOUR ICs: one TTL circuit for clock 
and reset, a Z-80. an EPROM, and one 
peripheral interface chip. 

When the In-Circuit-Emulation 
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With this PROM, and a Z-80 in place of 
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Now you can develop Z-80 based, 
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■See List of Advertisers on Page 435 



80 Micro, January 1983 • 161 



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L(B) = AN + 57.295*U 

where U is in radians. The heliocentric 
latitude is: 

SIN(LAT) = SIN(I)*SIN(U) 

Since Basic doesn't have the inverse sine 
function, you need lines 1150-1160 to 
get the inverse tangent. 

LAT(B) = ATN(X1/SQR(1-X1 *X1)) 

LAT is multiplied by 57.295 when 



printed. Figure 4 shows the heliocentric 
printout. 

Geocentric Coordinates 

The calculation of geocentric coordi- 
nates uses the results of the heliocentric 
coordinate calculation. The obliquity 
(Earth's tilt) is found for the day of in- 
terest in line 1420. Then the rectangular 
coordinates of Earth with respect to the 
sun are found in lines 1430-1450. This is 
merely a trigonometric transformation. 
Lines 1480-1500 find the rectangular 
coordinates of each planet with respect 
to the sun. With these equations, you 



Continued from p. 158 

Orbital Elements: The six "con- 
stants" required to describe a 
body's orbit in space. 

Perihelion: Point of planet's 
closest approach to the sun. 

Right Ascension (RA, RAH and 
RAM): The position of a planet 
relative to the vernal equinox. 
Usually it is given in hours and 
minutes, but it can be listed in 
degrees. One hour of right ascen- 
sion equals 15 degrees. 

Semi-major axis (A): The 
average distance of a planet from 
the sun. 

Time of Perihelion Passage 
(TPP): The Julian day of the 
planet's last closest approach to the 
sun before June 10, 1980. TPP in- 
troduces the time variable into the 
equations. 

True Anomaly (TA): The actual 
angle measured from perihelion, to 
the sun, and back to the planet in its 
true orbit. 

Vernal equinox: The zero refer- 
ence point for longitudes in the 
heliocentric and geocentric coordi- 
nate systems. Its location is deter- 
mined when the apparent orbit of 
the sun around Earth crosses the 
equator from south to north. It 
moves each year, because of pre- 
cession, at the rate of .013965 de- 
grees. Usually called the equinox. 

Coordinate Systems 

Heliocentric: This coordinate 
system has the center of the sun as 
the origin. Distance of the planets 
from the sun is given in astronom- 
ical units (AU). Longitude is mea- 
sured in degrees from the vernal 
equinox. Latitude is measured in 
degrees north or south of the eclip- 



tic, which is the plane described by 
Earth's orbit around the sun. 

Geocentric: This coordinate 
system has the center of Earth as 
the origin. Distance of the planets 
from Earth is given in AU. Right 
ascension is given in hours and 
minutes measured from the vernal 
equinox. Declination is measured 
in degrees north or south from the 
plane described by Earth's equator. 

Alt-Azimuth (altitude-azimuth): 
System based on seeing from your 
location. The horizon is taken as a 
reference. The altitude of a body is 
measured above or below the hori- 
zon. Plus or minus 90 degrees are 
the maximum values allowed. A 
negative altitude means that the 
body is below the horizon and so is 
not visible. To illustrate, the sun 
has a negative altitude at night. At 
sunrise or sunset, the sun's altitude 
is zero. Azimuth is measured from 
true north (0-360 degrees maxi- 
mum). This system is a trigonomet- 
ric transformation of the geocentric 
system. 

Planetocentric: This system has 
the center of any planet as the 
origin. It is the general case of the 
geocentric coordinate system. For 
example, if you use the correct ele- 
ments, you can determine how the 
solar system looks from Mars. 

Topocentric: This system is a re- 
fined geocentric system. It takes in- 
to account the fact that you are lo- 
cated 4,000 miles from the center of 
Earth when viewing the planets. 
This makes a small change in the 
viewing angle. Strictly speaking, 
alt-azimuth coordinates should be 
found from the topocentric and not 
from the geocentric coordinates. 
The errors are small, and I have 
neglected them. ■ 



162 



Micro, January 1983 




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"TRS-80 is a trademark Of the Radio Shack Division of Tandy Corp. 



331 C8 




know the distance and angle of Earth 
and each planet with respect to the sun. 
The program then solves for planet lo- 
cation with respect to Earth, again 
using trigonometry, a relatively simple 
procedure. 

DS in line 1540 is the distance in 
three-dimensional space between Earth 
and another planet. Z0 in line 1550 is 
the inverse sine of the declination. The 
declination CL(B) is found by using the 
ATN function again. RA(B) in line 1 570 
is the ATN of the planet's Y-coordinate 
divided by its X-coordinate. Since right 
ascension is usually given in hours and 
minutes, conversion from degrees to 
hours/minutes is done in lines 
1660-1720. 

CL(B) and RA(B) in lines 1640-1650 
are used only if you want to refer the 
RA and declination to a different year. 
For instance, most comet orbits are re- 
ferred to the year 1 950 or 2000 as a stan- 
dard astronomical practice. Figure 5 
shows the geocentric printout. 

Alt-Azimuth Coordinates 

Alt-azimuth coordinates are found in 
lines 1880-2060. Type in your latitude 
and longitude. I arbitrarily limited lati- 
tudes to less than 65 degrees north or 



south. The value can be changed to 90 
degrees. Longitudes are limited to plus 
or minus 180 degrees. 

LST is the local sidereal time in line 
1960. This is an important number for 
finding the hour angle HRA in line 
1990. Sidereal time and hour angle re- 
late the rotation of Earth to the back- 
ground of stars. Any star rises and sets 
at the same sidereal time every day. The 
hour angle is necessary for finding the 
azimuth angle. 

Lines 2000-2030 are the spherical 
trigonometric transformations from 
geocentric to alt-azimuth coordinates. 
Proper quadrant corrections need to be 
made in lines 2040-2060, so that azi- 
muth is printed from 0-360 degrees. 

Accuracy and Errors 

This program has six sources of er- 
ror: nutation; planetary aberration; 
parallax; Earth-moon system; dropping 
of squared and higher-order terms; and 
gravitational perturbations. 

The first four affect viewing from 
Earth. They do not affect any planet's 
true heliocentric position. 

Geocentric Errors 

Nutation is a slight wobble in Earth's 



SPIN AXIS OF EARTH 



P (PLANET) 



Planet 


Maximum 


Average 




Error 


Error 




in degrees 


in degrees 


Mercury 


.05 


.02 


Venus 


.07 


.03 


Earth 


.07 


.04 


Mars 


.15 


.06 


Mars 


.15 


.06 


Jupiter 


.46 


.20 


Saturn 


1.10 


.51 




Table 2. Maximum and A verage Errors in 


Longitude due to Perturbations 



Want geocentric coordinates for same 


date? 


Y/N 






equinox of date? 


Y/N 












Want referred to 


equinox of date? Y/N 












Dist to Earth 








RT Ascen. 


Declin 




A.U. 








(HR/MIN) 


(DEG) 


MER 


1.31 








19/28.5 


-25.5 


VEN 


1.68 








18/11.9 


-24.1 


MAR 


1.96 








20/25.4 


-20.6 


JUP 


6.27 








16/42.7 


-18.9 


SAT 


10.32 








14/0.9 


-9.8 


URA 


19.85 








16/16.7 


-21.2 


NEP 


31.23 








17/45.7 


-22.2 


PLU 


30.47 








14/10.5 


4.6 


HAL 


9.82 








6/58.8 


9.5 


Want alt-azimuth coordinates? Y/N 














Fig. 


5. 


Geocentric Printout 






a = obliquity of ecliptic 
6 = declination 

A = center of gravity of earth-moon system. 
Origin for differential equation solution. 
B = point on Earth's surface from which you 
look. Origin for topocentric coordinate system. 
C = center of Earth. Origin for the program's 
geocentric coordinate system. 
As explained in the text, alt-azimuth coordinates 
are transformes from the geocentric. They should 
be transformed from the topocentric coor- 
dinates. Alt-azimuth coordinates are therefore in 
error by angle BPC, which is less than .009°. 

Fig. 6. Parallax and coordinates system errors 



axis caused by the moon. It is much 
smaller than precession. Nutation oc- 
curs because the orbit plane of the 
moon is tilted about five degrees toward 
the plane of Earth's equator, and the 
orbit is elliptical. Error due to nutation 
is about .006 degrees in right ascension 
and declination. The error is nearly the 
same for all the planets. 

The moon also causes another type of 
error. Earth and the moon must be con- 
sidered a double planet. The true center 
of gravity of the Earth-moon system is 
located about 3,000 miles from Earth's 
center. Earth swings around this point, 
and the planets are shifted a slight 
amount. Maximum error is about .007 
degrees for Venus in right ascension. 
This error occurs at Venus 's closest ap- 
proach to Earth, about 26 million miles. 
The smallest errors, about .0001 degrees, 
are for Uranus, Neptune, and Pluto. 
(See Fig. 6.) 




S = SUN 

E = Earth at time t 

J, = Jupiter at timet 

J 2 = Jupiter at time (t-40 minutes) as seen from 

Earth. 

a = angular error, < .003 ° for Jupiter 

Fig. 7. Planetary A bberation 



164 • 80 Micro, January 1983 



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80 Micro, January 1983 • 165 



MICROSETTE 



DISKETTES CASSETTES 




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Planetary aberration is the apparent 
change in a planet's position because of 
the time it takes light to reach us. When 
we look from Earth, we see Saturn 
where it was about one and one half 
hours ago. The error from planetary ab- 
erration varies with each planet, since 
the planets travel at different speeds and 
are at various distances from earth. Er- 
rors range from a high of .009 degrees 
in right ascension and declination for 



Mercury down to a low of .001 degrees 
for the outer planets. (See Fig. 7). 

Parallax arises because you look at 
the other planets from Earth's surface, 
while the heliocentric positions are cal- 
culated as if seen from Earth's center. 
On Earth's surface you can be displaced 
up to 4,000 miles one way or the other 
from its center. The errors range from 
.009 degrees in right ascension for 
Venus down to .0001 degrees for 



Program Listing 

100 DEFDBL A,C-Z 

110 CLS 

120 PRINT "****************************************************" 

130 PRINT" PLANETARY ORBITS" 

140 PRINT "AUTHOR — DON CARRERA COPYRIGHT 1981" 

150 PRINT "****************************************************" 

16 'THE PROGRAM AUTOMATICALLY CALCULATES THE JULIAN DATE 

170 "TPP IS THE TIME OF PERIHELION PASSAGE. 

180 'ALL DATA IS GIVEN AS OF JUNE 10,1980. 

190 *AN IS THE LONGITUDE OF THE ASCENDING NODE. PER IS THE LONG 

ITUDE OF PERIHELION. ECC IS THE ECCENTRICITY OF THE ORBIT. I IS 

THE ORBIT INCLINATION. A IS THE SEMI-MAJOR AXIS OF ORBIT. N IS 

THE DAILY MOTION OF PLANET IN DEGREES. 
200 'DA,DP,DI ARE THE CHANGES IN AN, PER AND I IN DEGREES PER CEN 
TURY. DE IS CHANGE IN ECC PER CENTURY (DIMENSIONLESS) . 
210 'MA,EA,TA ARE MEAN ANOMALY, ECCENTRIC ANOMALY AND TRUE ANOM- 
ALY (RADIANS OR DEGREES) . 
220 'U IS THE ARGUMENT OF LATITUDE. 

230 'RA IS RIGHT ASCENSION IN DEGREES; RH & RM ARE HOURS & MINUT 
ES OF RA. 

240 'HRA IS HOUR ANGLE FOR CALCULATING ALT-AZIMUTH COORDINATES. 
250 PRINT "THE PROGRAM CALCULATES PLANET POSITION IN SEVERAL COO 
RDINATE SY-STEMS FOR A GIVEN MONTH/ DAY/ YEAR. YOU MUST INPUT YOU 
R LATITUDE AND LONGITUDE FOR ALT-AZIMUTH COORDINATES." 
260 PRINT 
270 PRINT "YOU CHOOSE SUN-CENTERED (HELIOCENTRIC) COORDINATES OR 

EARTH-CEN-TERED (GEOCENTRIC) COORDINATES. GEOCENTRIC COORDINAT 
ES MUST BE FOUND BEFORE ALT- AZIMUTH COORDINATES ARE COMPUTED." 
280 PRINT 

290 PRINT "YOU MAY CHOOSE ANY DATE FROM 1500 A.D. TO 2460 A.D.": 
PRINT 

300 PRINT "PRESS ANY KEY TO CONTINUE" 
310 IF INKEY$="" THEN 310 
320 K2=57. 295779 
330 DIM H(13) 
340 CLS 

350 PRINT "WHICH COORDINATE SYSTEM DO YOU WANT?" 
360 PRINT "(ALT-AZIMUTH MUST BE CALCULATED AFTER GEOCENTRIC)" 
370 PRINT 



3 80 INPUT "HELIOCENTRIC (1) GEOCENTRIC 

3 90 IF CRD=1 OR CRD=2 THEN 400 ELSE 3 80 

400 PRINT 

410 PRINT "INPUT DATE: " 

420 INPUT "YEAR IS :";YEAR 

430 IF YEAR=0 THEN 440 ELSE 450 

440 PRINT "THERE IS NO YEAR ZERO": GOTO 420 

450 IF ABS(YEAR-1980) >480 THEN 470 

460 IF YEAROINT (YEAR) THEN 420 ELSE 480 

470 PRINT "TOO FAR AWAY": GOTO 420 

480 PRINT 

490 IF REP=1 THEN 500 ELSE 510 

50 RESTORE 

510 FOR B= 1 TO 13 

520 READ H(B) :NEXT B 

530 IF (YEAR/4) -INT (YEAR/ 4) =0 THEN 54 

YEAR/400) -INT(YEAR/400) =0 THEN 560 
YEAR/100) -INT(YEAR/100) =0 THEN 570 

560 FOR B= 3 TO 13 :H(B) =H(B) +1 :NEXT B 

570 INPUT"MONTH (JAN=1): ";MNTH 

580 IF MNTH<1 OR MNTH>12 OR MNTHOINT(MNTH) 

590 INPUT "DAY OF MONTH :";DY 

600 IF DY>=1 AND DY<=(H (MNTH+1) -H (MNTH) +. 99 

T(DY*100+.99) ) <.001 THEN 610 ELSE 590 

610 CLS 

620 IF YEAR<0 THEN YEAR=YEAR+1 



2) ";CRD 



ELSE 570 



540 IF 
550 IF 



THEN 570 
AND ABS( (DY*100)-IN 



Listing continues 



166 • 80 Micro, January 1983 



Word Processing 

Software 

for TRS-80* 

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'Electric Pencil licensed to PMC 
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tsSee List ol Advertisers on Page 435 



80 Micro, January 1983 • 167 



TAX PLANNING 

PERSONAL FINANCE 

BUSINESS ACCOUNTING 

for the 

Model III Computer 

TAX/BUDGET PLANNER— a valuable tool for 
personal budgeting and tax planning. The pro- 
gram calculates personal cash flow including 
federal income taxes. It can be used for such 
things as determining the timing for capital 
gains/losses, amount of income tax withhold- 
ings and more. Using the keyboard, the user 
fills in six spreadsheets displayed by the com- 
puter. The user can go back and change any 
amounts on the spreadsheets. The program 
includes the relevant parts of the 1981 Eco- 
nomic Recovery and 1 982 Fiscal Responsibility 
Acts, plus automatic calculation of: 

1. tax liability per the tables or schedules. 

2. tax liability per the averaging 

method (uses lower of 1 or 2) 

3. capital loss and charity contribution 

carryforwards 

4. new minimum tax and self 

employment tax 
BUSINESS BOOKKEEPER— General journal, 
general ledger accounting system. Accounts 
are created by keying in the journal entries. 
Features automatic posting to the ledger. Auto- 
matic report generation includes: (1) Balance 
Sheet, (2) Income & Expense, (3) General Jour- 
nal and (4) Chart of Accounts. 
MONEY MANAGER— Personal bookkeeping 
system that allows the user to track and report 
on his income and expenses plus checking 
account, savings account and credit card bal- 
ances. Separate reports for business and 
personal income and expenses. 

TAX/BUDGET PLANNER $99 

BUSINESS BOOKKEEPER/MONEY MANAGER $49 

(with purchase of TB PLANNER) $39 

DEMO (TB PLANNER & MONEY MANAGER) $ 7 

y' 53 

Capital Software 

1 627 Peach Ct. E., Seattle, WA 981 1 2 



Pep up your UN€ INPUT 
routine with €-Z UN€ INPUT. 

The contents of a variable are 
not destroyed if UN€ INPUT is 
terminated immediately. All 
of the £DIT subcommands can 
be used to edit them. UN€ 
INPUT can be terminated by 
the up arrouj, doujn arrouj or 
enter key and the terminating 
key can be tested to alter 
program control. 

ONLV $14.95. Supplied on 
cassette for the TRS-80 
Models I & III Disk Basic 
systems. Specify RAM 
version ujhen ordering. Send 
check or money order to: 
Howard Bowe 
1 6 Lombardi Place 
Amityville, NV 11701 



Listing continued 

630 J0=YEAR+4712 

640 LYR=INT((J0-l)/4) 

650 JD=365*J0+LYR 

660 IF YEAR<1582 THEN 720 

670 IF YEAR=1582 AND( (MNTH<10) OR (MNTH=10 AND DY<15) 



THEN 720 



1 ;MNTH;"/ n ;DY; n / n ;YEAR; n G 



HELIO LON. 
(DEG) 



HELIO LAT." 
(DEG) " 



Y/N" 



6 80 JD=JD-10 

690 YR1583 = INT( (YEAR-150D/100) 
700 LPYR1583=INT( ( YEAR-1201)/400] 
710 JD=JD-YR1583+LPYR1583 
720 JD=JD+DY+H(MNTH) -.5 
730 IF YEAR<=0 THEN YEAR=YEAR-1 

7 40 PRINT "JULIAN DAY IS ";JD;" 
MT" 

750 TJ=(JD-2444400.5)/36525 
760 IF CRD=2 THEN 800 
770 PRINT " DIST. TO SUN 
780 PRINT " A.U. 

7 90 GOTO 910 
800 GEO=0 
810 PRINT 

820 PRINT "WANT REFERRED TO EQUINOX OF DATE? 
830 GOSUB 2120 

840 ON Ql GOTO 850 ,880 

850 INPUT "WHAT YEAR DO YOU WANT RESULTS REFERRED TO";Yl 

860 K=Y1-YEAR:CRD=4 

870 PRINT "RESULTS REFERRED TO YEAR ";Y1 

880 PRINT " DIST TO EARTH RT ASCEN DECLIN" 

890 PRINT" (A.U.) (HR/MIN) (DEG)" 

900 IF GEO=l THEN 1420 

910 FOR B=l TO 10 

920 READ Z$(B) r N,A,ElCC,Il,PlER,AlN,DA,DP,DE,DI,TPP 

930 AN=A1 

+DA*TJ 

940 PER=P1ER+DP*TJ 

950 ECC=E1CC+DE*TJ 

960 I=I1+DI*TJ 

970 MA=(N*(JD-TPP)-(DP-1.3965) *TJ)/K2 

980 EA=MA+ECC*SIN(MA) 

990 M0=EA-ECC*SIN(EA) 

1000 DL=(MA-M0)/(1-ECC*COS(EA) ) 

1010 EA=EA+DL 

1020 IF ABS(DL) >.0001 THEN 990 

1030 R(B)=A*(l-ECC*COS(EA)) 

1040 TA=K2*2*ATN(SQR((l+ECC)/(l-ECC))*TAN(EA/2)) 

1050 U=TA+PER-AN 

1060 IF U>0 THEN 1080 

1070 U=U+360 

1080 IF U>360 THEN U=U-360 

1090 L(B) =AN+K2*ATN(C0S(I/K2) *TAN(U/K2) ) 

1100 IF U>90 THEN 1120 

1110 GOTO 1140 

1120 IF U>270 THEN L(B) =L( B) +360 :GOTO 1140 

1130 L(B)=L(B)+180 

1140 IF L(B)>360 THEN L(B) =L(B) -360 

1150 X1=SIN(I/K2) *SIN(U/K2) 

1160 LAT(B)=ATN(X1/SQR(1-X1*X1)) 

1170 IF CRD=2 OR CRD=4 THEN 1190 

1180 PRINT USING "% % ##.## ###.# ###.# 

";Z$(B) ;R(B) ;L(B) ;LAT(B) *K2 
1190 NEXT B 

1200 IF CRD=2 OR CRD=4 THEN 1420 

1210 DATA 0,31,59,90,120,151,181,212,243,273,304,334,365 
1220 DATA MER, 4. 0923388,. 3 87099,. 205631, 7. 00437, 77. 1509, 48. 0994, 
1.1 852, 1.5555,. 00002,. 002, 244437 6. 770 

1230 DATA VEN, 1.60213,. 723332,. 0067 83, 3. 39444, 131. 2958, 76. 5038,. 
89 98, 1.4080, -.00005, .001, 244 4323. 110 
1240 DATA EAR, .985609,1, .016717, 0,102. 6040, 0,0, 1.7192, -.00004,0, 

2444242.321 

1250 DATA MAR, .524033, 1.52369, .093387, 1.8498, 335. 6989, 49. 4066, .7 

7099, 1.840 8, .00009, -.0007 ,2443 951.049 

1260 DATA JUP,. 083091, 5. 2028,. 04846 87, 1.3042, 14. 08, 100. 251, 1.01 

08, 1.6111,. 00016, -.006, 24426 36.0 

1270 DATA SAT,. 0334597, 9. 53 884,. 055614, 2. 4889, 92. 665, 113. 486,. 87 

306, 1.95 83, -.0003, -.004, 244207 8.0 

1280 DATA URA,. 011732, 19. 1818,. 047262,. 77194, 170. 34, 7 3. 90,. 5111, 

1.6250,. 0003,. 0006, 24393 84. 2 

1290 DATA NEP, . 005981 ,30 . 058 ,. 008590 ,1 .7719 , 44 . 453 ,131 . 565 ,1 .10 

17,. 877 8,. 00 01, -.009, 240 803 4. 7 

1300 DATA PLU,. 003921, 3 9. 829,. 2547 8, 17. 137, 223. 014, 109. 96,. 8, 1.5 

,0,0,2355886.7 

1310 DATA HAL, -.01300 08, 17. 95,. 967 3, -17. 5, 3 06. 9, 60, 3. 3, 1.6, 0,0, 2 

418781.5 

1320 IF CRD=2 OR CRD=4 THEN 1420 

1330 PRINT "WANT GEOCENTRIC COORDINATES FOR SAME DATE? Y/N" 

1340 GOSUB 2120 

1350 ON Ql GOTO 1380 ,1360 Listing continues 



168 • 80 Micro, January 1983 



Listing continued 

1360 GE0=1 

1370 GOTO 810 

1380 GOSUB 2110 

1390 GOSUB 1810 

1400 GOTO 340 

1410 PRINT 

1420 OBLIQ=(23.4419-.013*TJ)/K2 

1430 XSUN=R(3) *COS( (L(3) +180J/K2) 



))/K2) *COS(OBLIQ) 
))/K2) *SIN(OBLIQ) 



1440 YSUN=R(3) *SIN( (L(3)+ll 

1450 ZSUN=R(3) *SIN( (L(3)+ll 

1460 FOR B=l TO 10 

1470 IF B=3 THEN 1740 

1480 XP=R(B) *COS(LAT(B) ) *COS (L( B) /K2) 

1490 YP=R(B)*(COS(LAT(B))*SIN(L(B)/K2)*COS(OBLIQ)-SIN(LAT(B)) *SI 

N(OBLIQ)) 

1500 ZP=R(B) *(COS(LAT(B) ) *SIN( L(B) /K2) *SIN(OBLIQ) +SIN(LAT(B) ) *CO 

S(OBLIQ)) 

1510 XT=XP+XSUN 

1520 YT=YP+YSUN 

1530 ZT=ZP+ZSUN 

1540 DS=SQR(XT*XT+YT*YT+ZT*ZT) 

1550 Z0=ZT/DS 

1560 CL(B)=K2*ATN(Z0/SQR(1-Z0[2) ) 

1570 RA(B) =K2*ATN(YT/XT) 

1580 IF XT>0 THEN 1610 

1590 RA(B)=RA(B)+180 

1600 GOTO 1630 

1610 IF YT>0 THEN 1630 

1620 RA(B)=RA(B) +360 

1630 IF CRD=4 THEN 1640 ELSE 1680 

1640 CL(B)=CL(B)+.005567*K*COS( (RA(B) +. 0064*K) /K2) 

1650 RA(B)=RA(B)+.0128*K+. 005567 *K*SIN(RA(B)/K2)*TAN(CL(B)/K2) 

1660 IF RA(B)<0 THEN RA(B) =RA(B) +360 

1670 IF RA(B)>360 THEN RA(B) =RA(B) -360 

1680 RH=INT(RA(B)/15) 

1690 RM=(RA(B)/15-RH)*60 

1700 IF RM<60 THEN 1730 

1710 RH=RH+1 

1720 RM=0 

1730 PRINT USING"% % ##.## ##/##.# ###.# " 

;Z$(B) ;DS;RH;RH;CL(B) 

1740 NEXT B 

17 50 PRINT "WANT ALT-AZIMUTH COORDINATES? Y/N" 

1760 GOSUB 2120 

1770 ON Ql GOTO 1780 ,1870 

1780 GOSUB 2110 

1790 GOSUB 1810 

1800 GOTO 340 

1810 PRINT "WANT ANOTHER DAY? Y/N" 

1820 GOSUB 2120 

1830 ON Ql GOTO 1860 ,1840 

1840 REP=1 

1850 RETURN 

1860 STOP 

1870 CLS 

1880 Z8=(DY-INT(DY) ) *24 

1890 INPUT "LATITUDE = ";ATAZ 

1900 IF ABS(ATAZ)>65 THEN 1890 

1910 INPUT "LONGITUDE = ";AZLN 

1920 IF ABS(AZLN) >180 THEN 1910 

1930 PRINT MNTH;"/";DY;"/";YEAR; n GMT" 

1940 PRINT " ALTITUDE AZIMUTH" 

1950 PRINT " (DEG) (DEG) " 

1960 LST=17.2182+.0657093*(JD-2444400.5) +1.0027*Z8 

1970 FOR B=l TO 10 

1980 IF B=3 THEN 2080 

1990 HRA=(15*LST-RA(B)-AZLN)/K2 

2000 Z9=SIN(CL(B)/K2) *SIN( ATAZ/K2) +COS (CL(B)/K2) *COS ( ATAZ/K2) *CO 

S(HRA) 

2010 ALT=K2*ATN(Z9/SQR(1-Z9[2) ) 

2020 Zl=-COS(CL(B)/K2) *SIN(HRA) 

2030 Z2=SIN(CL(B)/K2)*COS(ATAZ/K2)-COS(CL(B)/K2)*SIN(ATAZ/K2)*CO 

S(HRA) 

2040 MU=K2*ATN(Z1/Z2) 

2050 IF Z2<0 THEN MU=MU+180 

2060 IF MU<0 THEN MU=MU+360 



2070 PRINT USING"% % 
2080 NEXT B 
2090 GOSUB 1810 
210 GOTO 340 

FOR B=l TO 



###.#"; Z$(B) ;ALT;MU 



2111 



100: NEXT B: RETURN 



2120 A$=INKEY$ 

2130 IF A$="N" THEN Ql=l:GOTO 2160 

2140 IF A$="Y" THEN Ql=2: GOTO 2160 

2150 GOTO 2120 

2160 RETURN 



EIGHTY 

SYSTEM 

NEWSLETTER 

FOR TRS-80* USERS 
(Mod. I/II/III/16/COLOR) 






(Also for dealers, mfg. and 
industry personnel.) 

Published 52 times per year 
and mailed First Class 

□ Latest TRS-80* System News 

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□ User Notes & Comments 

□ TRS-80* Article Summaries 

RATES 

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$75.00 Year- Foreign (Air) 

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SAMPLE COPIES $2.00 

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vSee List of Advertisers on Page 435 



80 Micro, January 1983 • 169 



Uranus, Neptune, and Pluto. 

These four types of errors displace 
the planets from their positions as cal- 
culated in relation to Earth. The errors 
could be zero for three of the four 
cases. That happens if you are at the 
right spot on Earth's surface, and the 
moon is in a "good" position (see Figs. 
6 and 7). Planetary aberration always 
displaces the planets as seen from 
Earth. You can make corrections in the 



program by allowing for the travel time 
of light when finding the heliocentric 
positions. (See References 3 and 5 for 
further explanation.) 

Table 1 shows the combined maxi- 
mum errors for each planet. These er- 
rors combine right ascension and decli- 
nation. The program output lists right 
ascension to . 1 arc minutes, which cor- 
responds to about .025 degrees. The 
four error terms give an error of plus or 



Line 100— Many of the constants require more than six-digit accuracy, TPP in particular. The 

counter B must not be double precision. 

410-600— Date input with checkpoints. H(B) is the counter for the day of the year, corrected 

for leap years. 

620-730— Julian day calculation. It is correct for any year from 4713 B.C. onward. 

750— T J is the number of centuries between the Julian day of interest and June 10, 1980 

(JD = 2444400.5). 

820-870— Select results referred to the vernal equinox of the date entered, or referred to the 

position of the vernal equinox of another year. 

910-1 190— Calculates the heliocentric coordinates. Need to get results in the proper quadrant 

due to use of the arc tangent (ATN) function. 

1220-1310— Data for the planets and Halley's comet. 

1420-1740— Calculates geocentric coordinates; lines 1640-1650 find the right ascension and 

declination if you want results referred to a different year. Heliocentric coordinates must be 

found before geocentric. 

1880-2080— Calculates alt-azimuth coordinates. Geocentric coordinates must be found before 

alt-azimuth coordinates. 

Table 3. Program Explanation 



minus .1 arc minutes in right ascension. 

Heliocentric Errors 

In finding the heliocentric positions, I 
approximated the true variations of the 
orbit elements by a straight line. For ex- 
ample, in line 950: 

ECC = E1CC + DE*TJ 

This means that the eccentricity at any 
time (ECC) equals the eccentricity on 
June 10, 1980 (E1CC), plus the rate of 
change of eccentricity per century (DE), 
times the number of centuries from 
June 10, 1980 (TJ). Including terms that 
use the variable "time" (in this case TJ) 
to the second power would give a better 
approximation: 

ECC = E1CC + DE*TJ + DDE*TJ*TJ 

This requires more data to be listed; 
you need DDE for all 10 planets. Since 
the program has ample room, you 
could easily do this. By using only first 
powers of time and going back 480 
years, maximum errors of about .02 
degrees in true longitude occur for 
Jupiter and Saturn. The further back in 
history you go, the greater the error 
becomes. 



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170 • 80 Micro, January 1983 



I assumed that orbit elements 
changed linearly. In fact, they don't. 
They vary in a cyclical, nonrepetitive 
manner, with periods of a few years to 
tens of thousands of years. Over a short 
time, a linear approximation is ade- 
quate, but it becomes less accurate with 
a time span. 

The last error term results from the 
gravitational perturbations on each 
planet by the other planets. If enough of 
these error terms are included, the true 
heliocentric positions can be found for 
any time. The problem is how to find 
these terms and how many to include. 

The terms' values are listed in astron- 
omy texts, usually under the name 
"perturbation theory." Astronomical 
Formulae for Calculators includes an 
excellent presentation of perturbation 
terms. These terms can be called long- 
period terms, and you should include 
about 100 of them. I didn't include per- 
turbation terms in the program because 
of the extra time and memory they 
require. 

The maximum error of the perturba- 
tion terms for the planets from Mercury 
to Saturn is 1.1 degrees (see Table 2), 
which means Saturn can be up to 1 . 1 de- 
grees away from the longitudes found 
with the program. For the years around 



1982, the greatest error is less than .2 de- 
grees. Errors in latitude are less than .01 
degrees and usually can be neglected. 
Errors in distance from the sun are 
typically .001 AU. 

Errors for Uranus and Neptune can 
be greater than 2 degrees. Pluto's orbit 



has not been reduced to a closed form to 
allow easy error calculations. Data for 
Halley's comet applies only from 
1980-1990. It will be visible in small 
telescopes from 1985-1987. 

The errors are the differences be- 
tween the values from my program and 



DECLINATION 




-DEGREES WEST 



RIGHT ASCENSION 



DEGREES EAST- 



CD Jupiter— as seen from earth, .012° diameter 
Neptune— as seen from Earth, .0007° 
diameter. True orbit 



[j error band, does not include perturbation 

terms 
o position calculated by program 



Fig. 8. Position of Neptune with respect to Jupiter December 28, 1612 to January 30, 1613 
(Reprinted with permission, Scientific American, December, 1980). 



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80 Micro, January 1983 • 171 



the values listed in the Astronomical 
Almanac. The perturbation errors pro- 
duce the greatest differences, and you 
can neglect most other errors. You ob- 
tain the true positions by solving simul- 
taneous differential equations. For each 
year, an equivalent set of orbit elements 
is calculated from the simultaneous 
equation solution. Astronomers deter- 
mine how much the elements change 
from year to year and try to approx- 
imate this change. For any one year, 
each element can be considered cons- 
tant. For hundreds of years, a linear ap- 
proximation is used. For longer 
periods, squared and cubed terms are 
necessary. 

Halley's Comet 

For Halley's comet, the maximum er- 
ror between the program's results and 
those in Comet Halley's Handbook will 



occur when it is closest to Earth — 
November 1985 and April 1986. 

There are two reasons for this. The 
comet is changing its distance from 
both the sun and Earth very rapidly. 
The geocentric coordinates are approxi- 
mately equal to the arc tangent of the 
heliocentric position divided by the dis- 
tance to earth. As the comet's distance 
from Earth decreases, the viewing error 
becomes greater. 

A second, more basic reason is that 
Halley's comet is nearing a heavy object 
— Earth. Earth's gravitational attrac- 
tion pulls the comet out of the smooth, 
elliptical orbit astronomers assumed it 
followed. 

The maximum error is approximately 
.6 degrees for the two closest approach- 
es on November 27, 1985, and April 11, 
1986. The errors at Halley's perihelion 
and after June 10, 1986, are typically 



J u lien Day 


s 2310199.68 






1/4.18/1613 GMT 






Dist to Sun 




Helio Lon. 


Helio Lat. 






A.U. 




(DEG) 


(DEG) 


MER 




0.41 




311.863 


-6.99 


VEN 




0.72 




163.479 


3.39 


EAR 




0.98 




104.108 


0.00 


MAR 




1.59 




89.897 


1.27 


JUP 




5.43 




166.677 


1.25 


SAT 




9.57 




348.420 


-2.13 


URA 




18.99 




84.440 


0.17 


NEP 




30.23 




174.841 


1.33 


PLU 




49.98 




39.159 


-15.94 


HAL 




15.70 




137.724 


-17.50 


Want geocentric coorcdinates for same 


date? Y/N 






Fig. 9. Program 


's Calculations for Right Ascensions and Declinations 


of All Planets on 


January 4, 


1613, 


at 4:19 am GMT. 









Want referred to equinox of date? Y/N 

What year do you want results referred to? 1950 

Results referred to year 1950 





Dist to Earth 


RT Ascen. 


Declin 




A.U. 


(HR/MIN) 


(DEG) 


MER 


1.36 


19/57.485 


-22.912 


VEN 


0.87 


16/9.326 


-18.222 


MAR 


0.68 


4/47.757 


25.460 


JUP 


5.06 


12/6.990 


0.700 


SAT 


10.04 


23/19.283 


-6.596 


URA 


18.06 


5/51.676 


23.663 


NEP 


29.92 


12/6.993 


0.701 


PLU 


49.58 


3/0.682 


0.363 


HAL 


14.93 


9/23.345 


-4.079 



Want alt-azimuth coordinates? Y/N 

Fig. 10. Further Calculations for Right Ascensions and Declinations of All Planets on January 
4, 1613, at 4:19 am GMT. 



.25 degrees. When Halley's comet is at 
perihelion, it will be on the opposite side 
of the sun from Earth. The program re- 
sults for the comet are only valid for 
1980-1990. 

Occultation of Neptune 
by Jupiter in 1613 

A rare event occurred on January 4, 
1613. As seen from Earth, Jupiter oc- 
culted (passed in front of) Neptune (see 
Fig. 8). The small circles in Fig. 8 show 
the true position of Neptune with re- 
spect to Jupiter as found by Steven 
Albers from the solution for the differ- 
ential equations of motion. The small 
squares show the results from my pro- 
gram, along with the error limits re- 
sulting from all error terms except for 
the long-period terms. Figures 9 and 10 
show the program's calculations for the 
right ascensions and declinations of all 
the planets on January 4, 1613, at 4:19 
a.m. GMT. I've listed the numbers to 
three decimal places, because the separ- 
ation of the centers of Jupiter and Nep- 
tune are about .001 degrees apart. Since 
Jupiter's disk is .012 degrees in diam- 
eter, it completely covered the disk of 
Neptune. 

The data in Fig. 10 refers to the year 
1950. Doing this allows us to compare 
the right ascension and declination val- 
ues of the program to the values in 
"Mutual Occulations of Planets: 1557 
to 2230. "Both declination and right 
ascension are in error by .1 degree. 
Most of this error is due to long-period 
terms. That's good agreement by the 
listed program for a date over 350 years 
ago. The positions of all the planets for 
January 4, 1613, are shown in Fig. 11. 
The Earth-Jupiter-Neptune line-up is 
easily seen. 

Program Improvements 

To save memory and improve the 
speed of calculating, you can make sev- 
eral changes to the program. You can 
write the mean anomaly in the form 
(((a + b*T)*T) + c*T) (see Reference 5). 
I didn't do this because I wanted to fol- 
low the definition of mean anomaly. 

If you are certain that you won't 
enter bad data, delete all the check- 
points for data input. For example, you 
know you won't enter 14 when input- 
ting the month, or -2.3 for the day. You 
can delete lines 410-470, 570, and 590. 

Formulas for finding the Julian day 
can be written on one program line. 
They don't show how to obtain the Juli- 
an day, but they do give the right num- 
ber for it. You can substitute such a 
formula for lines 620-730. (Although 
the earliest year on my program is 1500 



172 



Micro, January 1983 



RUN BASIC PROGRAMS AT 




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creates a ready to run MACHINE LANGUAGE program. 

7. NO ROYALTIES imposed on registered ZBASIC owners. 

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9. Use TRS-80 Basic to write ZBASIC programsl 

1 0. Compile many existing programs with only minor changes. 
(Some BASIC programming experience is required.) 

1 1 . Fully compatible with both the Model I and the Model III. Mod I 
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works with NEWDOS-80. NEWDOS+, DOSPLUS, LDOS, MULTIDOS, 
ULTRADOS, TRSDOS etc. 

1 2. BUILT-IN and much improved MUSIC and SOUND EFFECTS 
commands. 

1 3. Improved CHAINING for disk users. 

14. TIMES now available on DISK version. 

1 5. ZBASIC 2.2 now has an INPUT @ command (similar to PRINT @). 

1 6. The TAB function will now tab 255 columns on a printer. (BASIC 
cannot tab past column 64.) 

1 7. NEWDOS 80 2.0 USERS can use the CMD "dos command" 
functionl 

1 8. NEW and EASIER to use USR COMMANDS. 

1 9. New math functions to calculate XOR and INTEGER 
REMAINDERS 

20. Logical STRING COMPARISONS are now supported. 

21. The disk commands INSTR, MIDS ASSIGNMENT are now 
supported on both DISK AND TAPE ZBASIC. 

22. DEFSTR is now supported. 

23. Eight disk files may be opened simultaneously; random, 
sequential or mixed. 

24. LINE INPUT*, is now supported 

25. Invoke the compiler by simply hitting these two keys: ":-" 

26. NEW 100+ PAGE MANUAL WITH DESCRIPTIONS AND 
EXAMPLE. 

27. ZBASIC 2.2 Comes with CMDFILE/CMD program from 
MISOSYS, to allow appending or merging compiled programs and 
machine language programs from tape or disk. 



ZBASIC 2.2 DOES NOT SUPPORT THESE 
BASIC COMMANDS: 

1 . ATN, EXP, COS, SIN. LOG, TAN, and exponentiation. (However, 
subroutines are included in the manual for these functions.) 

2. ERROR, ON ERROR GOTO, ERL, ERR RESUME. 

3. No direct commands like AUTO, EDIT, LIST, LLIST ETC, although 
these commands may be used when writing programs. 

4. Others NOT supported: CDBL, CINT, CSNG, DEFFN, FIX, FRE. 

5. Normal CASSETTE I/O. (ZBASIC supports it's own SPECIAL 
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6. SOME BASIC COMMANDS MAY DIFFER IN ZBASIC. For 
instance, END jumps to DOS READY, STOPjumps to BASIC 
READY etc. 

7. MEMORY REQUIREMENTS: to approximate the largest BASIC 
program that can be compiled in your machine (at one time), enter 
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compiled programs together to fill memory. 

ZBASIC 2.2 SPEED COMPARISON DEMO 

To help give you an idea how fast compiled programs are, we have 

included this demo program: 

ZBASIC 2.2 DEMO PROGRAM 

Time to compile and run complete program :0MIN. 2 SEC. 

BASIC Execution speed MOD I , LEVEL II : 7 MIN. 34 SEC. 

ZBASIC Execution speed MOD 1 , LEVEL II :0 MIN. 1 8 SEC. 

BASIC Program size (WITHOUT VARIABLES) : 89S BYTES 

ZBASIC Program size (WITHOUT VARIABLES) : 2733 BYTES 
(Remember that the ZBASIC program includes an 1879 byte sub- 
routine package.) Program shown exactly as compiled and run in 
BASIC and ZBASIC. 

10 •========= ZBASIC 2.2 EXAMPLE PROGRAM AND TIME TEST======== 

29 CLS:CLEAR100:DEFINT A-X:DEFSTR Z:DIM AA (64, 24) , Z (50) : RANDOM 

30 AA=100:BB=-1000:CC=3:DD=-3:EE=-9999:ST*="START TIME "+TIME« 
40 FOR I=1T0127STEP2 :F0R J=47T01STEP-3: XX = P0INT ( I , J) :SET ( I , J) 
50 XX=(I-J)/CC»(7+I+J> :XX=ABS(INT(RND(I»J)-AA>+7> : RESET (I, J) 
60 XX=PEEK(I+J) :POKE15360+I+J, J :0UT255, J AND (3«J> : XX=INP (I ) 
70 AB*=STR*(I+J> :BA*=LEFT*(AB*,2> :AA < 1/2, J72) =VAL (BA«> -t-AA«3 
80 BA$=BA*+RIGHT*(BA«, RND(3) ) : XX=INSTR ( 1 , BA«, "9") : XX=SQR ( I»J) 
90 BA*=MID*(BA*,2, 2) :MID« (BA«, 1, 1 ) =Z :IF XX THEN 100 ELSE CLS 
100 IF LEN(BA«)>3 DR SGN(XX)=1 AND ASC(BAS>=32 THEN PRINT"+++"; 
110 IFPOS<0)>62 THEN TRON: TROFF : PRINT ELSE XX=NOT ( RND (99) ) +100 
120 A»=INKEY*:IF A*="Y" OR A*="y" AND I>120 THEN PRINT"TRUE. . " 
130 RESTORE : READA, C, Z ( J) , D: GOSUB170 :GOSUB170:GOSUB170:GOTO210 
140 NEXT :PRINT"»"; :NEXTI :CLS: PRINT9512, ST*, "STOP TIME ";TIME« 
150 STOP' ============== END OF MAIN TEST LOOP ================= 

160 DATA 12345, -1, "TEST", -9999 

170 ON RND<6) GOTO 180,190,200,180,190,200 

180 RETURN 

190 RETURN 

200 RETURN 

210 ON RND(9> GOSUB 180,190,200,180,190,200,180,190,200 

220 GOTO 140 

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sSee List of Advertisers on Page 435 



Micro, January 1983 • 173 



A.D., the Julian day calculation is accu- 
rate for any time after 4713 B.C.) Also, 
if you don't want geocentric or alt- 
azimuth coordinates, eliminate most of 
lines 1360-2120. To decrease the display 
time for heliocentric positions, change 
line 100 to: DEFDBL J,T. 

What Else Can You Do? 

You can also adapt this program to 
look at the solar system from another 
planet. The heliocentric calculations 
stay the same since they give the true lo- 
cations of the planets. Find the helio- 
centric positions before calculating any 
other coordinate system information. 

You must make changes in lines 
1460-1510. In line 1460, OBLIQ is the 
tilt of the ecliptic with respect to the 
planet from which you are looking. For 
the listed program, this planet is Earth. 
On June 10, 1980, Earth's tilt was 
23.4419 degrees. If you want to look 
from Mars, using "marcentric" coordi- 
nates, the ecliptic should remain the 
plane of Earth's orbit, so you don't 
have to change the constants in the data 
statements. Change OBLIQ to 23.98. 
This is the tilt of the Martian axis of ro- 
tation to the ecliptic. Line 1460 will look 
like this: 

1460 OBLIQ = (23.98-.002*TJ)/K2 

The -.002 term is the precession term. 
Mars's precession is much less than 
Earth's since Mars has no large moon to 
perturb it. The precession of Mars re- 
sults from influences by the sun and Ju- 
piter. The following lines also change: 

1470 XSUN = R(4)*COS((L(4) + 1 80/K2)* 

COS(LAT(4)/K2) 

1480 YSUN = R(4)*SIN((L(4) + 180)/K2* 

COS(OBLIQ)*COS(LAT(4)/K2) 

1490 ZSUN = R(4)*SIN((L(4) + 180)/K2)* 

SIN(OBLIQ)*COS(LAT(4)/K2) 

The COS(LAT) terms take into ac- 
count Mars's inclination to the ecliptic. 
Similar terms would have appeared in 
finding XSUN for Earth, except that 
Earth's inclination is defined as zero. In 
reality, the latitude of Earth is not 



always zero, but can be as "high" as .03 
degrees. Because COS(.03 degrees) is 
about .99999985, the latitude term can 
be ignored for Earth. 

Since Mars is the fourth planet, all 
references must be to it, not to Earth, in 
the equations. The counter B must be 
changed from 3 to 4. Line 1510 
becomes: 

1510 IF B = 4 THEN 1760 

With these changes you can find the 
ascensions and declinations of the other 
planets as they would be seen from 
Mars. Martian alt-azimuth coordinates 
are more difficult to find. You must use 
Martian latitudes and longitudes, which 
can be found in some observational as- 
tronomy texts. You must obtain a rela- 
tion between the Martian day and an 
Earth day. Mars rotates once every 24 
hours, 37 minutes, but the formulas are 
based on Earth's 24 hours per day, 
365.25 Julian days per year. 

You can also adapt this program to 
find the path of a spaceship sent from 
Earth to Mars. Normally, you know the 
spacecraft's x, y, and z-coordinates, as 
well as the x, y, and z-velocities with re- 
spect to Earth. These quantities usually 
come from direct radar or acceleromet- 
er information. 

A spacecraft changes orbit by firing 
its engines, giving it a velocity change in 
the x, y, or z direction, or all three. The 
velocity changes are seldom translated 
into changes in the orbital elements. In 
real time, you don't need orbit elements 
when you have the distances and veloci- 
ties. However, some formulas let you 
change the orbit elements for use in a 
program like this one. Texts that deal 
with satellite dynamics can give you the 
methods for changing orbit elements 
due to a spacecraft's velocity changes. 

If you are interested in the alt-azi- 
muth coordinates for a star, you can use 
lines 1880-2080. Input the right ascen- 
sion and declination of the star. The 
star's right ascension would be read as 
RA(B) in line 1990. The declination be- 
comes CL(B) in line 2000. You must 




also calculate the Julian day to find the 
local sidereal time (LST) in line 1960. 
The printout will list the altitude and 
azimuth of the stars as you see them 
from your latitude and longitude. 

You can calculate the transmission 
time for sending a message from Earth 
to another planet. The distance from 
Earth to the planet is found and printed 
out with the geocentric coordinates and 
can be used in your own application. 
Light (and radio waves) travels one 
A.U. in about 498.5 seconds. 

Planet brightness can be calculated, 
too. Each planet reflects a certain 
amount of sunlight from its surface. 
This percent reflectance is called albe- 
do. You can find the planet's bright- 
ness, as seen from Earth, if you know 
the planet's albedo, diameter, distance 
from the sun, and distance from Earth. 
The planet's distances from the sun and 
from Earth are known. All you need to 
do is read the extra data concerning al- 
bedo and diameter for the 10 bodies. ■ 



Don Carrera is an engineer with 
Westinghouse Electric. Contact him at 
50 Suhan Drive, RD 11, Irwin, PA 
15642. 



Fig. 11. Alignment of Jupiter and Neptune can be easily seen here. Positions are plotted from data 
from Fig. 9. The planets orbit counter-clockwise. Three planets are off the scale of the drawing; 
Halley's comet position shown by the program is meaningless at this date. The 0° mark indicates the 
direction of the vernal equinox for 1613 A.D. 



References 

Albers, Steven C. "Mutual Oc- 
cupations of Planets: 1557 to 
2230." Sky and Telescope, March 
1979, pp. 220-222. 

Astronomical Almanac, U.S. 
Government Printing Office, 
Published yearly. 

Explanatory Supplement to the 
Astronomical Ephemeris and the 
American Ephemeris and Nautical 
Almanac, Washington, DC: 
Nautical Office of the Naval 
Observatory. 

Kowal, Charles, Stillman and 
Drake. "Galileo's Sighting of Nep- 
tune." Scientific American, 
December 1980, pp. 74-81. 

Meeus, Jean. Astronomical For- 
mulae for Calculators. Belgium: 
URANIA/VVS, 1980. 

Yeomans, Donald K. The Comet 
Halley Handbook, an Observer's 
Guide. Pasadena, California: Jet 
Propulsion Laboratory, 1981. 



174 



Micro, January 1983 




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Plexiglass Case gives a clean look to your system. 
Regularly $79.95 Holiday Special $69.95!! 



X OWer UraW A super-easy screen display 
generator. Allows you to save screens in Basic. 
Packed String, Load file, or CMD file. Give a 
professional look to your program. Regularlv 
$39.95, Holiday Special $29.95!! 



H Dosplus 3.4 

Operating System 



You've read all about this incredible Operating 
System. With all its' features only the price could 
improve it. Sooo... Holiday Special $79.95!!! 

(101005) Model I Single Density 

(101006) Model I Double Density 
(103006) Model III 

IVl"^al The most powerful Editor 
Assembler ever written. Full screen editing, linking 
loader, full macro support and much more! 
Holiday special only (101007) $99.95. 



B 



Electronic Messenger completely 

automated electronic mail program for the 
Model III. Transmitts and receives mail auto- 
matically. From a short note to a full disk! The 
standard in Electronic Mail for all Computers 
(103013) $149.95. (Now only $59.95!!!!!) 

Postman Mass Mailing 

oyStem This Mass Mailing Package is 
without a doubt the most powerful mailing list 
program ever written! Info-World gave it a 4 

excellent (highest) rating! Regularlv SI 29.95. 
Holiday Special $99.95 

H2 Manufacturing Inventory 

v-OntrOl A complete point-of-sale order 

entry system for TRS-80 Model I III Includes 
Invoice Generator. Billing Record Maintenance. 
Inventory Tracking, Production of finished goods 
from raw materials, etc... Fantastic! Regular 
$199.00. Holiday Special $149.00!! 



□ 



□ 



□ 



M 



PaSCal-80 The Fabulous Pascal-80 
Package by New Classics Software. Considered to 
be the best Pascal Package available for the 
TRS-80! Regular Price $99.95. Holiday 
Special (113008) $79.95!! 

MicrO CasllA point-of-sale Inventory 
Cash Register, and Accounts Receivable 
System for the TRS-80 Model III. Includes 
Invoice Generator and Inventory Control! 
Regularly $199.00 Holiday Special (103030) 
$149.95!! 

Super Utility A Must for all serious 
computer users. Allows ;you to repair damaged 
disk directories, boot tracks, etc. A real value at 
$79.95. but a holiday special at $39.95!! 

Uniterm A Modular Terminal program for 
both the Model 1 & III. Full Up and down loading 
capabilities with a 38K buffer in a 48K mackline! 
113000 $79.95. 



*A11 Holiday Specials End 1-15-83!!! 

Postmarks after that date will not be accepted at these prices!! 




^ B. T. Enterprises --z 
10B Carlough Road 
Bohemia, N.Y. 11716 
516 567 8155 (voice) 
!v— :--"^-^iI 516 588 5836 (modem) 

B.T. Enterprises is a division of Bi- lech Enterprises 



Dealer Inquires Welcome 
Prices Subject to change 
N.Y.S. Residents Add Tax 



New Toll Free Lines for 

out of New York Stale 

orders 

800 645 1165 



WELCOME 




sSee List of Advertisers on Page 435 



80 Micro, January 1983 • 175 



Aerocomp's 
Proven 
Best-By Test! 
The 



11 



ii 




Double Density Controller 

• Technical Superiority 

At last! A double density controller for Model l witn higher probability of data recovery than with any other 
double density CONTROLLER ON the MARKET TODAY! The "DDC" from Aerocomp. No need to worry about the pro- 
blems that keep cropping up on existing products. AEROCOMP'S new analog design phase lock loop data separator 
has a wider capture window than the digital types currently on the market. This allows high resolution data center- 
ing. The finest resolution available with digital circuitry is 125 ns (nano seconds). The "DDC" analog circuit allows in- 
finately variable tuning. Attack and settling times are optimum for 5-1/4 inch diskettes. 
The units presently on the market use a write precompensation circuit that is very "sloppy ". Board to board 
tolerance is extremely wide - in the order of + 100 ns. The "DDC" is accurate to within + 20 ns. 
The bottom line is state of the art reliability! 

* Test Proven 

Tests were conducted on AEROCOMP'S "DDC", Percom's "Doubler A"* and "Doubler ll"* and LNW's "LNDoubler"** using 
a Radio Shack TRS80*** Model l, Level 2, 48 K with TRS80 Expansion interface and a Percom TFD100 * disk drive 
(Siemens Model 82). Diskette was Memorex 3401. The test diskette chosen was a well used piece of media to deter- 
mine performance under adverse conditions. The various double density adapters were installed sequentially in the 
expansion interface. 

The test consisted of formatting 40 tracks on the diskette and writing a 6DB6 data pattern on all tracks. The 6DB6 
pattern was chosen because it is recommended as a "worst case" test by manufacturers of drives and diskettes. An 
attempt was then made to read each sector on the disk once - no retrys. Operating system was Newdos/80, Version 
1.0, with Double zap, version 2.0. Unreadable sectors were totalled and recorded. The test was run ten times with 
each double density controller and the data averaged. Test results are shown in the table. 



* Features 

TRS80 Model l owners who are ready for reliable double 
density operation will get (1) 80% more storage per 
diskette, (2) single and double density data separation 
with far fewer disk I/O errors, (3) single density com- 
patibility and (4) simple plug-in installation. Compatible 
with all existing double density software. 

* value 

$139.95 for the best double density 
controller on the market. 

$1 79.95 for "DDC" complete with dosplus 3.3D 
$229.95 for "DDC" complete with LDOS 



• TEST RESULTS • 



MFR & PRODUCT 


SECTORS LOCKED OUTiavo 


AEROCOMP "DDC" 





PERCOM "DOUBLER II" 


18 


PERCOM "DOUBLER A" 


250 


LNW "LNDOUBLER" 


202 



Note: test results available upon written request. All tests conducted prior to 8-25-81 

Aerocomp's 14 day money back guarantee applies to Hardware only. 

Specials will be prorated. Shipping $2.00 in Cont. US. See opposite page for details. 



Data Separators 

The advances that make the "DDC" great are incorporated in the new aerocomp Single Density Data Separator ("SDS") 
and Double Density Data Separator ("DDS"). 



* Has your original manufac- 
turer left you holding the bag? 

If you already own a Percom "Doubler A", "Doubler ll" or LNW 
"LNDoubler", the aerocomp "DDS" will make It right. Look at the test 
results: 



MFR. & PRODUCT 


SECTORS LOCKED OUT 


WITHOUT "DDS" 


WITH "DDS" 


PERCOM "DOUBLER II" 


18 


1 


PERCOM "DOUBLER A" 


250 





LNW "LNDOUBLER" 


202 






Note: Same test procedures as "DDC". 
* Trademark of Percom Data Co. 
** Trademark of lnw 
*** Trademark of Tandy Corporation 

176 • 80 Micro, January 1983 



• "DDS" $49.95 

(Use 1791 chip from your DD Con- 
troller) 

M UUb with disk controller 

chip included $/ 9.95 

* Disk controller 

chip $34.95 

(Shipping $2.00 Cont US - see opposite 
page for details) 



Plugs directly into your existing 
Double Density Controller. 



Do you need a 
Single Density Data 
Separator? 

The internal data separator in the 
WD1771 chip (R/s Expansion interface) 
is NOT recommended by WD for 
reliable data transfer. Do you have any 
of these problems: Lost data, tracks 
locked out, CRC errors, disk retry? YOU 

NEED ONE! 

• "SDS" $29.95 

(For Mod. I; shipping $2.00) 



See opposite 
pagemm 



,M 



TRS80 




DISK DRIVES 

40 & 80 TRACK 

$199.,s 



low 



NEW LOW PRICES 

Thanks to you our sales volume has 
allowed us to cut costs and we're pass- 
ing the savings along. We offer the best 
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Reliability, features and cost tough to 
beat. We deliver... and we stand behind 
our products. AEROCOMP is the only 
manufacturer to offer FREE TRIALI Buy 
Aerocomp drives today. You deserve the 
best. 

BEST FEATURES 

* Fast 5 ms. track-track access time. 

* Operates single or double density. 

* "FLIPPY" feature for lower media cost 
|4(>l &80-IL 

* Head load solenoid. 

* Disk ejector. 

* Easy entry door. 

* NEW EXTERNAL 
CONNECTION. [n 

cover to hook up cab 



DRIVE CABLE 

longer neefi lo remove me 



MODEL III 

DISK DRIVE 

SYSTEMS 



Disk Drive Sysrem Kirs for your Model III 
complere wirh 40 Track Aerocomp Disk 
Drives (one or rwo), Disk Controller 
Board, Power Supply, Mounting Towers 
and all necessary cables and hardware. 



System Kit with One Drive $499 

System Kit with Two Drives . . . $699 



Convert your cassette- based Model 
to Disk Drives Today! 



ORDER TODAY! 



40-Track Drive 

80-Track Drive 

40-Track "FLIPPY" Drive. . . 
80-Track "FLIPPY" Drive. . . 
40-Track Dual-Head Drive. 
80-Track Dual-Head Drive. 



Ail .ihow drives <ve complete will 
ami external rfnve cable conriecnor 
'jO/OO H/ available on special orde 

• 

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. $259.95 
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. $419.95 
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. $569.95 

silver enclosure Dowei supply 
I IS VAC SO/60 H/ /MO VAC. 
Add i 15.00. 

40-Track Bare Drive $199.95 

80-Track Bare Drive $359.95 

40-Track "FLIPPY" Bare Drive$279.95 
80-Track "FLIPPY" Bare Drive$369.95 

* SPECIAL PACKAGES* 

STARTER A $299.95 

40-Track Drive, 2-dnve cable, TRSDOS 
2.3 Disk & Manual, Freight & Ins. 

STARTER B $369.95 

40-Track "FLIPPY" Drive, cable, TRSDOS 
2.3 Disk & Manual. Freight & Ins. 

COMBO C $379.00 

40-Track Drive, 2-dnve cable, 
LDOS • Freight & Ins. 

COMBO D $559.00 

80-Track "FLIPPY" Drive, 2-dnve cable, 
LDOS' Freight & Ins. 

COMBO E $63900 

Two 40-Track Drives, 2 -Drive 

cable. TRSDOS 2.3 Disk & Mannual, 

Freight & Ins. 

COMBO F $989.00 

Two 80-Track "FLIPPY" Drives, 4-dnve 
LDOS Ins 

COMBO G $889.00 

Two 40-Track Dual-Head Drives, cable, 

smalLDOS Disk & Manual. Freight & 

Ins. 

COMBO H $1289.00 

Two 80-Track Duaf-Head Drives, cable, 
LDOS , Freight & INS. 

DOSPLUS 3.4 or NEWDOS / 80.2.0 
available wirh any package ar exrra cosr. 

AdilS5 00 per drive lor shipping S handling (Corn. US) 

FREE TRIAL OFFER 

Order your AEROCOMP Disk Drive and 
use it with your system for up to 14 
days. If you are not satisfied for ANY 
REASON (except misuse or improper 
handling), return it, packed in the 
original shipping container, for a full re- 
fund. (> hardware only. Special packages will be prorared). 

We have complete confidence in our pro- 
ducts and we know you will be satisfied! 
ORDER TODAYJI! 



WARRANTY 

We offer you a 1 20 day unconditional 
warranty on parts and labor against any 
defect in materials and workmanship. In 
the event service, for any reason, 
becomes nescessary, our service depart- 
ment is fast, friendly and cooperative. 

100% TESTED 

AEROCOMP Disk Drives are completely 
assembled at the factory and ready to 
plug in when you receive them. Each 
drive is 100% bench tested prior to ship- 
ment. We even enclose a copy of the 
test checklist, signed by the test techni- 
cian, with every drive. AEROCOMP 
MEANS RELIABILITY!! 

ORDER NOW!! 

To order by mail, specify Modei 
Number(S) of Drive, cable, etc. (above), 
enclose check, money order, VISA or 
MASTERCHARGE card number and ex- 
piration date, or request C.O.D. ship- 
ment. Texas residents add 5% sales tax. 
Add $ 5.00 per drive for shipping & handl- 
ing (Cont. US). Please allow 2 weeks for 
personal checks to clear our bank. No 
personal checks will be accepted on 
C.O.D. shipments-cash, money orders or 
certified checks only. You will receive a 
card showing the exact C.O.D. amount 
before your shipment arrives. Be sure to 
include your name and shipping address. 
You will be notified of the scheduled 
shipping date. Your bank credit card will 
NOT be charged until the day we ship.!! 

DRIVE CABLES 

2 DRIVE S24.95 

4-DRIVE S34.95 

WRITE AEROCOMP TODAY 
FOR MORE VALUES II! 



CALL TOLL FREE FOR FAST SERVICE 
(800) 824-7888, OPERATOR 24 

FOR VISA/MASTERCHARGE/C.O.D. ORDERS 

California dial (800) 852-7777. Operator 24. Alaska 
and Hawaii dial (800) 824-7919, Operator 24. 
TOLL FREE LINES WILL ACCEPT ORDERS ONLYl 

For Applications and Technical information, call 
(214) 337-4346 or drop us a card. 



Dealers inqiries invited 

AE3GCGfilP 

Redbird Airport, Bldg. 8 

P.O. Box 24829 

Dallas, TX 75224 " 82 



^See List ol Advertisers on Page 435 



80 Micro, January 1983 • 177 



TECHNIQUE 



Block Letters for 
The Mod 



by George Berman 



Following a heavy session of statisti- 
cal analysis, I found myself peering at a 
ream of fanfold, trying to decipher what 
I had done on each page. Then I remem- 
bered the clearly titled output I used to 
get in batch runs at a service bureau, 
and I realized I needed a titling routine 
to make my listings readable. The pro- 
gram I designed will add big block-letter 
title pages to your fanfold stacks. 

Program Listing 1 shows how the ti- 
tles are generated. It draws upon a di- 



Make your printed pro- 
gram listings more 
readable with these big 
block-letter title pages. 

rect-access file, called Block, which con- 
tains each character from ASCII(33) 
through ASCII(96). In this file, each 
record number corresponds to the 



REM 

1 REM 

2 ' 

10 REM 

11 REM 

12 ' 

20 REM 

21 REM 

22 REM 

23 REM 

24 REM 

25 REM 

26 REM 

27 ' 
100 
110 
111 ' 
200 REM 
201 
202 
203 ' 
300 

310 

311 ' 

400 

410 

420 

421 

422 

423 

430 

440 

450 

460 

470 

480 

490 

500 

510 

520 

530 

540 

550 

560 

570 

580 

590 

600 

610 

620 END 

630 

640 

650 



TITLE/UTL 9 MAY 82 G R BERMAN 

Prints block titles using 5x5 characters 

INPUT FILE 
BLOCK/UTL Direct-access file of block-letter strings 

VARIABLES 

F$(4) Fields for strings defining a character 

L$(NL) Lines of title 

NL Number of lines in title 

R Record containing character 

TH Horizontal tab to center each line 

TV Vertical tab to center title block 

DEFINT A-Z : DEFSTR F 
DIM F$(4 ) 

CONSTANTS 

P=66 ' Page length , lines 

W=96' Page width, characters 

OPEN "D", 1, "BLOCK/UTL", 25 

FIELD 1, 5 AS F(0), 5 AS F(l), 5 AS F(2), 5 AS F(3), 5 AS F(4) 

CLS : PRINT CHR$( 26); " TITLE " ; CHR$(25) 
INPUT "HOW MANY LINES"; NL : DIM L$(NL) 
FOR I = 1 TO NL 
INPUT LSI I) 

IF 7*LEN(LS(D) > W THEN 630 
NEXT 

TV = (P - 7*NL)/2 

FOR I = 1 TO TV : LPRINT : NEXT 
FOR I = 1 TO NL 

TH = (W - 7*LEN(L$(I> ) )/2 
FOR K = TO 4 
LPRINT TAB(TH) ; 
FOR J = 1 TO LEN ( L$ ( I ) ) 

R = ASC(MID$(L$(I) ,0,1) > - 32 
IF R>0 THEN 530 

LPRINT " " ; : GOTO 550 
GET 1, R 
LPRINT F(K); 
LPRINT " "; 
NEXT J 
LPRINT 
NEXT K 

LPRINT : LPRINT 
NEXT I 
SYSTEM "T" 

PRINT : PRINT CHR$(26); "LINE"; I; "TOO LONG. START OVER." ; CHRSC25) 
FOR J = 1 TO 2500 : NEXT 
GOTO 400 

Program Listing I 



ASCII code of the character, less 32. 

Within a record, five fields define 
rows 1 -5 of the enlarged block letter. 
These are mostly constructed from # 
signs, with a few exceptions (see Fig. 1). 
The program produces a 5-by-5 repre- 
sentation of each character in your title. 
It centers each line horizontally, and 
centers the entire title block vertically on 
the page. You will need to insert the ap- 
propriate page length and width in lines 
201 and 202. To run the program, set 
the top of form on your printer and 
align the paper perforation. Then, an- 
swer the prompts for the number of 
lines and for what's in each line of your 
title, and the printing will begin. 

When loading the direct-access file, 
Block, remember Program Listing 2 is a 
user-friendly file loader. Every time you 
specify a character, it displays a 5-by-5 
block outline on the screen and lets you 
fill the rows one by one. If necessary, 
you can shut down and begin later. The 
sequence of entries is unimportant, and 
you don't have to complete all charac- 
ters if you don't think you'll need them. 
Feel free to redesign the characters. 
Some people like to use the lowercase 
letter instead of the # sign, but I think it 
results in an uneven appearance. By fol- 
lowing the character designs in Fig. 1, 
without making many changes, you 
should be able to load Block in less than 
thirty minutes. ■ 



Contact George Berman at 84 
Franklin Ave., Yonkers, NY 10705. 



The Key Box 

Model II/16 
32K RAM 
TRSDOS 

Printer 



178 • 80 Micro, January 1983 



# # # # # # # # # # # # # 

# # # # # # # # # # # # # # 



# * # # # # # # ### #### ### #### 

# # # # ## ## ## # # # # # # # # # 

# ### # # # # # # # # # #### # # ### 
# # # # # # # # ## # # # # *# # # 




### # # ##### # # # # ### # 



###* # # 



### 



### 



#### 



# 
# 



# 
# # 



##### # # # # # # # # # # ##### 

# # # # # # # # # # # # 

# # # # # # # # # # # 

# # # # # # # # # # # # 

# 



### 



# # 
# # 



## 



## 



# 



# # # # 



# 



##### 



# 



# # # 

# # # 

# #### # 



##### ### ### ### 

# # # # # # /# 

# ### #### # / # 

# # # # #/ # 

# ### ### ### 



# # * 
# # * * 

# # 
## ## 



# 
# 

# 

# 



> 



##### > 



# ### # # ### 

> # # # # # 

# # ### ## 

# # # # # 
### # # * 

Figure I 



REM 

1 REM 

2 ' 

10 REM 

11 REM 

12 ' 

20 REM 

21 REM 

22 REM 

23 REM 

24 REM 
2 5 REM 
26 ' 
100 
110 
111 ' 
200 
210 
211 ' 
300 
310 
320 
330 
340 
350 
360 
365 
37Q 
380 
390 
400. - 
410 
420 
430 END 



LOADBLOC/UTL 9 MAY 82 G R BERMAN 

Loads file with title characters in 5 x 5 format 

OUTPUT FILE 
BLOCK/UTL Direct-access file of block-letter strings 

VARIABLES 

AS Temporary variable 

C$ String defining character 

F<4) Fields for strings defining a character 

L$ Character being coded 

R Record containing character 

DEFINT A-2 : DEFSTR F 
DIM F(4) 

OPEN "D" , 1, "BLOCK/UTL", 25 

FIELD 1, 5 AS F(0), 5 AS F(l), 5 AS F(2), 5 AS F(3), 5 AS F(4) 

CLS : PRINT "TYPE 'END' TO QUIT" 

INPUT "CHRACTER TO BE CODED"; L$ 

IF L$ = "END" THEN 430 

R = ASC(L$)-32 

PRINTS (5,0), STRING$(5,124) : PRINT @ (11,0), STRINGS ( 5 , 124 ) 

PRINT @ (6,0) , ""; 

FOR I = TO 4 

LSET F( I) = "" : CS = "" 

AS = INKEY$ : IF AS = "" THEN 370 

IF AS = CHRS(13) THEN PRINT AS; : GOTO 400 
PRINT AS; : CS = C$ + AS : GOTO 370 

LSET F(I) = CS 
NEXT 
PUT 1, R : GOTO 300 



Program Listing 2 






If you 
ever wished that 
you had a better program- 
ming language, PASCAL 80 may 
be the language you dream about. It is 
a compiled language, faster, more ac- 
curate and easier to modify than Basic. 
Yet it is so easy to use that you can 
forget the hassles and diskette spinning 
of other compiled languages, including 
other versions of Pascal. 

Now you can create your own com- 
mand files that execute from DOS 
without having to load a language into 
the computer first, but do it with far less 
work than machine language. You can 
sell your compiled programs without any 
royalty payments! 

Although designed for teaching and 
ideal for that purpose, PASCAL 80 also 
allows serious applications with a full 
fourteen digits of accuracy, even on log 
and trig functions! 

Both random and sequential access 
files are supported, without cumber- 
some format statements. 

PASCAL p offers most of the 
features of ISO Standard Pascal as well 
as a number of useful extensions, in- 
cluding CLS, PEEK, POKE, CALL and 
graphics commands, Pascal 80 exten- 
sions include the use of READ and 
WRITE with record oriented files, 
ELSE in CASE statements,; and other 
useful? features:. 

PASCAL 80 allows you to create files 
on the TRS-80® Model I, Model III, 
LNW-80, PMC-80, or LOBO MAX-80 
that will run on any of the other 
machines under TRS-DOS®, LDOS, 
NewDOS, NewDOS 80, DBL-DOS or 
DOS Plus. 

PASCAL-80 

PASCAL 80 is used in dozens of High 
Schools, Colleges, and Technical 
Schools, and has been favorably re- 
viewed in Byte, Creative Computing, 
and other magazines. 

You get all of this at a bargain price of 
only $99 plus $2 shipping. If you call and 
order by MasterCard or VISA, we will 
even credit you $1 for the phone call. 
Call or send your check today! 



NEW QLASSICS SOFTWARE 



239 Fox Hill Road 
Denville, NJ 07834 4 
(201) 625-8838 ^255 



£ST 



TRS-80*and TRS-DOS are trademarks of Radio Shack, 
LNW-80 of LNW Research, PMC-80 of Personal Micro 
Computers, LOBO, LDOS, and MAX-80 of Lobo Systems, 
DOS-Plus of Micro Systems Software, NewDOS and 
NewDOS 80 of Apparat, and DBL-DOS of Percom. 
PASCAL 80 is a trademark of New Classics Software. 
Pointer Variables, Variant Records, NEW, DISPOSE, 
WITH, GET, and PUT are not implemened in PASCAL 80. 



^■See List of Advertisers on Page 435 



80 Micro, January 1983 • 179 



UTILITY 



Make yours more efficient. 



The Garbage Collector 



Bob Snapp 

3719 Mantell Avenue 

Cincinnati, OH 45236 



Variable length character strings are a 
boon to the high-level language pro- 
grammer. Consider printing an employee's 
name on a paycheck. If the name were John 
Jones, you would not want it on the check 



Reserved memory 
Allocated by Memory Size? 



String Space 

Allocated by Clear statement 



Stack 

(moves downward) 



Free memory 



Array Table 
and 

Variable Table 
(moves upward) 



Resident Basic program 



File butters 

Allocated by Number of Files? 



Basic interpreter, 
Reserved storage, 
Operating system. 



Table 1. Microsoft Basic Memory Map. 



The Key Box 

Model I, II, or III 
Microsoft Basic 



as John Jones, but with the last name im- 
mediately adjacent to the first. Using fixed- 
length strings, each name field is as long as 
the longest practical name and is filled with 
blanks. For the desired appearance you 
would have to tediously count the number 
of trailing blanks in the first name field and 
subtract that from the maximum field 
length. We should be grateful Microsoft 
chose the variable length approach such 
that we can LPRINT NF$;" ";NL$. 

Suppose the application program con- 
structs an array of names where the longest 
is 30 characters, but the average length is 
only 12. If storage were statically allocated, 
an array of 1000 names would gobble up 
30,000 bytes of memory. North Star Basic 
and IBM's VSBasic handle strings this way. 
Our current generation processors address 



only 65,536 bytes of memory. The question 
is not "Can I justify the cost of more 
memory?", but "What would I do with more 
memory if I had it?" 

Again, Microsoft made the wiser choice. 
Memory is allocated dynamically as re- 
quired. In the example above, only 12,000 
bytes of memory are required to imple- 
ment the string array. 

Good things are not free. In exchange for 
flexible, memory efficient string handling, 
we require complex overhead to manage 
the strings. 

Table 1 is a map of memory allocation for 
Microsoft Basic. Two of the map areas are 
completely dynamic: The stack moves 
downward and the variable/array tables 
move upward. Stack requirements are nor- 
mally minimal, but deeply nested GOSUBs 













After 10 


F 


F 


F 


F 


F 


F 


F 


F 


F 


F 


F 


F 




After 20 


F 


F 


F 


F 


F 


F 


F 


F 


F 


A$ 


A$ 


AS 


After 30 


F 


F 


F 


F 


F 


F 


B$ 


BS 


B$ 


A$ 


A$ 


A$ 


Aftef 40 


F 


F 


F 


c$ 


C$ 


C$ 


B$ 


B$ 


B$ 


A$ 


A$ 


AS 


After 50 


c$ 


c$ 


c$ 


G 


G 


G 


BS 


BS 


BS 


A$ 


A$ 


A$ 


During 60 


F 


F 


F 


C$ 


C$ 


C$ 


B$ 


B$ 


B$ 


A$ 


A$ 


A$ 


After 60 


A$ 


A$ 


A$ 


C$ 


C$ 


C$ 


B$ 


B$ 


B$ 


G 


G 


G 






Table 2 





180 • 80 Micro, January 1983 



or For.. .Next loops can make it quite large. 
When the stack is about to bump into the 
variable/array tables, or vice versa, the 
dreaded OM error results. 

Let us direct our attention to the string 
space. A storage pool for strings is set aside 
immediately below any reserved memory. 
The size of this area is determined by the 
Clear nnnn statement; defaults are 50 or 100 
bytes, depending upon the TRS-80 model. 

Within the variable table, a string oc- 
cupies three bytes of storage: one byte for 
the current length of the string (0-255), two 
bytes for the location of string data. The 
string data can be in one of four places. If 
the string was named in a Field statement 
the data is in the file buffer area. If it was 
created by a Let or Read statement the data 
is contained within the Basic program. A 
string length of zero has no string data. In 
any other situation the string data is 
located somewhere in the string pool. 

Space in the pool is allocated to active 
strings starting from the top. Pointers are 
maintained by Basic to next available string 
location and to top of stack. To store a 
string in the pool, the number of bytes re- 
quired is subtracted from next available. 
The result is compared to top of stack. 



When the comparison shows available 
space the string is stored, next available is 
updated and processing continues. 

Here is a simple Basic program; a 
diagram of what the string pool will look like 
is in Table 2. 



10 CLEAR 12 



20 A$ 
30 B$ 
40 C$ 
50 C$ 
60 A$ 



STRING$<3," ") 
STRING$<3," ") 
AS 

B$ 
C$ 



The letter F indicates a free position in the 
pool. Following the execution of line 10, all 
12 positions are free. When line 20 is ex- 
ecuted, the top three positions are allocated 
to A$. In lines 30 and 40, space is further 
allocated to B$ to C$. Note carefully the 
results of line 50. When C$ is assigned a sec- 
ond value, additional space was taken from 
the pool for the new value. The old space oc- 
cupied by C$ is abandoned! This space is 
marked with the letter G (for garbage). 

The problem arises during the execution 
of line 60. The interpreter determines three 
more bytes of string storage are needed for 
the new value of A$, but no space is 
available. 



GARBAGE-COLLECTOR: PROCEDURE; 

IF PACKED-INDICATOR = TRUE THEN SIGNAL ERROR (OUT-OF-STR IN G -SPACE); 
PACKED-INDICATOR = TRUE; I* caller sets back to false */ 
NEXT-AVAILABLE -STRING-LOCATION = TOP-OF-STRING-SPACE; 
DO UNTIL (HIGH-STRING-LOCATION = 0); 
HIGH-STRING-LOCATION = 0; 
POSTION = START-OF-WORKSPACE; 
DO WHILE (POSITION < END-OF-WORK5PACE); 
CALL EVALUATE-STRING-LOCATION; 
INCREMENT POSITION TO NEXT WORKSPACE ENTRY; 
END; /* do while (position < end-of-workspace) */ 
POSITION = START-OF-VARIABLE -TABLE; 
DO WHILE (POSITION < END-OF-VARIABLE-TABLE); 

IF VARIABLE -TYPE = STRING THEN CALL EVALUATE-STRING-LOCATION; 
INCREMENT POSITION TO NEXT VARIABLE ENTRY; 
END; /* do while (position < end-of-variable-table) */ 
POSITION = START-OF-ARRAY-TABLE; 
DO WHILE (POSITION < EN D-OF-ARR AY-TABLE); 
IF ARRAY-TYPE = STRING THEN DO; 

CALCULATE SIZE OF ARRAY AND POINT POSITION AT FIRST ELEMENT; 
DO WHILE (MORE ELEMENTS IN THIS ARRAY); 
CALL EVALUATE-STRING-LOCATION; 
INCREMENT POSITION TO NEXT ELEMENT; 
END; /* more elements in this array */ 
END; /* array type = string */ 
INCREMENT POSTION TO NEXT ARRAY; 
END; /* position < end-of-array-table */ 
CALL PACK-SELECTED-STRING; 
END; /* until high-string-location = */ 
RETURN; /* that's all, folks! */ 
EVALUATE-STRING-LOCATION: PROCEDURE; 
IF STRING-LENGTH = THEN RETURN; 

/* don't bother with null strings */ 
IF STRING-DATA-ADDRESS > NEXT-AVAILABLE-STRING-LOCATION THEN RETURN; 

/* above test indicates this string already packed */ 
IF STRING-DATA-ADDRESS < BOTTOM-OF-5TRING-5PACE THEN RETURN; 

/* above test indicates this string not in string space */ 
IF STRING-DATA-ADDRESS < HIGH-STRING-LOCATION THEN RETURN; 

/* this means that this is not the highest string data */ 
HIGH-STRING-LOCATION = STRING-DATA-ADDRESS; 

HIGH-STRING-DESCRIPTOR-ADDRESS = CURRENT-STRING-DESCRIPTOR -ADDRESS; 
RETURN; 
END; /* EVALUATE-STRING-LOCATION »/ 
PACK-SELECTED-STRING: PROCEDURE; 

/* references here relative to high-string-descriptor-address */ 
MOVE STRING DATA TO (NEXT-AVAILABLE-STRING-LOCATION - STRING-LENGTH 
STRING-DATA-ADDRESS = (NEXT-AVAILABLE -STRING-LOCATION 

- STRING-LENGTH + 1); 
NEXT-AVAILABLE-STRING-LOCATION = 

NEXT-AVAILABLE -STRING-LOCATION - STRING-LENGTH; 
RETURN; 
END; I* PACK-SELECTED-STRING »/ 
END; /* GARBAGE-COLLECTOR »/ 

Program Listing 1 



«? 



cj 



^ 







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80 Micro, January 1983 • 181 





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"Garbage collection occurs in 
inverse proportion to the 
amount of unused string space." 



CT = ( ( ( 149 * SV (use 129 for Mod II) 
+ 271 " AC (use 251 for Mod II) 
+ 92* AE 
+ 53 * NS 

+ 219 * NN (use 199 for Mod II) 
+ 21 *SS 

+ 258 )* PS) + (83* BC))/CS 
Where: CT is collection time In seconds; 

SV is the number of simple (non-array) variables; including string variables; 
AC is the number of arrays; 
AE is the number of string array elements; 
NS is the number of null (zero length) string elements, 
NN is the number of non-null string elements, including those located out- 
side the string pool; 
SS is the number of simple (non-array) string elements; 
PS is the number of non-null string elements located in the string pool; 
BC is the total number of bytes used for string data; and 
CS is the Z-80 clock speed, in cycles per second: 
Unmodified TRS-80 clock speeds are: 
Model 1-1774083, 
Model H-4000000, 
'Model III-2027520. 

Figure 1 



The Garbage Collector 

Alarms go off all over the place! The in- 
terpreter calls the Garbage Collector. The 
garbage collector arrives and finds a hole in 
the middle of the pool. He pushes the value 
of C$ upward into the hole, leaving a new 
free area at the bottom of the pool. The gar- 
bage collector departs, leaving his bill be- 
hind. In this case his invoice is not for 
money, but for time. 

In this example, the garbage collector 
acts quickly. When many strings are active 
his job can become rather formidable. He 
always comes through, but sometimes his 
bill is very large. 

I have transcribed his operations guide 
into a PL/l-like pseudocode, in Listing 1 . The 
amount of work he has to do grows ex- 
ponentially with the number of strings. The 
main loop, Do until High-String-Location = 
0, is executed once for each string in the 
pool. The hottest subroutine, Evaluate- 
String-Location, is executed (for each itera- 
tion of the main loop) once for every string. 

The formula in Fig. 1 calculates the time it 
takes the garbage collector to do his work: 

Many factors are usually not significant 
in determining the final result. A good ap- 
proximation can usually be found from: CT 
= 310 * PS A 2 / CS (300 for Model II). 

The second formula was derived from ex- 
perimentation, rather than calculations and 
is often more accurate than the first. 

The time required to garbage collect is 
roughly proportional to the square of the 
number of strings. If you double the number 
of strings, you multiply the garbage collec- 
tion time by four. 

For a Model III program with 500 active 
strings, using the second formula, we get: 
310 * 500 A 2 / 2027520 or 38.224 seconds. Dur- 



ing this time, the machine will seemingly 
lock up, not responding even to the Break 
key. Your machine is not malfunctioning. 

To take the matter to its ridiculous ex- 
treme, the program shown below will pro- 
duce a garbage collection time (Model III) of 
3 hours, 26 minutes, 24 seconds, again us- 
ing the second formula. 



10 CLEAR 9100 

20 DIM A$(9000) 

30 FOR l% = 1 TO 9000 

40 A$(l%) = CHR$(32) 

50 NEXT 

60 PRINT TIMES 

70 PRINT FRE(A$) 

80 PRINT TIMES 



Garbage Reduction Methods 

Reducing garbage collection time can be 
divided into two main groups: Reducing the 
frequency of garbage collection and reduc- 
ing the time required for garbage collection. 
Reducing frequency is simpler. 

Without changing the code in the pro- 
gram, increase the value in Clear to cause 
less frequent garbage collection. Garbage 
collection occurs in inverse proportion to 
the amount of unused string space. In a pro- 
gram using 1000 bytes of string space with 
1100 bytes as a string pool, garbage collec- 
tion occurs at some general rate N. If you 
were to clear 6000 bytes, the unused string 
space is 50 times as large and garbage col- 
lection occurs at the rate N/50. Your best 
choice is to clear the largest possible value. 

You determine this by trial and error. 
Keep increasing the cleared value until you 
get OM errors, then reduce it until OM errors 
go away. To be safe reduce it by a few hun- 
dred bytes more than seems necessary. 



182 • 80 Micro, January 1983 



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80 Micro, January 1983 • 183 



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"Multiple concatenation is 
another string space villain." 



Programs tend to require changes. To keep 
from re-doing the trial and error use a 
reverse logic clear. The space required for 
variables and stack changes slowly when 
modifications are made to the program. Use 
the following technique: Determine, through 
the trial and error process, the largest prac- 
tical amount to clear. Call this value X. Enter: 
CLEAR : PRINT MEM. Call this value Y. The 
expression Y-X represents the space 
needed for variables and stack. Call this 
value Z. Replace the Clear statement in 
the program with CLEAR 0:CLEAR MEM - 
Z, plugging in the number derived above. 

Each time a string variable appears on 
the left side of an assignment statement 
(statement containing an equal sign), the 
old value of the string variable is aban- 
doned unless the string variable is used 
with LSET, RSET or MID$. The easiest way 
to benefit from this is to prevent the 
abandonment of a string when its value, not 
its length, changes. If A$ and B$ both have a 
length of 15, A$ = B$ causes the previous 
space occupied by A$ to be abandoned, 
contributing to the fragmentation which 
calls the garbage collector. The execution 
of MID$(A$,1,15) = B$, will not contribute to 
fragmentation. 

Multiple concatenation is another string 
space villain. If A$, B$, C$, D$ and E$ all 
have a length of 5 and we want to construct 
Z$ with the five other strings strung to- 
gether, the execution of Z$ = A$ + B$ + 
C$ + D$ + E$ will play havoc with the 



string space. Basic will execute the state- 
ment as if you had entered: 

T1$ = a$ + B$ 

T2$ = T1$ + C$ 

T3$ = T2$ + D$ 

Z$ = T3$ + E$. 

A much less damaging set of code would be: 

Z$ = STRING$(25,0) 
MID$(Z$,1,5) = A$ 
MID$(Z$,6,5) = B$ 
MID$(Z$,11,5) = C$ 
MID$(Z$,16,5) = D$ 
MID$(Z$,21,5) = E$. 

The first statement in this sequence could 
be omitted if Z$ already had a length of 25. 
A typical set of code found in an INKEY$ 
routine might look like: 

100 W$ = "" 

110 l$ = INKEYS : IF l$ = "" THEN 110 

120 IF ASC(I$) = 13 THEN RETURN 

130 W$ = W$ + l$ 

140 IF LEN(W$) = N THEN RETURN ELSE 110 

A less damaging code would be: 

100 W$ = STRING$(N,"") 

110 l$ = INKEYS : IF IS = " " THEN 110 

120IFASC(I$) = 13 THEN 150 

130 K = K + 1 : MID$(W$,K,1) = IS 

140 IF K = N THEN RETURN 

150 FOR J = NT0 1 STEP -1 

160 IF MID$(W$,J,1)< > " " THEN P = J : J = 1 

170 NEXT 

180 W$ = LEFT$(W$,P) : RETURN. 



100 CLEAR 12000 
110 OPEN "R",1,"DATAFILE" 
120 FIELD 1, 10 AS FK$, 90 AS DT$ 
130 DIM RRX(LOFU)), KT$(LOF(D) 
140 FOR 1% = 1 TO LOF(l) 
150 GET 1,1% 
160 KT$(I%) = FK$ 
170 RR*(I*) = I* 
190 NEXT 

200 'INVOKE A MACHINE LANGUAGE SORT HERE. SORT KT$ and RR* 
210 'USING KT$ AS KEY, RR* TAGGING ALONG. 
220 LINE INPUT "NAME";SA$ : IF LEN(SA$) <> 10 THEN 220 
230 GOSUB 10000 

240 IF ER* THEN PRINT "NOT FOUND" ELSE PRINT DT$ 
250 GOTO 220 

10000 'BINARY SEARCH OF STRING ARRAY, 
RECORD RETRIEVED IF FOUND, 
ER* SET IF NOT. 
10010 ER% = 
: ZB% = 1 
: ZD% = LOF(l) + I 
: ZC% = (ZB% + ZD%) / 2 
10020 IF SA$ = KT$(ZC%) THEN GET 1,RR*(ZC%) 

: RETURN 
10030 IF KT$(ZC%) > SA$ THEN ZD* = ZC% 

: ZC* = (ZC% + ZB) / 2 
: IF ZC* = ZD* THEN ER* = -I 
: RETURN 
ELSE 10020 
10040 ZB* = ZC* 

: ZC* = (ZC% + ZD%) / 2 
: IF ZC* = ZB* THEN ER* = -1 
: RETURN 
ELSE 10020 

Program Listing 2 



184 • 80 Micro, January 1983 



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TRS-80 is the registered trademark of Tandy Corporation 



1-800-835-9056 

Kansas Residents — 316-624-1919 (collect) 

^ CHECK WITH US AND SAVE 

We have the largest Inventory in the 
Central United States. Immediate 
shipment directly to you from our 
warehouse. 

is Visa or Mastercard 
is Bank Cashiers Checks 
v* Bank Money Orders 
<s Bank Wire Transfers 



<s We now Carry Telephones 
and Telephone Answering 
Systems ! 



Jimscot, Inc. 

1023 N. Kansas — Box 607 

Liberal, Ks. 67901 " 254 




isSee List ol Advertisers on Page 435 



80 Micro, January 1983 • 185 



Verbatim® 
Diskettes 



Top-quality Verbatim® Diskettes 
from Tech* Data, your complete 
word and data processing supply 
center. Dealer inquiries invited. 

Call Toll Free 

1-800-237-8931. 

In Florida, call 

813-577-2794. 



V 



Tech* Data Corporation 

325 1 Tech Drive North 
St. Petersburg, FL 33702 



W..I..D..E REPORT SUPPORT 

MDD 11/16 and DAISY WHEEL II 

Print 15 and 20 Characters/inch 



. 



D L P Company 

6798 Wetheridge Dr. 
Cincinnati, Ohio 45230 

513 232-7791 " 413 

VISA OR MASTERCARD ACCEPTED 

$75.00 

260 characters in just 13" at 20 
CPI; 170 in 7". Excellent qua- 
lity 15 CPI printing; 195 Char. 
in 13"; 120 in 8". SCRIPSIT™ 2.0 
TRSD0S w 2.0/4.1, VISICALC®, PRO- 
FILE™, BASIC, COBOL, etc. 



GO 
PIGGYBACK! 




CEflTRD 

ADD lowercase with our 
plug-in piggyback boardl 

9WX7H Dot Matrix $135 
5WX7H Dot Matrix S 95 

TWO complete character sets on board: 
96 character ASCII PLUS choice of 
128 character API. TRS-60/H-19 Graphics or 
Scientific. (Customer dellned: add $507set). 
Most printers convertible: specify logic board f 

Radix 
Technologies 

Suite 400 Carolyn Building ^ 



10400 Eaton Place 

Fairfax. VA 22030 (703) 385-0900 

HM, MMtBOH. Matt, CM MM.M 



•269 



"A reduction of only 30 percent 

in the number of strings 

cuts the collection time in half." 



In the first set of code, a string will be 
abandoned once per character input. In the 
second example, strings will be abandoned 
only twice. 

On the Model II, Swap exchanges two 
values without leaving a trail of garbage be- 
hind. On the Model I or III, the following 
combination of VARPTR, PEEK and POKE 
can be used: 



FORI% = 0TO2 

T% = PEEK(VARPTR(A$) + I%) 

POKE (VARPTR(A$) + l%),PEEK(VARPTR(B$) + 1%) 

POKE (VARPTR(B$) + l%),T% 
NEXT 



Keep in mind the collection time is roughly 
proportional to the square of the number of 
strings. While this means doubling the 
number of strings multiplies the time by four, 
it also provides a fertile ground for time sav- 
ing. A reduction of only 30 percent in the 
number of strings cuts the collection time in 
half. This is the area to attack. Reducing the 
number of strings is the only effective way to 
reduce the collection time. 

A list of names and addresses will pro- 
vide a good example of string reduction. 
With a table of 100 you might be tempted to 
DIM, for example, separate arrays for last 
name, first name, address, city, state and 
zip code. That technique would create 600 
strings. Merging each data item into a 
single string using a home-grown delimiter 



cuts the 600 to 100. Any time you see more 
than one string array with the same dimen- 
sion, it is probably a prime opportunity to 
cut strings. 

In building an index to a large data file, 
suppose the data file has 1000 records, 
each uniquely identified by a 10 character 
string. To gain speedy access to each 
record by its identifier string, you might 
pass through the file once, building parallel 
arrays of the identifier (string) and the rec- 
ord number (integer). Sort the arrays on the 
identifier, with the record number tagging 
along. When the user requests a record by 
identifier, binary search the string array, us- 
ing the record number corresponding to the 
located string as the key for direct retrieval 
of the complete data record desired. Pro- 
gram Listing 2 is a sketch of this approach. 

This routine performs quickly. Unfortu- 
nately, garbage collection is in the 150 sec- 
ond range on a Model III. 

Modifying the technique eliminates gar- 
bage collection, with some additional over- 
head in disk accesses. After sorting the 
arrays, get rid of the string array. On the 
Model II, use erase. On the Model I or III, 
pass through the string array setting all the 
strings to nulls. Use the array of record 
numbers as a key to do the same binary 
search on disk. Binary searching 1000 rec- 
ords never takes more than 10 probes. The 
individual searches are slower, but more 
consistent (see Program Listing 3).H 



100 CLEAR 12000 

110 OPEN "R",1,"DATAFILE" 

120 FIELD 1, 10 AS FK$, 90 AS DT$ 

130 DIM RR*(LOF(l)), KT$(LOF(l)) 

140 FOR I* = 1 TO LOF(l) 

150 GET 1,1% 

160 KT$(I*) = FK$ 

170 RR*(I*) = I* 

190 NEXT 

200 'INVOKE A MACHINE LANGUAGE SORT HERE. SORT KT$ and RR* 

210 'USING KT$ AS KEY, RR* TAGGING ALONG. 

211 FOR I* = 1 TO LOF(l) 

212 KT$(I*) = "" 

213 NEXT 

220 LINE INPUT "NAME";SA$ : IF LEN(SA$) <> 10 THEN 220 
230 GOSUB 10000 

2*0 IF ER* THEN PRINT "NOT FOUND" ELSE PRINT DT$ 
250 GOTO 220 

10000 'BINARY SEARCH OF DATAFILE, 
RECORD RETRIEVED IF FOUND, 
ER* SET IF NOT. 
10010 ER* = 
ZB* = 1 

ZD* = LOF(l) + 1 
ZC* = (ZB* + ZD*) / 2 
10015 GET 1,RR*(ZC*) 
10020 IF SA$ = FK$ THEN RETURN 
10030 IF FK$ > SA$ THEN ZD* = ZC* 

: ZC* = (ZC* + ZB) / 2 
: IF ZC* = ZD* THEN ER* = -1 
: RETURN 
ELSE 10015 
10040 ZB* = ZC* 

: ZC* = (ZC* + ZD*) / 2 
: IF ZC* = ZB* THEN ER* = -1 
: RETURN 
ELSE 10015 

Program Listing 3 



186 • 80 Micro, January 1983 



TRS-80 

COMPUTER 
DISCOUNTS 



• Factory Direct 

• Best Prices Anywhere 

• No Out-of-State Taxes 

• 100% Radio Shack Warranty 

• Free Price List 

SCOTT TASSO 

Owner 
Radio Shack Associate Store #7053 

175 E North Delsea Drive 
Vineland, N.J. 08360 
800-257-0426 
NJ 609-691-7100 ^10 



/ Epson \ 
Giveaway 



%- 



Epson MX70/80 Cartridges 

£ .COO EACH 

^^^ ^^F Min. 3 of same color 

Reloads $2.50 each Min. 12 
$30.00 a Doz. of Same Color 

Cartridges and Reloads Available 
In Black, Red, Green, Blue, Brown 

flK systems 

35 Cherry Court, East Northport. N.Y. 11731 

N.Y.S. Residents Add Tax. Add $2.00 Shipping & Handling 

Prices Subject to Change 

Allow Clearing Time lor Personal Checks 

Money Orders & Certified Checks shipped same day 




TAXAID 



Your Federal Income Tax & estimates with less pain, 
strain and time 1 

Great for April 1 5; terrific for keeping up with changes 
all thru the year Change any items and new tax is 
recalculated for you. "What if" all you please to make 
better financial decisions! 

Use your copy of Visicalc (tm) with our data files — over 
8DK 



Form 1040, Sched A. 
5695 for S1 3.95; add 
Forms 3468, 4562. 



3.D, Forms 2106. 2441 and 
$5.00 for Sched C.E.G.SE S 



Modi l/lll 48K Disk, on 35 trk SD diskettes 
Printer w/1 5CPI desirable for 8" paper 
Check/MO, 1 st Class Mail Ppd 
Deductible, of course 



OCR Associates 

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[tm] VisiCorp 6 1 5-453- 1 892 



$$$ 



$ $ $ 



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D/Punch Conversion Kits will help you SAVE MONEY, 
SAVE STORAGE SPACE, SAVE TIME D/ Punch Kits 
ore engineered so you con quickly, occurotely, & 
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Converting 1 box ol diskettes will more than pay (or 
each D/Punch Kit. * Hub-Reinforcer Kit occurotely 
positions Hub-Reinf. Ring to hub opening. * Disk- 
Sleeve lets you replace your lost or damaged sleeves. 
Indicate your system config. with order. 

a. D/Punch Kit A — (5%" drives & eq.) tor ex. 
[Apple, Atari, CBM 4040, Franklin) $ 6.95 

b. D/Punch Kit B — (5'4" drives & eq.) for ex. 

[TRS 80 (Mod I, III), IBM, Osborne, ZenithJ 14.95 

c. D/Punch Kit C — (8" drives & eq.) for ex. 

[Altos. Zenith, TRS 80 Mod II) 16.95 

d. Labels — (100 pes) 3.00 

e. Write-Protect Stickers — [100 pes) 2.65 

f. Hub-Reinforcer Kit (5'i") 10.99 

g. Hub-Reinforcer Kit (8") 12.99 
h. Hub-Reinforcer Rings (5'4") — [50 pes] 5.85 
i. Hub-Reinforcer Rings (8") — [50 pes] 6.20 
|. Disk Sleeves (5 'A") — [10 pes) 2.35 
k. Disk Sleeves (8") — [10 pes) 3.85 

Add: $2 shipping & handling for each SI 5 order 

increment. AK, HI, & overseas cust.: write for SiH charges. 

MA res add 5% tax. Send check or money order to: 

D/PunchCo(12) 

P.O. Bex 201. Newton Hlds MA 02161 '' 

Tel: (617) 964-2126 Telex: 4991009 CHTRI 

«1982, D/Punch Corp., Pot. Pend - 



$$$ 



™TRS80 color 

From the January 1981 issue ol Ihe CSRA Computer 
Club newsletter: 



There was some amusement al the Novem- 
ber meeting when Ihe Radio Shack repre- 
sentatives slated thai the software in the , 
ROM cartridges could not be copied This 
month's 68 Micro Journal reported they had 
disassembled the programs on ROM by 
covering some of the connector pins with 
tape. They promise details next month. Never 
tell a hobbyist something can't be done! This 
magazine seems to be the only source so lar 
of technical informations on the TRS-80 color 
computer-. Devoted to SS-50 6800 and 
6609 machines up to now, 68 Micro Journal 
plans to include the TRS-80 6809 unit in 
future issues. _ 



To get the MOST from your 6809 CPU - This is the 
BEST SOURCE! The ONLY Magazine for the 8809 
Computer Months Ahead of All Others' 

68 MICRO JOURNAL 

5900 Cassandra Smith Rd. 
Hixson, TN 37343 

USA 

1 Vr— $24.50 2 Yr.— $42 50 3 Yr— $64 50 

■Foreign Surface Add $12 Yr fo USA Price 

Foreign Air Mail Add $35 Yr. to USA Price 

■Canada & Mexico Add $5 50 Yr to USA Price **'' 



C & S Electronics Mart Ltd 



32 E. Main Street. Milan. Michigan 48160 



26-1061 
26-1062 
26-1065 
26-1066 
26-4002 
26-3001 
26-3002 
26-3003 
26-3022 
26-3023 
26-5000 
26-5001 
26-3501 
26-3503 
26-3505 

Prices can c 



Model 111 4K Lev. 1 
Model III 16KLev.II 
Model III 48K 1 disk 
Mod. Ill 48K 2 disk/RS-232 
64K Model 11 1 disk 
Color Comp. 4K Lev. 1 
Color Comp. 16K Lev. II ext 
Color Comp. 32K Lev. II ext 
O-DriveforC.C. 
1-3 Drives for C.C. 
Videotext 4K 
Videotext 16K 
Pocket Comp. 
Interface 
Printer/Interface 

hange without notification. All prices a\ 



S 650.00 

805.00 

1660.00 

2050.00 

2995.00 

300.00 

. 450.00 

. 590.00 

520.00 

340.00 

320.00 

420.00 

135.00 

26.00 

115.00 




We will match or beat any price in the United States. 



sh prices: there will be a 4% handling charge for credit card use 



S 138 



Ml ■» MmSm^mm 


Dealer R 491 


439-1400 — 439-1508 




Colter 




48 K 2 disk drive 40 track 


$1800.00 


48 K 2 disk/RS-232 


1875.00 


48 K 2 disk/80 track 


1950.00 


48 K 2 disk/80 track/RS-2 32 


2025.00 


Printers 




Comet Printer 


340.00 


Smith Corona TP- 1 


695.00 


Line Printer V 


1595.00 


CItoh8510 


700.00 


Line Printer VI 


950.00 


Line Printer VII 


280.00 


Line Printer VI11 


670.00 


Daisy Wheel II 


1675.00 


Quick Printer 


275.00 


Quick Printer II 


1 70.00 


Plotter 


1320.00 



sSee List of Advertisers on Page 435 



80 Micro, January 1983 • 187 



GAMES 



Lunar Lander 



by Nat R. Koch 



Games are rarely writ- 
ten for the Model II, 
but here's one that lets 
you make a lunar landing. 



Few games are written for the Model 
II, so here is one you might like to try. 
Lunar Lander is not an arcade-style 
game, but it is realtime. It is written in 
Model II Basic and runs relatively fast. 

The object of the game is to land your 
spaceship on one of the designated 
landing areas (thin horizontal lines) 
without touching the rest of the surface 
or running out of fuel. To control the 
ship ( A ), thrust the main engine by hit- 
ting the space bar. You can also fire lat- 
eral rockets by using the <and> keys. 

You have several options for prevent- 
ing a crash: abort, hyperspace, and 
freeze. Abort, A, provides the com- 
bined effects of several simultaneous 
thrusts. Hyperspace, H, moves the ship 
to a random position on the top six lines 
of the screen. Freeze, F, freezes the 
ship's lateral and vertical motion. You 



The Key Box 

Model II 
Model II Basic 
32KRAM 



are allowed 1-3 hyperspaces per round, 
and you might not be allowed to freeze. 
All three options use up more fuel 
than thrusting or firing the lateral 
rockets. If you run out of fuel, your 
ship plummets to the surface and the 



game ends. If you go over the top of the 
screen, you are automatically put in 
hyperspace. 

When the program is run, you will be 
asked three questions: Game # asks you 
which of seven playing boards you want 



Program Listing 



LUNAR LANDER 
FOR THE MODEL II 
BY NAT KOCH 
***************** 



11 
12 
,13 
14 
15 
16 
17 

19 CLEAR 3000 

20 CLS: RANDOM 

70 DIM SCREEN(2160) ,CC(520) 

100 ' 

101 ' WORKING PROGRAM 

102 ' 
110 ' 

120 INPUT" Game number (1-7) ";GN 

130 IF GN<1 OR GN>7 THEN GOTO 120 

135 D=40 

140 INPUT" Speed (1-80) ";D 

150 IF D<1 OR D>80 THEN GOTO 140 

155 D=ABS(D-81) 

160 INPUT" Gravity (1-5) ";G 

170 IF G<1 OR G>5 THEN GOTO 160 

180 ' 

181 

182 

190 

210 

220 

221 

222 ' 

225 CLS: RESTORE 

23 READ AA,AB,AC 

240 IF AAOGN THEN GOTO 230 

250 READ S r E,I 

260 IF S=GN+1 THEN GOTO 300 

IF 1=9999 THEN GOSUB 12 

GOTO 250 



CLEAR OLD BOARD 



FOR C1=0 TO 520:SCREEN(CC(C1) )=0:NEXT CI 

F=1000 : VEL=0 : SW=0 : GRAV=1 : H=RND ( 3) : FR=RND ( 2) -1 : P=E 



READ DATA 



l:FLAG=0:C2=C 



271 
281 
300 
301 
302 
310 
320 
330 
340 
350 
360 
370 



ELSE GOSUB 1100 



1 MAIN PROGRAM 

IN$=INKEY$:IF IN$="" THEN GOTO 40 

IF IN$="," THEN SW=SW-1:F=F-RND(5) *1 

IF INS="." THEN SW=SW+1:F=F-RND(5) *1 

IF IN$=" " THEN VEL=VEL-1:F=F-RND(10 

IF INS="A" THEN GOSUB 700 

IF IN$="H" THEN GOSUB 750 

IF IN$="F" THEN GOSUB 800 



400 PRINT@P," 



Listing continues 



188 • 80 Micro, January 1983 



Your best 

Model l/lll 

peripheral buy 

is a modem. 



Considering expanding your TRS-80 
Model I or III? Then you should know 
that only one kind of peripheral can 
give you all these extra capabilities 
... in a single unit: 

• Computer-to-computer data 
communications, for better 
personal or business manage- 
ment. 

• Access to free "bulletin board" 
resources. 

• Access to Source, Compu- 
Serve and other time-sharing 
systems. 

• Services like electronic mail, 
instant news and financial re- 
ports. 

• An almost limitless supply of 
new games and other enthusi- 
ast activities. 

Of course, we're talking about a 
modem. A far more sensible first 
step in expanding than, say, joy- 
sticks, or a voice box, or a printer. 
And, therefore, your best peripheral 
buy. 

A modem opens up a whole new 
world to you. A world of thousands 
of computers and computer people 
just like you, in homes and busi- 
nesses around the block and across 
the country. A world you tap through 
your telephone. 

But don't simply settle for any mo- 
dem. For the most modem satisfac- 
tion, you need to make the best mo- 
dem buy. 

And that's LYNX. 




The new LYNX for TRS-80 Model I and Model 
III. It's the latest innovation from the people who 
are making data communications affordable. It's 
the best first step you can take in expanding. It 
makes your microcomputer a whole new animal. 




DLYINTX-O 



123 LOCUST STREET LANCASTER, PENNSYLVANIA 17602 
Phone 717/291-1116 



TRS-g 



is a trademark of the Radio Shack Division of Tandy Corporation. 
FCC Registration Number: A909KE-68171-DM-N 



Your best 

Model l/lll 

modem buy 

is LYNX. 



The new LYNX is the ideal modem 
for your Model I or III. That's because 
it's the key element of a total direct- 
connect telephone communica- 
tions package. 

This package includes all serial 
and computer bus interfaces, cables 
and terminal software . . . and comes 
to you with these remarkable fea- 
tures: 

• SINGLE PRICE: $299.95! 

• Compatible with both Model I 
t and III. 

• No separate purchases 
quired. 

• One-year warranty. 

• Auto dial/auto answer. 

• Works with any software, 
eluding ST-80 by Micklus. 

• Active clear, break, and "con- 
trol" keys. 

• Half or full duplex, variable word 
length, parity and stop bits. 

• Dial from phone, keyboard, or 
memory. 

• Works with or without Model I 
expansion interface. 

• Works with or without Model III 
RS-232 card. 

• Can be placed on either side of 
Model III. 

• No tools needed to install. 

No other modem gives you so much 
in a single package. And when you 
compare the LYNX price with the to- 
tal cost of bringing any other modem 
on line, it could save you OVER $100! 



re- 



in- 



Consult your local microcomputer retailer, or call one of these LYNX handlers today— TOLL FREE: 



THE BOTTOM LINE 
Milford, NH 
800/343-0726 

B. T. ENTERPRISES 
Centereach, NY 
800/645-1165 

• See List of Advertisers on Page 435 



BREEZE/QSD 
Dallas, TX 
214/484-2976 

COMPUTER PLUS 
Littleton, MA 
800/343-8124 



THE PROGRAM STORE 
Washington, DC 
800/424-2738 

STEVENS COMPUTERS 
Phoenixville, PA 
800/345-6279 



SIMUTEK 
Tucson, AZ 
800/528-1149 

PROGRAMS UNLIMITED 
Jericho, NY 
800/645-6038 



SOFT SECTOR MARKETING 
Garden City, Ml 
800/521-6504 

MICRO-MART 
Montreal, Quebec 
514/731-9486 

80 Micro, January 1983 • 189 



to use. Speed is the time between ship 
movements — at 80 it is very slow, but at 
1 the game is impossibly fast. Beginners 
should start at about 50. Gravity asks 
you what level of gravity you want. At 
gravity level 1 the ship floats, while at 5 
it drops like a rock. A beginner should 
use gravity level 2. 

All the boards are drawn with lines. 
Each data statement contains a list of 
start and end-line coordinates and in- 
crements. If the increment is 9999, that 
line is interpreted as a landing area (a 
thin line on the screen). Even though 
board #8 has no instructions, it is neces- 
sary, because the board-scanning 
variable starts at one board and ends at 
the next. 

If you design your own playing board 
with several vertical surfaces, you might 
get a BS error from the Basic inter- 
preter. To correct this you need to di- 
mension the CC array larger and clear 
more memory. However, the program 
is fine for most boards. ■ 



Nat Koch, 13, is an eighth grade stu- 
dent at Queen Anne School in Prince 
George 's County, Maryland. He lives at 
3304 Carlton Ave., Temple Hills, MD 
20748. 



REAL ESTATE INVESTMENT 
SOFTWARE 

FOR TRS 80 SYSTEMS 

REAL PACK is a comprehensive package of 
programs for analyzing real estate investments. 

INCOME PROPERTY ANALYSIS projects profits and 
cash flows before and after taxes, ROI, IRR, equity 
returns, breakeven occupancy requirements, property 
values, mortgage balances and results of sale for up 
to 15 years. Handles multiple loans, depreciation 
methods, income and appreciation patterns. 
LOAN calculates loan terms, provides amortization 
tables, and computes discounted loan values or 
yields. Handles balloon payments; provides loan 
evaluations at future time periods. 

WRAP provides similar computations for wrap around 

loans. 

HOUSE RENT/BUY compares cash flows and real 

costs for house purchase compared to renting. 

Handles multiple mortgage and graduated payment 

loans. Generates unique personalized narrative letter 

to explain the tabular output. 

POLICY analyzes real estate investment strategies. 
You specify investment values such as leverage, 
interest, capitalization, and appreciation rates and also 
investment strategies such as tax free exchanging, 
sale and purchase of larger properties, and physical 
improvement to increase income ala Nickerson. 
Projects, for up to 20 years, profits and cash flows, 
rates of return, the results of projected individual buy, 
sell, and trade transactions, tax consequences, and 
accumulated property values and cash flows. 

REALTOR TESTED by professionals; error tolerant 
and easy to use. 

MORE THAN AN OPERATING MANUAL. The 150 

page instruction manual also includes chapters, "How 
to Use REAL PACK to Increase Your Real Estate 
Business" and "How to Operate Your Own Financial 
Analysis Business". 

$295.00 for the whole package. 

Check. COD, Visa, Mastercharge. 

To order, call (206) 734-4323 or write: o 

CONEX ELECTRO SYSTEMS INC. 

1602 Carolina Street, Belllngham, WA 98226 



PRINT CHR$(02) ; 

' MOVE SHIP USING VEL,SW,UD,AND GRAV 

IF SW=>3 THEN SW=3 ELSE IF SW<=-3 THEN SW=-3 

IF VEL=>3 THEN VEL=3 ELSE IF VEL<=-3 THEN VEL=-3 

GRAV=GRAV+G:IF GRAV>8 THEN VEL=VEL+1 :GRAV=1 

UD=VEL*80 

P=P+(UD+SW) 

IF P<0 THEN GOSUB 1000 

IF P>1919 THEN GOTO 950 

IF SCREEN (P)=l THEN GOTO 90 

IF SCREEN(P)=2 THEN GOTO 850 

PRINT@P, n ~"; 

IF FLAG=1 THEN GOTO 640 

PRINT@0,"F:";F;" H: n ;H; n FRZ:";FR 

• DELAY HERE 

FOR DELAY=1 TO D*10:NEXT DELAY 
IF F>0 THEN GOTO 310 

• SHIP OUT OF FUEL SEQUENCE 

PRINT@30,"OUT OF FUEL": FOR Z=l TO 1000:NEXT Z 

F=0 

PRINT930, SPACES (59) 

PRINT@0,"F:0 H:";H;" FRZ : " ; FR ; " 

FOR FALL=1 TO 2 4 

FLAG=l:GOTO 5 00 

PRINT@P," "; :P=P+80:PRINT@P,"~"; 
NEXT FALL: END 



410 
420 
421 
422 
430 
440 
450 
460 
470 
480 
490 
500 
510 
520 
530 
5 40 
545 
550 
560 
561 
562 
570 
580 
590 
591 
592 
600 

605 

610 

615 

620 

630 

640 

650 

700 

701 

702 

703 

704 

710 ' ABORT 

720 PRINT@30,CHR$(26) "ABORT"CHRS ( 25) : FOR Z=l TO 500:NEXT Z 

730 PRINT@30, SPACES (59) 

740 VEL=VEL-(2+RND(3) ) :F=F-RND(15) *10:RETURN 

750 ' HYPERSPACE 

760 PRINT0P," "; 

780 H=H-1:IF H<0 THEN H=0 :PRINT@30 , "HYPERSPACE NOT FUNCTIONAL" : FOR Z=l TO 1000:N 

EXT Z:PRINT@30,SPACE$(59) :RETURN 

790 PRINT@30,CHRS(26) "HYPERSPACE"CHR$( 25) : FOR Z=l TO 500:NEXT Z : PRINT@30 , SPACES ( 

59) : F=F-RND ( 10 ) *10 : P=RND ( 4 80 ) -1 : VEL=0 : SW=0 : RETURN 

800 ' FREEZE 

810 FR=FR-1:IF FR<0 THEN FR=0 : PRINT@30 , "FREEZE NOT FUNCTIONAL" : FOR Z=l TO 1000-.N 

EXT Z :PRINT@30, SPACES ( 59) : RETURN 

820 PRINT@30,CHR$(26) "FREEZE"CHRS( 25) : FOR Z=l TO 500:NEXT Z :PRINT@30 , SPACES ( 59) 
:F=F-RND(10) *10 

830 VEL=0:SW=0: RETURN 

850 ' LAND OR CRASH ON PAD 

853 IF FLAG=1 THEN GOTO 860 

855 IF VEL<3 THEN GOTO 875 

860 PRINT@30,"YOU CRASHED ON THE PAD" ; : PRINT@P, "X" : FOR Z=l TO 1000:NEXT Z:Z=RND( 

3) 

870 IF Z=3 THEN PRINT@30 , "There were no survivors"; 

873 GOTO 2000 

87 5 PRINT@P,"A"; 

880 PRINT@30,"YOU LANDED SAFELY : Rating =" ; F+H*100+FR*200 :GOTO 2000 

900 • CRASH 

905 PRINT@P,"*"; 

910 C1S="*"+CHR$(255)+CHR$(252)+CHR$(252)+"* *" :C2$="* "+CHR$( 255) +CHR$ ( 255) +CHRS 

(252)+CHR$(252)+CHR$(252)+"* *" 

915 C3S=" "+CHRS(255)+CHR$(252)+" ":C4$=" "+CHRS ( 255) +CHR$( 255) +CHR$ ( 252) +CHRS 

(252)+CHR$(252)+" 

Listing continues 



SUBROUTINES FOR WHAT HAPPENS TO SHIP 



2 OR MORE PRINTERS TO CONNECT 
TO YOUR COMPUTER? 



All STANOARD. PARAUEllNTERfACEO PRINTERS 



CONNECTIONS ARE GOLDP 



All ORDERS odd J3.50IO. shipping ond hondling 

PrinterPicker® Switch Unit $65.00 

Adaptor Cable Set* $25.00 



s an Adaptor Cable Sol. 
Modal III; o. EXTENDER 
MorPicker© Switch Unit). 



ot NON-T 

•JOTE: All romputer sysl 

Cablo Sol for eoc 



! t 'TRS-BO is a trademork ol th. Tandy Corporal 
/V/\ COMPU WARE Corporation 1 
/ S t ,0 ° 8 *bin B !on Road H 

\ \. \ Ch.rry Hill, NJ 08034 1 

VV 609-428-2309 B 



2 OR MORE COMPUTERS TO 
CONNECT TO YOUR PRINTER(S)? 

• STOP PLUGGING AND UNPLUGGING CABIES to chonqe balk ond 



nUlTIPIE PulerPicke.'" UNITS MAY BE INTERCONNECTED to lorn 
, system to interswilth any number ol printers and/or .ompoler 

OCATE Puto.Picket® WHEREVER ITS CONVENIENT fOR YOU .. 
within the 3 It. reach ol tho adaptor cable. 

WORKS WITH All STANDARD, PARAUEL - INTERFACED PRINTERS 



All CONNECTIONS ARE 



All ORDERS odd $3.50 lor shippins and hondlina.. 

PuterPicker® Switch Unit $115.00 

Adaptor Cable Set.*. $25.00 

» Each Purer Picker® Switching Unit requires an Adoptor Cable Set. 

Speclly type: I US- 80.' Model I, Model II or Model III; or EXTENDER 

(lor connection to another Puter P, eke. ©Switch Unit); 

or NON-TRS-80' (lor all other computers). 

NOTE: All computer systems require a TRS-BO' Model I or III Printer 

Coble Set lor each printer (No.26-1401)... our price: $25.00 






RS-B 



irk ol the Tandy Co 



/Ny/V COMPUWARI Corporation \ 

S / / lOOB Abinolon Road | 

\ X. \ Cherry Hill, NJ 08034 | 

\S\S 609-428-2309 E 



^263 



190 • 80 Micro, January 1983 



Listing 


continued 






920 PRINT830, "CRASH": FOR Z = l TO 300:NEXT 


Z 




940 PRINT@P-80,C1$; :FOR Z=l TO 300:NEXT Z : PRINT@P-80 ,C3$ 


•:PRINT@P-160,C2$;:FOR Z 


= 1 


TO 300:NEXT Z:PRINT@P-160,C4$; 






943 


PRINT@40 , "There were no survivors" 






945 GOTO 2000 






950 




OVERSHOOT BASE 






960 


^RINT@30,"YOU OVERSHOT THE BASE":GOTO 2000 




1000 


■ 


OUT OF ORBIT 






1010 


PRINT@30,"SHIP OUT OF ORBIT":FOR Z= 


L TO 1000:NEXT:PRINT@30,SPACE$(59) :P= 




RND(480)-1:F=F-RND(10) *10 : VEL=0 : SW= 


i : RETURN 




1100 


' 








1101 


1 


SUBROUTINE TO DRAW IN TERRAIN 






1102 


' 








1110 


FOR LN=S TO E STEP I 






1115 


PRINT@LN,CHR$(153) ; 






1125 


SCREEN(LN)=1:CC(C2) =LN:C2=C2+1 






1130 


IF I 


=-80 THEN SCREEN (LN+1) =1 :CC (C2) 


=LN+1 : C2=C2+1 : SCREEN ( LN+2) =1 : CC ( C2) =LN 




t-2:C2 


=C2+l:GOTO 1170 






1140 


IF I 


=80 THEN SCREEN(LN-1)=1:CC(C2)= 


uN-1 : C2=C2+1 : SCREEN ( LN-2) =1 : CC ( C2) =LN- 




2:C2 


=C2+l:GOTO 1170 






1150 


SCREEN (LN+80)=1:CC(C2)=LN+80:C2=C2+1: SCREEN (LN+160) 


=1:CC(C2)=LN+160:C2=C2+ 




1: SCREEN (LN+240) =1 :CC (C2) =LN+240 :C2 


=C2+1 




1170 


NEXT 


LN: RETURN 






1200 


1 








1201 


■ 


SUBROUTINE TO DRAW IN BASE 






1202 


' 








1210 


FOR LN=S TO E STEP 1 






1220 


PRINT@LN,"_"; 






1230 


SCREEN(LN)=2:CC(C2)=LN:C2=C2+1:SCREEN(LN+80)=1:CC(C2)=LN+80:C2=C2+1:SCREEN 




(LN+160) =1:CC(C2)=LN+160:C2=C2+1 






1240 


NEXT 


LN : RETURN 






2000 


1 








2001 


1 


END GAME 






2002 


' 








2005 


FOR Z=l TO 1000:NEXT Z 






2010 


PRINT@0,"F:";F;" H:";H; H FRZ : " ; FR; SPACE$ ( 59) 




2045 


GOTO 


110 






9000 


• 








9002 


1 


*** BOARD #1 *** 






9004 


1 








9006 


DATA 


1,0,0 






9008 


DATA 


640,644,1, 565,567,1, 


488,490,1, 


571,895,81 


9010 


DATA 


976,977,9999, 1058,1301,81, 


1302,1306,1, 


1387,1468,81 


9012 


DATA 


1469,1471,1, 1552,1795,81, 


1796,1797,1, 


1718,1639,-79 


9014 


DATA 


1560,1562,9999, 1643,1645,1, 


1566,934,-79, 


854,614,-80 


9016 


DATA 


535,543,1, 464,467,1, 


548,548,0, 


629,630,9999 


9018 
9020 


DATA 


711,712,1, 793,1036,81, 


1117,1118,9999 


, 1199,1199,0 


9022 


■ 


*** BOARD #2 *** 






9024 


■ 








9026 


DATA 


2,0,0 






9028 


DATA 


320,324,1, 405,1045,80, 


1126,1526,80, 


1607 ,1688,81 


9030 


DATA 


1769,1771,9999, 1692,1218,-79, 


1138,658,-80, 


579,273,-79 


9032 


DATA 


264,268,1, 349,905,81, 


916,918,9999, 


999,1566,81 


9034 


DATA 


1567,1569,1, 1490,1490,0, 


1411,1412,9999 


, 1493,1493,0 


9036 


DATA 


1574,1577,1, 1498,1178,-80, 


1099,388,-79, 


469,469,0 


9038 


DATA 


550,551,9999, 632,793,81, 


794,797,1, 


718,478,-80 


9040 


DATA 


399,399,0 






9042 


' 








9044 


' 


*** BOARD #3 *** 






9046 


1 








9048 


DATA 


3,0,0 






9050 


DATA 


400,405,1, 326,247,-79, 


248,250,1, 


331,1141,81 


9052 


DATA 


1221,1541,80, 1622,1703,81, 


1784,1786,9999 


, 1707,1712,1 


9054 


DATA 


1633,1554,-79, 1555,1557,1, 


1478,1241,-79, 


1322,1565,81 


9056 


DATA 


1646,1647,9999, 1728,1809,81, 


1810,1814,1, 


1735,1735,0 


9058 


DATA 


1656,1658,9999, 1579,1579,0, 


1500,940,-80, 


861,387,-79 


9060 


DATA 


388,391,1, 472,473,9999, 


554,557,1, 


478,479,1 


9062 


■ 








9064 


• 


*** BOARD #4 *** 






9066 


' 








9068 


DATA 


4,0,0 






9070 


DATA 


240,247,1, 328,1688,80, 


1769,1771,9999, 


1692,812,-80 


9072 


DATA 


733,496,-79, 416,256,-80, 


177,185,1, 


266,752,81 


9074 


DATA 


832,1712,80, 1793,1794,9999 


1715,1235,-80, 


1156,436,-80 


9076 


DATA 


357,199,-79, 200,204,1, 


285,605,80, 


686,1739,81 


9078 


DATA 


1740,1741,9999, 1742,1747,1, 


1668,1115,-79, 


1035,395,-80 


9080 


DATA 


316,319,1 






9082 


1 








9084 


1 


*** BOARD #5 *** 






9086 


• 








9088 


DATA 


5,0,0 






9090 


DATA 


1440,1124,-79, 1045,1047,9999 


, 968,257,-79, 


258,265,1 


9092 


DATA 


186,193,1, 274,436,81, 


517,518,9999, 


599,923,81 


9094 


DATA 


1003,1403,80, 1484,1486,1, 


1567,1570,9999 


, 1491,291,-80 


9096 


DATA 


292,293,9999, 294,1494,80, 


615,616,9999, 


1575,1578,1 


9098 


DATA 


1499,393,-79, 314,315,9999, 


316,317,1, 


398,1438,80 


9100 


DATA 


1519,1519,0 






9102 


1 








9104 


' 


*** BOARD #6 *** 






9106 


■ 








9108 


DATA 


6,0,0 






9110 


DATA 


1840,260,-79, 181,183,9999, 


264,1560,81, 


1481,296,-79 


9112 


DATA 


217,219,9999, 300,1919,81 






9114 


1 








9116 


1 


*** BOARD #7 *** 






9118 


DATA 


7,0,0 






9120 


DATA 


1520,1530,1, 1451,1135,-79, 


1056,1057,9999, 


1138,1786,81 


9122 


DATA 


1787,1798,1, 1799,1799,9999, 


1800,1809,1, 


1730,1330,-80 


9124 


DATA 


1251,1093,-79, 1014,1015,9999, 


936,778,-79, 


698,378,-80 


9126 


DATA 


299,301,1, 382,463,81, 


544,546,9999, 


467,230,-79 


9128 


DATA 


231,235,1, 316,1756,80, 


L837, 1839,1 




9132 


■ 








9134 


' 


*** BOARD #8 *** 






9136 


' 








9138 


DATA 


8,0,0 







SOFTWARE TECHNOLOGY 

BREAKTHROUGH 

FROM XYZT 

LIBRARYSUPPORTOPTION . . . $79.00/ 

$10 ma 
Organize your diskettes - put your 
files in libraries! No more mess in the 
directory - your files are logically grouped 
together and can be easily manipulated. 
Your existing software will access files 
directly in libraries. Regular DOS commands 
can be used to DO, LIST, PRINT, KILL, 
LOAD, COPY library files. Execute/CMD 
modules and run BASIC programs directly 
from libraries. 

Plus, LSO saves space-in most cases 
diskette capacity effectively doubles. Not 
to mention increase speed of operation! 
Each library can contain up to 240 files. 
You may have as many libraries as many 
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Fully documented, includes complete set 
of utilities and self-relocatable of course. 



INTERACTIVE CONTROL LANGUAGE 

(rel.2-B) $59.00/$1 ma 

The most powerful control language 
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enhancement and customization. Just 
check list of features: 

• Complete control over •Interactive program/ 
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• Powerful command •Enhances DOS, 



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• Interaction with 
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• Control Interception* 

• Queue structure for 
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• Variables and 
information passed 
between programs 

• Virtual I/O for keyboard 
and display operations* 

* Exclusive ICL feature 



assemblers, compilers, 
wordprocessors, 
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• Provides data for 
keyboard input 

• Access to display output* 
•&RETCODE indicates 

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• Conditional execution 
of DOScommandsand 
and /CMD files 



Package includes 65 page manual, self-relocatable 
ICL and 1 2 ready to use procedures. 



RAM-SLEDGES $25.00 

Have you ever tried to write a self- 
relocatable program? You know what it 
takes! No more problems with 
RAM-SLEDGES! Write your program any 
way you like, then use RAM-SLEDGES 
to make it self -relocatable. Itwasdeveloped 
for internal use and production. 

Free KEYCOPY/CMD is included. 

To order, specify 

Mod l/lll and DOS: 

NEWDOS*-DOSPLUS* 

LDOS® - TRSDOS* 

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Check M.O-.C.O.D., VISA, 

MC plus $4.00 s/h. 
Foreign orders • extra $ 1 0.00 
S 158 




XYZT Computer 
Dimensions, Inc. 

2 Penn Plaza, Suite 1500 
New York N.Y. 10121 
(212)244-3100 
Order by Mail or Check Your Local Dealer 



p'See List of Advertisers on Page 435 



Micro, January 1983 • 191 



GAME 



Dogfight 



by Ralph White 



H 



ere's an arcade game for your Color Com- 
puter — envision yourself as a flying ace sitting 
in a cockpit while shooting the enemy's biplanes. 



Flying Ace is an arcade-type game for 
the TRS-80 Color Computer with Ex- 
tended Basic, 16K of memory, and the 
right joystick. Using graphics mode 3 



consumes a great deal of memory, so 
only about 2,500 bytes remain unused 
for expansion of the program. 
The screen shows the view from your 



A(34,20) 


Airplane graphics array 


A 


Horizontal position of the joystick 


B 


Vertical position of the joystick 


G 


Number of planes that escaped 


H 


Number of planes shot down 


R 


Number of planes presented 


S 


Shots taken 


T 


Elapsed time on current plane 


TT 


Total elapsed flight time 


X 


Horizontal distance from plane's center to center of 




sights 


Y 


Vertical distance from plane's center to center of sights 




Table 1. List of Variables 



Lines 


Function 


70-150 


Draws airplane 


250-280 


Assures plane will be within screen boundaries 


290 


Draws the plane on the screen 


300 


Checks firing button 


310 


Generates random movement of the plane 


340 


Checks firing button 


350-380 


Firing routine 


380 


Boundary values to determine a hit or miss 


400-430 


Display for a hit 


440-640 


Scoreboard 


650-790 


Instructions 




Table 2. Program Outline 



plane's cockpit. Biplanes appear, and 
by using the right joystick, you maneu- 
ver your plane to get the enemy's bi- 
plane in your sights. Then, press the 
button on the joystick to fire the ma- 
chine guns. 

The object is to shoot as many planes 
as possible in about six minutes of fly- 
ing time; approximately 30 seconds are 
allotted for each plane. The score for- 
mula in line 520 is based on the number 
of shots taken, hits, planes escaped, and 
total elapsed time. Speed and accuracy 
improve your score; misses and letting 
planes escape hurt it. 

The program operates in a cycle that 
draws the plane, computes a new posi- 
tion, and reads the joystick. You can 
exit the cycle in only two ways: by suc- 
cessfully shooting a plane or by allow- 
ing a plane to escape. 

Moving the joystick to the extreme 
right, left, top, or bottom will bring the 
enemy plane into your sights quickly; 
slightly moving the joystick makes the 
target plane move more slowly. 

The value of the firing button is 
checked twice in each cycle (lines 300 
and 340), to ensure that the button 
responds when pushed. If the button is 
pushed, memory location 65280 will 
contain either 126 or 254. If the button 
is not pushed, memory location 65280 
will contain a 255. 

The Sound function provides a tone 
burst with each shot. Line 380 contains 



The Key Box 

Color Computer 
16K RAM 

Extended Color Basic 
Right Joystick 



192 • 80 Micro, January 1983 



Bis 

H Mffil WHERE 

WgfA gfm QUALITY PROGRAMS 

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^ 204 



January 
Savings 




PCHECK/CMD 

PFIX/CMD 

PREFORM/CMD 

PVU/CMD 

PERASE/CMD 

PMOVE/CMD 

PDIRT/CMD 

PASSGO/CMD 

PUN/CMD 

PEX/CMD 

PMOD/CMD 

PFIND/CMD 



PCOMPARE/CMD 

PCLEAR/CMD 

PSS/CMD 

PMAP/CMD 

PMX/FLT MX80 

PHELP/CMD 

PBOOT/CMD 

PFILT/FLT 

DVORAK/FLT 

DVORAK/JCL 

CODE/JCL 

DECODE/JCL 



MOD I OR MOO 



A point of sale 
inventory, cash 
register and 

accounts receivable interactive^ 
system with invoicing. Prints sales 
summaries by code and sales person. 
Daily, weekly and monthly. Requires 
2 Drive MOD III minimum with 3 Drive 
optimum. Small businesses will adore 
this outstanding program. 



a highly sophisticated mass mailing 

un undo' all ol the popular 

)ble lor the Mod I or III The 

chine an;jii:u(i> 

and occupies only 

r. i . RAM B •our computer There 

New features have oeen addec lo !ne program 
thatothershavealwayslacked You now have the 
ability lo keep track o< mailings using the 1M 
Mags' that are incorporated Into itie Powcrma'i 
program The Powermail system will handle a tile 
up to 8 megabytes, or 65535 names, whichever is 
smaller The program will run in as little as 32K 
and one disk drive although 4BK ar*d 2 dr ves art- 
desirable The program will also sort the entire 
maximum tile sue and open up lo 108 tiles 
simultaneous^ du-mj Me ii'ocess Author 
Kim Watt 




MOD I OR MOD III 



SuperDirectory 

By Computer Shack 



SUPER .1X11 TV PIUS 

TECH MANUAL 

INSIDE SUPER UTILITY PLUS . 
OPERATOR'S MANUAL 



SAVE $40.00 




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The result is a unique computer/ 
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MOD II 




Automatic Density Recognition 
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The Best Directory On The Market 



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• See List of Advertisers on Page 435 



Micro, January 1983 • 193 



the boundary values for determining if 
a shot hits or misses a plane; when a 
plane is hit, a series of tone bursts is gen- 
erated. The difficulty of the program 
can be altered by changing the boun- 
daries of a successful shot. 

The position of the joystick is not 
read on every pass through the cycle. 
The value of MV alternates from — 1 to 
1 . If M V = 1 , the cycle is short circuited. 
The enemy plane is allowed to move 
more quickly. 

Lines 70-150 draw the biplane and 
store the plane in a graphics array. The 
Put command is then used to rapidly 
draw the plane on the screen. The bor- 
der of the array around the plane is a se- 
ries of blanks. When a new plane is Put 
on the screen, it is printed directly over 
the old image without erasing it. Since 
the new image is in a slightly different 
position, the border of blanks assures 
the old image is entirely covered. 

The high resolution graphics modes 
do not support text, so after each 
downed or escaped plane, the computer 
returns to the text mode to display all 
necessary information. ■ 

Ralph White can be reached at 529 
S. Vermont, Columbus, KS 66725. 



2in1 

COMPUTER CASES 



HEAVY DUTY FOR SHIPPING 




Order these EXTRAordinary cases. Immediately convert to 
DEMO TABLES. EXTRA sturdy for safe shipping of your 
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EXTRA attractive at an EXTRA low price. 



TRS-80 MOD. Ill CASE 

$195 



FOB SAN 
DIEGO plus 
sales tax 



LINE PRINTER VI CASE 

$145 



• 280 

Computer Division 
TRADE SERVICE PUBLICATIONS, INC. 

109% Torreyana Road, San Diego, CA 92121 
(619) 457-5920 
"Trade Marks of Tandy Corp. 



10 GOTO650 

20 PCLEAR4 

30 PMODE3,l 

40 DIMA(34,20) 

50 PCLS 

60 SCREEN1,1 

70 FORI=4T028:PSET(I,8,3) :PSET(I,7,3) :PSET( I ,14 ,3) : PSET( I ,13 ,3) : 

NEXTI 

80 F0RI=5T012:PSET(17,I,3) :NEXTI 

90 FORI=14TO18:PSET(I,10,3) : PSET( I ,12,3) :NEXTI 

100 FORI=9TOl2:PSET(9,I,3) :PSET( 25 , I ,3) :NEXTI 

110 FORI=13T021:PSET(I,ll,3) :NEXTI 

120 PSET(17,9,3) 

130 PSET(13,16,3) :PSET(15,15,3) :PSET( 20 ,16 ,3) : PSET(19 ,15 ,3) 

140 PRESET(4,8,1) :PRESET(28 , 8 ,1) : PRESET(15 ,8 ,1) :PRESET(19 ,8 ,1) 

150 PRESET(4,14,1) :PRESET(28 , 14 ,1) 

160 GET(0,0)-(34,20) ,A,G 

17 PCLS 

180 R=1:T=0:TT=0:S=0:MV=1 

190 X=0:Y=0 

200 X=RND(200) -100:Y=RND(180) -90 

210 A=0:B=0 

220 PSET(128,86,0) :PSET(128 ,106 ,0) : PSET(108 ,96 ,0) :PSET(148 ,96 ,0) 

:PSET(128,85,0) :PSET( 128 ,107 ,0) :PSET(106 , 96 ,0) : PSET(150 ,96 ,0) 

230 X=X+INT( (32-A)/12) :Y=Y+INT( (32-B)/12) 

240 T=T+1:IFT>84GOTO440 

250 IFY>75THENY=75 

260 IFY<-75THENY=-75 

270 IFX<-112THENX=-112 

280 IFX>108THENX=108 

290 PUT(113+X,86+Y)-(147+X,106+Y) ,A,PSET 

300 IFPEEK(65280) =126ORPEEK(65280) =254GOTO350 

310 X=X+RND(5)-3:Y=Y+RND(3)-2 

320 MV=-MV:IFMV=1GOTO240 

330 A=JOYSTK(0) :B=JOYSTK(l) 

340 IFPEEK(65280) <>126ANDPEEK(65280) O254GOTO220 

350 S=S+1:SOUND50,2 

360 LINE(64,192)-(128,96) ,PSET:LINE (192 ,192) -( 128 ,96) ,PSET 

370 LINE(64,192)-(128,96) ,PRESET:LINE ( 192 ,192) -(128 ,96) , PRESET 

380 IFX>-10ANDX<10ANDY>-5ANDY<5GOTO40 

390 GOTO220 

400 FORI=15TO30STEP5:CIRCLE(128,96) ,1 ,4 , . 4 :NEXTI 

410 FORI=15TO30STEP5:SOUND(200-I*2) ,1 :CIRCLE(128 , 96) , I ,1 , . 4:NEXT 

I 

420 H=H+1 

430 FORTM=1TO500:NEXTTM 

440 PCLS 

450 CLS 

460 PRINTTAB(6) "AFTER " ;R; "AIRPLANES" : PRINT 

470 PRINTTAB(5) "SHOTS = ";S 

480 PRINTTAB(5) "HITS = ";H 

490 IFT<=84GOTO510 

500 PRINT"TOO MUCH TIME. HE GOT AWAY!":G=G+1 

510 PRINTTAB(5) "GOT AWAY = ";G 

520 TT=TT+T:PRINTTAB(5) "SCORE = " ; INT( ( 250*R-TT) *SQR(TT/250* 

R)*SQR(H/(S+1))) 

530 IFTT>1008GOTO640 

540 PRINT: PRINTTAB( 5) "TIME REMAINING" 

550 PRINT"MINUTES";TAB(16) ; "SECONDS" :M=INT( (1008-TT)/16 8) :SC=INT 

( ( (1008-TT)-M*168)/2.8) 

560 PRINTTAB(2) ;M;TAB(18) ;SC: PRINT 

570 PRINT: PRINT"PRESS THE FIRING BUTTON TO CONT." 

580 M=PEEK(65280) : IFMO126ANDMO254GOTO580 

590 PMODE3,l 

60 PCLS 

610 SCREEN1,1 

620 T=0:R=R+1 

630 GOTO190 

640 PRINT"TIME HAS EXPIRED": END 

650 CLS 

660 PRINT : PRINT :PRINTTAB( 10) "WORLD WAR I" : PRINT: PRINT 

670 PRINTTAB( 11) "FLYING ACE" 

680 FORTM=1TO1500:NEXTTM 

690 CLS 

700 PRINTTAB(10) "instructions" : PRINT 

710 PRINT "THE OBJECT OF THE GAME IS TO" 

720 PRINT"SHOOT AS MANY AIRPLANES AS YOU" 

730 PRINT"CAN IN THE TIME THAT IS GIVEN." 

740 PRINT" YOU WILL BE ALLOWED 30 SECONDS" 

750 PRINT"PER AIRPLANE AND A TOTAL OF 6" 

760 PRINT"MINUTES OF FLYING TIME. YOUR" 

770 PRINT"SCORE WILL BE BASED ON NO. OF" :PRINT"PLANES SHOT DOWN 

AND ACCURACY." 

7 80 PRINT: INPUT" PRESS <ENTER> TO CONT";Z$ 

790 GOTO20 

Program Listing 



194 • 80 Micro, January 1983 



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TECHNIQUE 



Salvation for accidentally hitting Break. 



Partially Disabled Break 



Stephen Mills 
315-K Bargate Drive 
Cary,NC 27511 



The TRS-80's Break key is a 
swift executioner. Its pri- 
mary purpose is to put an end to 
a running program and return 
the computer to the command 
mode. That is a powerful feature 
when you need it, but some- 
times this executioner is too 
easy to invoke unintentionally. 
Since the Break key is located 



dangerously near the back- 
space and dash keys, a careless 
finger could accidentally termi- 
nate a program during input. 
Even though you can continue 
the program with the CONT 
command, you cannot recover a 
carefully formatted video dis- 
play destroyed by the break. 

For this reason, many pol- 
ished and well-designed pro- 
grams can benefit from having 
the Break key disabled. This is 
possible because whenever that 
key is pressed, the ROM inter- 
preter momentarily sends pro- 
gram control to an address in 
random-access memory. That 
address, for Model I Level II Ba- 
sic, is 16396. 

If you instruct the computer 
to PRINT PEEK (16396) when the 
computer has been initialized 



10 


POKE 16397,45:POKE 16398,1 


20 


ON ERROR GOTO 1000 


30 


REM • MENU OF 5 ITEMS IS HERE 


40 


PRINT "SELECTION #1" 


50 


PRINT "SELECTION #2" 


80 


INPUT "SELECT 1-5";S 


90 


POKE 16396,195 


10C 


ON S GOTO 200,300,400,500,600 


1000 IF ERR = 44 THEN RESUME 30 


1010 POKE 16397,201:ON ERROR GOTO 




Program Listing 1 



normally, you will find the value 
201, which in machine language 
is an instruction to return to 
ROM. This sends program con- 
trol back to where it started. If 
you PEEK at the next two ad- 
dresses, you will find zeroes. 

The statement POKE 16396,7 
disables the Break key. When 
the Break key is hit after that, 
the instruction is no longer a 
return, but one which changes 
the information in the CPU's ac- 
cumulator register. Program ex- 
ecution then passes through the 
zeroes in the next two bytes (do- 
nothing values), and then finds 
another return instruction at 
16399. The result is that the 
computer "forgets" the Break 
key has been pressed, and so 
hitting the key does not inter- 
rupt your program. The state- 
ment POKE 16396,201 puts 
things back to normal. 

POKEing a 7 (or several other 
serviceable values which affect 
the accumulator) is the best 
known way of disabling the 
Break key. This technique does 
not allow you to break out of a 
program even if you want to. 
You can press the reset button, 
but you cannot continue unless 
you know where to reenter the 
program. This technique also 
gives you a dead key on a key- 
board which is already some- 
what deficient in control keys. A 

better way to disable Break is to 
bring it under program control 



like the rest of the keyboard. 

Set up a program which will 
use a controlled Break key with 
the following series of POKEs: 

POKE 16396,195:P0KE 16397,45: 
POKE 16398,1 

This reroutes program execu- 
tion in ROM to a routine which 
sets up an L3 or Disk Basic Only 
error code. This works even if 
you are running Level II Basic 
under a disk system because 
the ROM routine assumes that 
the error has been correctly 
evaluated. Now if you press 
Break, you will get an L3 ER- 
ROR? message on the screen. 

To use this modification crea- 
tively, you must write an appro- 
priate error-trapping routine into 
the Basic program. Do this after 
the program is well along in de- 
velopment and thoroughly de- 
bugged; otherwise a real L3 er- 
ror could foul things up. Set the 
On Error GOTO statement early 
in the program to direct control 
to the error-trap routine. There, 
in addition to any other error- 
handling statements needed, 
evaluate the ERR code for an L3 
error. If ERR = 44, it means that 



The Key Box 

Model I or III 

16K RAM 

Cassette or Disk Basic 



Micro, January 1983 • 197 



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the Break key has been pressed, 
and you can handle it as your 
program requires. The ERL func- 
tion is available to tell you the 
program line under execution 
when the Break key was hit, so 
the break-handling routine can 
perform different operations for 
different parts of the program. 

One useful application of this 
technique is to return you to the 
beginning of a program, or to a 
menu of options. You may have 
made an incorrect menu selec- 
tion, or realize you have entered 
bad data, and want to restart 
your procedure. Coding these 
operator conveniences is cum- 
bersome, and usually over- 
looked. By using this method, 
you can get out of an operation 
at any point, and redirect the 
program to a more desirable re- 
start position. 

The program skeleton in List- 
ing 1 shows how this might be 
done. Line 10 sets up most of 
the disabling code, but leaves 
the first critical byte (16397) in- 
tact. Execution can still be 
broken normally through the 
menu selection. Line 20 defines 



the error-trap routine. Lines 
30-80 display the menu and soli- 
cit input. After that, the POKE in 
line 90 takes over the Break key, 
so that any subsequent break 
will be interpreted as an L3 error 
and cause a jump to the error- 
handling routine at line 1000. 

If the test there indicates that 
the Break key has been pressed, 
the program resumes at the 
menu again. If all the error traps 
fall through, line 1010 restores 
the normal status of the Break 
key vector by POKEing the 
return instruction back into 
16397. Then the On Error GOTO 
turns off the error trap and 
ends the program. 

The Break key can be toggled 
on and off as you wish in a pro- 
gram. For instance, if you replace 
line 30 by POKE 16397,201, it 
allows you to quit the program 
during menu selection. But at 
any other point in the program, 
after line 90, Break would first 
return control to the menu.B 

Technical note: All disk I/O 
will return an L3 or Disk Basic 
Only error message. 



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Micro, January 1983 • 199 



UTILITY 
LOAD 80 



Enhance Hinrichs' word processor. 



New Tricks for an Old Dog 



Duane R. Hope 
Avenida de Pedralbes 
14-B, 72., 2*- 
Barcelona, Spain 34 



I will never forget the day the May 1980 is- 
sue of 80 Micro arrived. I had purchased a 
Line Printer II and was considering Michael 
Shrayer Software's Electric Pencil or Radio 
Shack's Scripsit. Instead I found Delmer D. 
Hinrichs' "Basic Word Processor" on page 50. 
The Basic Word Processor was written 
for a 16K Model I TRS-80 with cassette file 



The Key Box 

Model I 
Disk Basic 
32K RAM 
One disk drive 
Line Printer II 



text storage and a Comprint 912 printer us- 
ing roll paper. I have a 32K Model I TRS-80, 
one disk drive, and the Line Printer II. I modi- 
fied the program to take advantage of my 
system's expanded capabilities. 

I added two commands to allow disk stor- 
age of text files and a command to allow 
form-letter printing. I expanded the Print 
command to allow continuous printing of 
linked text files, automatic paging for 9 1/2 
by 11 fan-fold paper, and single-sheet print- 
ing for specialized 8 1/2 by 11 letterheads. 

New Commands 

When the Basic word processor displays 
Command?, enter the following additional, 
single-letter commands: 

G Get Get a text file from disk. 

W Write Write a text file to disk. 

N Notice Continuously print text file as a form letter. 
Names and addresses are obtained from disk- 
based PIMs files. 

Get, similar to Load, loads a previously 
written text file from disk. You are directed 
to enter the file name and extension. You 
have time to switch disks if your text file is 
on a different one. After the text file is 
loaded you return to the command mode. 

Write, similar to Save, puts the present 
text file onto your disk. You will be directed 
to enter the file name and extension. You 



70 A = ASC(A$) - 64:IFA<0ONAGOTO90,480,510,760,790,1220,1990,1320,1350, 
1 390, 1 51 0, 1 520, 1 580,80,80, 1 640,80, 1 750, 1 770,80,80, 1 830,2080, 1 970 

1330 PRINT "A ADD", "B BLANK", "C COMPILE", "D DELETE", "E EDIT", 
"F FORMAT", "G GET", "H HELP", "I INSERT", "J JUSTIFY", "K KILL", 
"L LOAD", "M MOVE", "P PRINT", "R REPLACE", "S SAVE", "V VIDEO", 
"W WRITE", "X EXIT" 

Figure 1 



have time to switch disks if you want to 
save the text file on a disk other than the 
one you have loaded. After the text file is 
written to disk you return to the command 
mode. 

If you have converted SCELBI Publica- 
tions' Personal Information Management 
System to use disk files (80 Micro, February 
1980, page 80, "Floppy PIMS," by Morris Her- 
man), Notice enables you to produce form let- 
ters. Enter the file name and extension of your 
label file. You have time to switch disks if your 
PIMS file is located on a different disk. As 
the computer reads each label record, the 
inside address and greeting are printed. A 
call to the Print routine prints the letter in the 
text buffer. The next label record is read and 
the process repeats until a form letter is pro- 
duced for each label record on the PIMS file. 
After all letters are printed, you will return to 
the command mode. 

Expanded Print Command 

When a text file contains more than 125 
lines of text response time slows to an in- 
tolerable rate. If you need more lines for 
your manuscript write the current text file to 
disk and start a new one keeping the format 
parameters constant. Repeat this pro- 
cedure until your manuscript is finished. 



MT$ Multiple text file indicator (Y/N). 

NA$ Disk text file name and extension. 

SS$ Single-sheet forms feed indicator (Y/N). 

AP Number of lines already printed. 

EF End of PIMS file indicator. 

EP End of page. 

G Physical number of lines per page. 

PR PIMS record number. 

TL Current text line number for Print command. 



Table 1. New Program Variables 



200 • 80 Micro, January 1983 



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fnlltncr inminjiun 8o*a a , M tauCilKKUl l«liA| Stunt 

Hul l u nowm i higpMi ol wooucn lo ir* I IS 

■■J5* Its .rs.OJ.iii *W W« i » I A^j 

■■■■ Pricw Slightly Hlglwr Outsidt U.S. i»» ' 



J 



When you are ready to print the entire man- 
uscript, Get the first text file and request 
the Print command. 

The computer will display MULTIPLE 
TEXT Fl LES(Y/N)?; enter Y. After the file cur- 
rently in memory finishes printing enter the 



Structure Definition 


Example 


1 : NAME.A 




Mr. John Q. Doe 


2: ADD1.A 




123 House Lane 


3 : ADD2.A 




Somewhere, ST 99999 


4 : ADD3.A 






5 : ADD4.A 






6 : DEAR.A 




John 


7 : S0RT.A 




Doe, JQ 




Figure 2 



file name and extension of the next text file. 
You have time to switch disks if your next 
file is on a different one. When you are 
ready to continue, press Enter and the pro- 
cedure will repeat. After the last text file, 
enter End in response to the file name 
prompt to return to the command mode. 

In addition to linked text files, the Print 
command automatically skips to the begin- 
ning of the next page after printing the 
specified number of lines per page at an 
end-of-page character (ASCI1 17). Line 1740 
uses the LPRINT " " statement for automa- 
tic paging. Paging is dependent on your 
response to the page size parameter. The 
default value is 66, the number of lines on a 
page of 9 1/2 by 11 fan-fold paper. 

Finally, the Print command permits print- 



Program Listing 1 

]]§e§§5 CMD"T" ■ DISABLE TIMER FOR CASETTE I/O 

10 CLS:PRINTTAB( 20) "BASIC WORD PROCESSOR" 

20 ' (C) BY D.D.HINRICHS 1979 

30 DEFINTA-ZxCLEAR10000:NL=200:DIMA${NL) ,X$(3) ,S(20) ,T(20) 

40 B$=CHR$(30) :C$=CHR$(143) :P$="### ":N$="Y":PN$="N" :P1$="Y":SS$ 

="N":G=66 

50 S$=" ":H$=S$:LA=-l:P=l:FP=l:PL=15:LL=60:LM=10:U=32:OUT254,i 

60 L=LA:IT=0:R=0:A$="":PRINT:INPUT"COMMAND";A$:IFA$=""GOTO80 

70 A=ASC(A$) -64: IFA>0ONAGOTO90 , 480 ,510, 760 ,790, 1220, 1990, 1320 ,13 

50,1390,1510,1520,1580,2190,80,1640,80,1750,1770,80,80,1830,2080 

,1970 

80 PRINT"** ENTRY ERROR **":GOTO60 

90 CLS:D=0:N$="Y":IFLA<0THENL=0:GOTO130 • ADD 

100 IFNL=LA+1THEN210ELSEIFL>FL+12THENB=L-12ELSEB=FL 

110 FORI=BTOL:X=LEN(A$(I) ) :D=D+INT( (X+4)/64-.01) 

120 GOSUB1910:NEXTI:L=L+1 

130 C=(L-FL+D)*64:IFC>896PRINT:PRINT:C=896 

140 PRINT@C,USINGF$;L;:PRINTAS(L);:P=LEN(A$(L))+l:C=C+P+3:K=L-rl 

150 PRINT@C,C$;:A$=INKEY$:PRINT@C,S$;:IFA$=""GOTO150 

160 GOSUB290:ONA-7GOTO360,410,310 

170 IFA=13THENA$=S$:GOTO210ELSEIFA=24THEN380ELSEIFA=31GOTO460 

180 IFA=25THEN430ELSEIFA=26THEN330 

190 IFA=96IFLA<LTHENLA=L:GOTO60ELSE60 

200 PRINT@C,A$;:A$(L)=A$(L)+AS:IFP<=LLTHENP=P+1:C=C+1:GOTO150 

210 IFRGOTO60ELSEIFNL<=KPRINT:PRINT"FILE FULL" :LA=NL-1:GOTO60 

220 IFLEN(A$(K) )THENL=K:GOSUB1360 

230 IFK>LATHENLA=K 

240 IFA$=S$GOTO280 

250 F0RM=LL+1T02STEP-1:A$=MID$(A$(L) ,M,1) : IFA$OS$NEXTM:GOTO280 

260 A$(K)=RIGHT$(A$(L) ,LL-M+1) : A$(L) =LEFT$(A$ (L) ,M-1) 

270 PRINT@C-LL+M-1,B$;:L=K:GOTO130 

280 A$(L)=LEFT$(A$(L) ,LL) :L=K:GOTO130 

290 A=ASC(A$) :IFA>64ANDA<91THENA=A+UELSEIFA>96ANDA<123THENA=A-U 

300 A$=CHR$( A): RETURN 

310 IFP>LLGOTO210 » D 

320 PRINT@C,CHR?(92);:A$(L)=A$(L)+CHR$(17) :A$=S$:GOTO210 

330 IFP>LLGOTO210 ' S-D 

340 C=(L-FL+D)*64+4:IFO900THENC=900 

350 GOSUB1180:P=1:A$=S$:GOTO210 

360 IFP=1GOTO150 • L 

370 C=C-1:PRINT§C,B$;:P=P-1:A$(L)=LEFT$(A$(L) ,P-1) :GOTO150 

380 IFP=1GOTO150 ' S-L 

390 A$(L)="":P=1:C=(L-FL+D)*64+4:IFC>900THENC=900 

400 PRINT§C,B$;:GOTO150 

410 IFP>LL-6GOTO150 ' R 

420 A$(L)=A$(L)+STRING$(5,S$) :C=C+5:P=P+5:GOTO150 

430 IFP>LLGOTO210 ' S-R 

440 C=(L-FL+D)*64+4:IFO900THENC=900 

450 GOSUB1200:P=1:A$=S$:GOTO210 

460 IFP>LLGOTO210 • CL 

470 PRINT@C,CHR$(93) ; :A$(L) =A$(L) +CHR$(20) :A$=S$:GOTO210 

480 CLS: PRINT "DELETING BLANK LINES" :FORJ=LATO0STEP-1 • BLANK 

490 IFA$(J)=""F0RI=JT0LA:A$(I)=A$(I+1) :NEXTI:A$(LA) -"■ :LA=LA-1 

500 NEXTJ:IFRTHENRETURNELSE1830 

510 INPUT"FIRST LINE TO COMPILE" ;F:IFF<0THENF=0 ' COMPILE 

520 INPUT"LAST LINE TO COMPILE"; Z :IFZ>LATHENZ=LA 

530 IFF>=ZTHEN80ELSECLS:PRINT"COMPILING":FORL=FTOZ-1:K=L+1 

540 X=LEN(A$(L)) :X$="":IFX<2THEN620ELSEIFX<=LLGOTO600 

550 F0RI=XT01STEP-1:A$=MID$(A$(L) ,1,1) 

560 IFA$<>SSTHENX$=A$+X$:NEXTI:GOTO600ELSEIFX$=""NEXTI 

Listing 1 continues 




Save more money (and data) with our hard disk drive 

Introducing the new, low-priced Winchester hard disk drive 
from A.M. Electronics. Designed to put the power of hard 
disk data storage within reach of more system owners than 
ever before. 

More megabytes per buck 

Our drive features an unformatted data capacity of 6.7 
megabytes, with an average access time of 75 milliseconds. 
Up to four drives can be daisy-chain connected for even 
greater capacity. 

Ready to run with TRS-80 

Each drive comes complete with controller board, ST-506 
interface, and a DOS Plus 4.0i for complete plug compati- 
bility with your TRS-80 system. 

Quality you can count on 

Manufactured from the finest components, the A.M. 
Electronics hard disk drive has an expected life rating of 
five years when used 50% of the time. 

Power consumption is unusually low: typically one amp 
less than other Winchester systems. 

™TRS-60 is a trademark of Tandy Corp. 



The disk and read/write heads are fully enclosed in a 
module using an integral air recirculation system with an 
absolute filter. You can depend on stable operation and high 
reliability in any office environment. 

Think of the possibilities 

Word processing, large mailing lists, database management, 
financial planning and forecasting . . . demanding applica- 
tions like these and many more are now possible — and 
affordable — with the new A.M. Electronics hard disk drive. 

For more information, or to find the location of your 
nearest dealer, please contact: A.M. Electronics, Inc., 3446 
Washtenaw Ave., Ann Arbor, Ml 48104, 313/973-2075, 
Telex: 220821 HPC. In Europe, contact A.M. Electronics, 
Ltd., 10 Barley Mow, Barley Mow Passage, Chiswick, 
London W4 4PH, England, Tel. (01)994-6477, Telex: 
8811418. 

F01A.M. ELECTRONICS 

f m M I THE POWER BEHIND THE DRIVES™ 



^38 



^= 




Volume 1 No. 1 



SPECIAL EDITION *** December 1 , 1 982 




You'll think you've made the 
DOS strike of the decade 
when you turn your micro 
on to LDOS. You'll find a 
bonanza of features like 
full keyboard type-ahead; 
a true background spooler; 
file backup by date, class, 
and between different drive 
types; hard disk support; 
data transportability 
between Model I and III; 
and a complete communi- 
cations utility including 
disk file send and receive. 
Support for Radio Shack's 
Doubler and selected 
others is also provided. 

With our Job Control Lang- 
uage, you get true "hands 
off' running of your appli- 
cation programs — give a 
single command and then 
walk away. The 400 page 
manual includes examples 
of all commands and utili- 
ties. The Operator's Guide 
gives you step by step 
instructions on how to use 
LDOS with your applica- 
tions. Stop running with 
only "half a computer! Let 
LDOS provide the missing 
features to speed up and 
simplify your TRS-80 com- 
puter system! Visit a dealer 
or contact LSI for more 
information on the most 
popular sophisticated 
operating system for your 
TRS-80. 

LDOS is available world- 
wide through thousands of 
dealers for just $129. 



The BASIC Answer 



The BASIC Answer is a 
BASIC text processing util- 
ity. It is designed to allow 
the BASIC programmer to 
build code in a structured 
manner. "Source" code is 
written with a word proces- 
sor or text editor which 
allows the user to exploit 
the powerful editing and 
movement features charac- 
teristic to those types of 
editors. Source code can 
even be created by your 
own BASIC interpreter. 
The BASIC Answer is then 
used to process these files 
into normal interpretive 
BASIC code. 



Free Yourself from 
Line Numbers 

The BASIC Answer allows 
substitution of labels for 
line numbers! This means 
that your BASIC code now 
can read like a novel. 
Instead of the typically 
undescriptive "GOSUB 
1000", a label such as 
"GOSUB @Search.Name" 
is used. Imagine yourself 
reading code filled with 
such descriptive branches 
and understanding it at a 
glance, even years later. 
This feature even allows 
totally relocatable BASIC 
routines without the renum- 
bering problems. 



TRS-80 is a trademark of Tandy 
Corporation. LDOS is available for 
the TRS-80 Model-I and Model-Ill. 
Prices and specifications subject to 
change without notice. LDOS and 
The BASIC ANSWER are products of 
Logical Systems, Inc. 



0RLP!«2T0HA!PR I N!<a32, "primes foun 
FHA!/LP! = INT(HA!/LP!)THENG0T048"C. 
EXTlP!:IFVAL(FAS)=LO!THENFAS»"* Pr 
R!(C0X)=L0! on this scan"USlNG"«». 
RS(COX>»FASLEN(FAS)-l)FORLO!=ST!Ti 
0X=C0X:PSX=PSX»1ELSEFAS=LEFTS(FAS, 
rjRLP!=0TO10PRINT@0,"factorinq "US 
RINI06«J*LP!'192.PR!(lOX).PRSIlOX): 
0X=L0X- INPUT "ORIGIN OF SCAN"; INS0; 
FL0X»-llFVAL(IN$)-2THENllNG"«»f,#« 
EXTLP! ST! = !NMVAUINS))#»";PSX;R 
0X=C0X» INPUT" END OF SCAN"; INS C 
FCOX* HEN! = INT (VAl ( INS) ) IHPR ! ( 10 ) , 
FHA ! /LP ! - INK HA ! /IP ! ) THE NG0T048 "O 
EXTLP !:IFVAL(FAS) = LO!THENFAS'"* Pr 
R!(C0X)-L0! on this scan"USING"»», 
RS(C0X) = FAS LEH< FAS1-1 1.F0RL0! =ST ! T 
OX=COX:PbX=PSX«lELSEFAS=LEFTS<rAS 
ORL'P!«0TO10 PR INT«0, "factor mq "US 
RINT»64"lP!»192.PR!<LOX).PRSaOX>: 
0X=L0X-INPUT"0RIGIN Of SCAN"; INS0 
FlOX*-l!FVAL(INS)--2THLNUNG"»#».« 
EXTLP! ST!=1NT(VAL(INS))»#":PSX;R 
0X=C0X»INPUT" END OF SCAN";INS( 
0RLP!=2T0HA!PRINT932, "primes foun< 
FHA!/LP! = INT(HA!/LP!)THENG0T048"Ci 



A New Concept in 
Variable Usage 

The BASIC Answer allows 
variable names to be as 
long as 1 4 characters and 
ALL 14 are significant. 
Imagine reading: 

"IF ACCNT.OVERDUE #> 

THEN GOSUB 

©PRINT.DUN" 

rather than 

"IFAO#>0THEN 
GOSUB52130" 

Which would you rather 
read? It also introduces 
to BASIC the concept of 
Global and Local variables. 
This feature circumvents 
the tedious problem of var- 
iable tracking because a 
Local variable is only viable 
in its own subroutine! 



NOW AVAILABLE 

LDOS 5.1 Quick 

Reference Card 

$5.95. 



End the Multiple 
Machine Hassle 

The BASIC Answer intro- 
duces the concept of 
"Conditional Translation." 

This feature allows the 
programmer to place differ- 
ent "machine dependent" 
code simultaneously into 
the same Source Code. 
The BASIC Answer can 
be "switched" when pro- 
cessing to ignore the 
unwanted or include extra 
code! No more multiple 
master programs to con- 
fuse maintenance. All the 
masters could now be 
rolled into the same pro- 
gram. Modify the one 
master and you've modi- 
fied them all. Process the 
same code with different 
switches set, and get two 
or more versions from the 
same source. 

The BASIC Answer com- 
bines the self-documenting 
power of COBOL with the 
relative ease of BASIC 
together with the power of 
a word processor. 

The BASIC Answer is 
available for just $69.00. 



LOGICAL 
'SYSTEMS 
flNC. 

00£=7>c= 

1 1520 N. Port Washington Rd. 

Mequon, Wl 53092 

(414)241-3066 

^251 



204 • 80 Micro, January 1983 



630 
640 

650 



840 

850 



880 
890 
900 



Listing 1 continued 

570 A-ASC(RIGHT$(X$,1)) :IFA-330RA«460RA«580RA=63THENX$»X$+" " 

580 A$(L)=LEFT$(A$(L) ,1-1) :IFLEN(A$(K) ) -0THENA$(K) «X$:GOTO540 

590 A$(K)-X$+S$+A$(K) :GOTO540 

600 X«LEN(A$(L)) :IFX<2THEN620ELSEFORI«XTO2STEP-1 

610 IFRIGHT$(A$(L) , 1) =S$THENA$(L) »LEFT$(A$(L) ,1-1) iNEXTI 

620 NEXTL:F0RL-FT0Z-1:K«L+1 

X-LEN(A$(L)) :Y«LEN(A$(K)) :X$-"" :IFX-0ORY-0GOTO750 

A«ASC(RIGHT$(A$(L) ,1) ) 

IFA»330RA=460RA-580RA=63THENA$(L)-A$(L)+" "iX=X+2 
660 F0RI=1T0Y:A$«MID$(A$(K) ,1,1) 
670 IFA$OS$THENX$-X$+A$:NEXTIELSEIFX$«" "NEXTI 
680 IFLL-X<IGOTO710 
690 Y=Y-IiIFY<0THENY»0 

700 A$(L)«A$(L)+S$+X$:A$(K)-RIGHT$(A$(K) ,Y) :GOTO630 
710 X-LEN(A$(L) ) :IFX<2THEN730ELSEFORI=XTO2STEP-1 
720 IFRIGHT$(A$(L) ,1) =S$THENA$(L) -LEFT$(A$(L) ,1-1) :NEXTI 
730 IFY<2THEN750ELSEFORI»YTO2STEP-1 

740 IFLEFT$(A$(K) ,1) «S$THENA$(K) -RIGHT$(A$(K) ,1-1) :NEXTI 
750 NEXTL:X-LEN(A$(Z)) :GOTO900 

760 INPUT"FIRST LINE TO DELETE";F:IFF<0THENF=0 • DELETE 
770 INPUT" LAST LINE TO DELETE"; Z:IFZ>LATHENZ«LA 
780 IFF>ZTHEN80ELSEFORI«FTOZ:A$(I)-"":NEXTI:GOTO1830 
790 INPUT"EDIT LINE";L: IFL<0ORL>LAORA$(L) =""GOTO80 » EDIT 
800 C=4:P«1:X$(0)»A$(L) «N$«"Y" 
810 CLS:I»LiGOSUB1910:N-l:Q$-"" 

820 GOSUB910»IFA>47ANDA<58THENQ$=Q$+A$:N=VAL(Q$) :GOTO820 
830 M-0 : IFA=8THENY=-1 »GOSUB940ELSEIFA=9ORA=UTHENY«=1 :GOSUB940 

IFA-97THENA$(L)«X$(0) :GOTO800 ' A 

IFLEN(A$(L) ) >»LLGOTO870 
860 IFA«25GOSUB1200ELSEIFA=26GOSUB1180 
870 IFA>98ONA-98GOSUB960 ,1000 ,1960 ,1960 ,1960 ,1020 ,103 

IFA=115GOSUB1120ELSEIFA=120GOSUB1170ELSEIFA=108GOTO800 

IFM»1THENN-1»Q$-"":GOTO820ELSEIFRPRINT@320,;ELSE810 

IFLL<XPRINT"LINE";L; "HAS" ;X; "CHARACTERS" :GOTO60ELSE60 
910 X$-MID$(A$(L) ,P,1) 

920 PRINTgC,C$;iA$-INKEY$:PRINT@C,X$;:IFA$=""GOTO920 
930 GOSUB290:X-LEN(A$(L) ) :IFA=130RA=96THENR=ltRETURNELSERETURN 
940 M-l : FORI-1TON t P-P+Y : IFP>XTHENP=X : RETURN 
950 IFP<1THENP=1 1 RETURNELSEC-C+Y i NEXTI : RETURN 

960 Q=P:D-CtFORI»lTON:GOSUB910:IFRORA«27THENP=Q:C=D:RETURN • C 
970 PRINT§C,A$; tGOSUB1100:P=P+l:GOSUB1110:A$(L) =L$+A$+R$ 
980 A«U:C»C+1:IFP<-XNEXTI 
990 P«Q:C-D: RETURN 
1000 IFP+N-1>XTHENN»X-P+1 » D 

1010 GOSUB1100:Q-P:P-P+N:GOSUB1110:A${L)=L$+R$:P=Q:RETURN 
1020 GOSUB1100:A$(L)-L$+S$:PRINT@C,B$ • H 
1030 GOSUB910:IFRORA=27RETURN • I 
1040 IFA-10THENA$(L)-A$(L)+CHR$(17) sR-ls RETURN 
1050 IFA-31THENA$(L)«A$(L)+CHR$(20) :R-1: RETURN 
1060 PRINTeC,A$; »IFA=8THENY«-ltGOSUB940 JGOTO1030 
1070 IFA»9THENY=1 JGOSUB940 :GOTO1030ELSEIFP>XTHENX=P 
1080 GOSUBll00»GOSUBlll0:A$(L)-L$+A$+R$jPRINT8C,B$;A$+R$ 
1090 C»C+1:P»P+1:GOTO1030 

1100 L$-""»IFP<2RETURNELSEL$=LEFT$(A$(L) ,P-1) jRETURN 
1110 R$-"":IFP>XRETURNELSER$»RIGHT$(A$(L) ,X-P+1) jRETURN 
1120 GOSUB910:Q-P:D»C • S 
1130 FORI-1TON i F-0 : FORJ-Q+1TOX : D-D+l 
1140 IFMID$(A$(L) ,J,1)=A$THENF=1:Q=J:J=X 
1150 NEXTJ: NEXTI jIFFTHENP-QjC-D 
1160 A-U j RETURN 

1170 A$(L)-A$(L)+S$:P=X+1:C»P+3:GOTO1030 ' X 
1180 A$(L)-STRING$((LL-LEN(A$(L)))/2,32)+A$(L)+CHR$(20) 
1190 PRINT§C,B$;A$(L) ;CHR$(93) ; iRETURN 
1200 A$(L)»STRING$(LL-LEN(A$(L)) ,32)+A$(L) ' 
1210 PRINTgC,B$;A$(L);:RETURN 
1220 CLS:PRINT"LINE LENGTH =";LL, :INPUT"NEW 
1230 PRINTLINE SPACES »";S, :INPUT"NEW »";S 
1240 PRINT"LINE NOS. ■ '";N$;" ' ", :INPUT"NEW (Y/N)"»N$ 
1250 PRINT "FIRST LINE » "|FL, »INPUT"NEW »"|FL 
1260 PRINT'LEFT MARGIN »";LM, «INPUT"NEW »";LM 
1270 PRINT"PAGE LENGTH »"|PL, :INPUT"NEW »";PL 
1280 PRINT"PAGE NOS. « ' ";PN$»" '", tINPUT"NEW (Y/N)";PN$ 
1290 PRINT"FIRST PAGE - ";FP, :INPUT"NEW »">FP 
1300 PRINT'PAGE 1 NO. =* ' ";P1$; " ' " , :INPUT"NEW (Y/N)";P1$ 
1310 PRINT"HEADING - '"^i"' ",:INPUT"NEW =";H$ 
1315 PRINT'SINGLE SHEET FEED ■ , ";SS$|"' " , :INPUT"NEW=";SS$ 
1317 PRINT"PAGE SIZE ■ ";G;" ",:INPUT"NEW «";G:GOTO60 
1320 CLS: PRINT "LEGAL COMMANDS ARE:" ■ HELP 

1330 PRINT"A ADD","B BLANK", "C COMPILE", "D DELETE", "E EDIT" 

,"F FORMAT", "G GET","H HELP", "I INSERT", "J JUSTIFY", "K 

KILL","L LOAD","M MOVE","N NOTICE", "P PRINT", "R REPLACE", 

"S SAVE","V VIDEO", "W WRITE", "X EXIT" 

1340 PRINT"KEY 'SHIFT-@» TWICE TO RETURN FROM A,E,I,R TO COMMAND 

MODE"«GOTO60 
1350 INPUT"INSERT AT LINE";LsIFL<0ORL>LAGOTO80 ■ INSERT 
1360 IFNL»LA+1PRINT"FILE FULL" jGOTO60ELSEIFRGOTO60 
1370 FORI«LATOLSTEP-l:A$(I+l)=A$(I) jNEXTI 
1380 A$(L)»"":LA=LA+1:L=L-1:IFITRETURNELSEIT«1:GOTO90 

Listing 1 continues 



S-D 



S-R 



= ";LL ' FORMAT 



ing single sheets of typing paper or letter- 
heads. When the Print command encoun- 
ters an end-of-page you can remove the 
sheet just printed, load and align the next 
sheet, and hit Enter to continue printing. 

Disk Storage 

Disk Storage of text files brings speed 
and reliability to your word processing ac- 
tivities. To install the disk storage changes, 
alter lines 70 and 1330 as in Fig. 1. 

Add line 5, lines 1990-2180, and change 
line 1780 (see Program Listing 1). 

Load each of your cassette text files and 
write them to disk. If you also wish to keep a 
copy on tape, resave each file at this time. 

Change line 30 and line 1530 as shown in 
Program Listing 1. 

Notice Command 

The Notice command enables you to 
send short form letters to any list for which 
you have PIMS records for printing labels. 
To install the Notice changes alter line 70 
and line 1330, and add lines 2190-2370 as 
shown in Program Listing 1. 

Follow the instructions for installing the 
Expanded Print command (see below). The 
form letter (Notice) command depends on 
these changes. 

Create a PIMS file with the structure defi- 
nition in Fig. 2. 

Notice requires the first five fields of a 
PIMS record for the name and address. Any 
blank lines will not be printed. The sixth 
field contains the name to appear in the 
greeting. The seventh field is optional, and 
only suggested if you wish to produce 
sorted label files from PIMS. The inside ad- 
dress produced from the label record above 
is as follows: 

Mr. John Q. Doe 
123 House Lane 
Somewhere, ST 99999 

Dear John: 

If you have a PIMS label file without the 
sixth field as shown, use the first line of the 
name and address in the greeting. Make the 
following change to line 2320: 

2320 J=J + (S + 1): LPRINTTAB(LM) "DEAR ";B$(l-5);":": 
IFSLPRINT STRING$(S,138) 

Expanded Print Command 

The Expanded Print command enables 
you to print form letters, multiple text files 
and single sheets of typing paper. To take 
advantage of the Expanded Print com- 
mand, change line 40, line 1310 and add 
lines 1315-1317. Replace lines 1640-1740 
with lines 1640-1748 (see Listing 1). 

For Cassette Files 

If you have more than 16K memory, but 
no disk storage capabilities, make the fol- 
lowing changes to install the Notice and Ex- 
panded Print commands. 

80 Micro, January 1983 • 205 



Listing 1 continued 

1390 CLS:PRINT"JUSTIFYING":FORL=0TOLA:X=LEN(A$(L) ) 'JUSTIFY 

1400 IFX<2GOTO1500ELSEFORI=XTO2STEP-1:A=ASC(RIGHT$ (A$(L) f l) ) 

1410 IFA=UTHENA$(L)=LEFT$(A$(L) ,1-1) :X=X-1:NEXTI 

1420 IFX>=LLORA=17ORA=20THEN1500ELSE J=0 : K=l : F0RI=1T0X 

1430 IFMID$(A$(L) , I ,1) <>S$THENK=0ELSEIFK=0THENK=1:S( J) =1 : J=J+1 

1440 NEXTI:IFJ=0GOTO1500 

1450 K=RND(J)-1:IFINT(J/2)=J/20RJ=1THENN=1ELSEN=2 

1460 F0RI=1T0LL-X:T(K)=T(K)+1:K=K+N:IFK>J-1THENK=K-J 

1470 NEXTI:FORI=J-1TO0STEP-1:A$=STRING$(T(I) ,S$) iT{I) =0 

1480 A$(L) =LEFT$(A$(L) ,S(I) ) +A$+RIGHT$ (A$(L) ,LEN(A$(L) )-S(I) ) 

1490 NEXTI 

1500 NEXTL:GOTO1830 

1510 CLS:INPUT"REALLY KILL (Y/N) " ; A$: IFA$="Y"THENRUNELSE60 'KILL 

1520 GOSUB1820:CLS:PRINT"LOADING" ' LOAD 

1530 INPUT#-1,LA,LL,S,N$,FL,LM,PL,PN$,FP,P1$,H$,SS$,G 

1540 FORI=0TOLASTEP4 

1545 INPUT#-1,X$(0) ,X$(1) ,X$(2) ,X$(3) 

1550 FORJ=0TO3:L=I+J:X=LEN(X$(J)) :A$(L) ="" :IFX<1GOTO1570 

1560 FORK=lTOX:A$(L)=A$(L)+CHR$(ASC(MID$(X$(J) ,K,1) ) -128) :NEXTK 

1570 NEXTJ: NEXTI :GOTO60 

1580 INPUT"FIRST LINE TO MOVE";F: IFF<0THENF=0 ' MOVE 

1590 INPUT"LAST LINE TO MOVE"; Z : IFZ>LATHENZ=LA 

1600 IFF>ZTHEN80ELSEINPUT"FIRST NEW LINE" ;N:FORI=FTOZ 

1610 IFLEN(A$(N) ) PRINTLINE" ;N; "NOT EMPTY" :GOTO60 

1620 A$(N)=A$(I) :A$(I)="":N=N+1:IFN>LATHENLA=N 

1630 NEXTI :GOT01 830 

1640 IFR=2THEN1647ELSEIFPEEK(14312)=>128THENINPUT"PRINTER NOT RE 

ADY. ABORT (Y/N) ";A$:IFA$="Y"THEN60ELSE1640 ' PRINT 

1645 R=1:MT$="":INPUT"MULTIPLE TEXT FILES (Y/N) ";MT$jIFMT$<>"Y"AN 

DMT$O"N"G0T01645 

1647 EP=PL*(S+1) 

1650 GOSUB480:CLS:PRINT"PRINTING" 

1660 X=FP:TL=FL:IFRO2THENAP=0 

1670 IFAPO0GOTO1700 

1680 IFPN$O"Y"0R(Pl$="N"ANDX=l)THENLPRINT" "ELSELPRINTTAB(LM) H$ 

;STRING$(LL-LEN(H$)-7," ") ; "Page";USING"###" ;X 

16 90 LPRINT" ":AP=AP+2 

1700 LPRINTTAB(LM) ; : IFN$="Y"THENLPRINTUSINGF$;TL; 

1705 LPRINTA$(TL) 

1710 IFSLPRINTSTRING$(S,138) 

1720 AP=AP+(S+1) :TL=TL+1 

Listing 1 continues 



Change line 70, line 1330, lines 2170- 
2180, lines 2195-2220 and lines 2230-2390 
as in Program Listing 2. 

Create a PIMS file as in Fig. 2. Change 
line 40, lines 1640-1748, line 1780, and lines 
1310-1317 as in Program Listing 2. 

Load and resave all of your Basic Word 
Processor cassette text files. If this step is 
omitted the modified Load command will 
not work properly. 

Change lines 1520, 1530, and 1570 of the 
Load command and add line 1525 as in Pro- 
gram Listing 2. 

To re-emphasize a point made by Mr. 
Hinrichs in his original article, "Speed is the 
most noticeable problem, but is inherent in 
Basic strings." You will find speed less of a 
problem in the Expanded Print command. 
By splitting your manuscript into smaller 
segments you are less affected by the 
pauses associated with Basic string reas- 
signment. You can still print it as one con- 
tinuous manuscript. Disk storage and re- 
trieval of text files will greatly reduce the 
time required for your word processing 
needs. 

Mr. Hinrichs warns that added program 
features will cause you to exceed 16K 
memory. My system has 32K memory; your 
system should also exceed 16K memory to 
add the above modifications. ■ 

Duane and his family have recently moved 
to Spain. Since then, he is unable to use his 
disk drive or cassette recorder because the 
power is 220V, 50 Hz. 




+JUe*&#?+ 



FRICTION FEED FOR YOUR EPSON 

MX-70-MX-80 

• MX-70 and MX-80 are Trademarks of EPSON, Inc. 



Converts your printer for friction 
feed of SINGLE SHEETS or ROLL 
PAPER. 

SIMPLE Installation (all you need 
is a screwdriver, no soldering). 

Tractor feed remains 
undisturbed. 



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(add $2.00 for shipping) 




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CALIFORNIA RESIDENT ADD 6% STATE SALES TAX 




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206 • 80 Micro, January 1983 



Listing 1 continued 

1730 IFAP<=EPANDASC(RIGHT$(A$(TL-1) ,1) ) O17G0T01744 

1740 F0RI=1T0(G-AP) :LPRINT" " :NEXT:X=X+1: AP=0 

1742 IFSS$="Y"THENINPUT"FEED NEXT SHEET, HIT ENTER" ;A$ 

1744 IFTL<=LAGOTO1670 

17 46 IFMT$="Y"GOSUB1990:IFLEFT$(NA$,3) <>"END"THENTL=FL:GOTO1670: 

ELSEMT$="N" 

1747 IFAPO0THEN1740 

17 48 IFR=2THENRETURNELSER=0:GOTO60 

1750 INPUT"REPLACE LINE" ;L: IFL<0ORL>LAGOTO80 ' REPLACE 

1760 R=1:A$(L)="":L=L-1:GOTO90 

1770 GOSUB1820:CLS:PRINT"SAVING" ' SAVE 

1780 PRINT#-1,LA,LL,S,CHR$(34)+N$+CHR$(34) ,FL,LM,PL,CHR$ (34) +PN$ 

+CHR$(34) ,FP,CHR$(34)+P1$+CHR$(34) ,CHR$ (34) +H$+CHR$ (34) ,CHR$(34) 

+SS$+CHR$(34) ,G:FORL=0TOLASTEP4 

1790 FORJ=0TO3:I=L+J:X=LEN(A$(I)) :X$ ( J) ="" :IFX<1GOTO1810 

1800 F0RK=1T0X:X$(J)=X$(J)+CHR$(ASC(MID$(A$(I) ,K,1))+128) :NEXTK 

1810 NEXTJ:PRINT#-1,X$(0) ,X$(1) ,X$(2) ,X$(3) :NEXTL:GOTO60 

1820 INPUT"READY CASSETTE, THEN PRESS ENTER" ;A$: RETURN 

1830 CLS:X=FP-1:F0RM=FLT0LASTEPPL:X=X+1 ' VIDEO 

1840 IFP1$="N"ANDX=1GOTO1860 

1850 IFPNS="Y"PRINTH$;TAB(LL-7) "Page" ;USING"###" ;X :PRINT 

1860 FORI=MTOM+PL-1:IFI>LAGOTO1890 

1870 IFSPRINTSTRING$(S-1,10) 

1880 GOSUB1910 

1890 NEXTI:A$="" :IFK=LAINPUT"PRESS ENTER" ;A$: IFA$<>""M=LA 

1900 NEXTM:L=LA:GOTO60 

1910 Y=LEN(A$(I) ) :IFYTHENA=ASC(RIGHT$(A$(I) ,1) ) ELSEA=0 

1920 IFN$="Y"PRINTUSINGF$;I; 

1930 PRINTA$(I) ; :IFA=17PRINTCHR$(92) ; 

1940 IFA=20PRINTCHR$(93) ;ELSEIFA=UPRINTCHR$(95) ; 

1950 IFN$O"Y"ORYO60PRINT 

1960 RETURN 

1970 CLS: INPUT "REALLY EXIT (Y/N) " ; A$: IFA$O"Y"GOTO60 ' EXIT 

1980 CLS:CLEAR50:OUT254,0:END 

1990 GOSUB2170:GOSUB2180:PRINT"GETTING TEXT FROM DISK" • GET 

1995 IFLEFT$(NA$,3) ="END"THENRETURN 

2000 OPEN"I",l,NA$ 

2010 INPUT#1,LA,LL,S,N$,FL,LM,PL,PN$,FP,P1$,H$,SS$,G 

2020 FORI=0TOLA 

2025 IF EOF(1)THEN2060 

2030 LINE INPUT#1,A$(I) 

Listing 1 continues 


The 

Lawyer's 

Microcomputer™ 


A Newsletter for Lawyers 
Using the TRS-80* 


• Articles for Lawyers 

I • Law Office Applications 

\ • Lawyer Information 

'• Exchange 

i • Software Reviews 

I • Hardware Reviews 

1 • Advertisements Directed 
to Lawyer Users 

[ • Technical Tips j 

• Letters and Suggestions j 

• And Much More | 

j A New Monthly Newsletter 
For Lawyers 

\ Send $28 For A 

One Year Subscription 

The Lawyer's Microcomputer™ 

Post Office Box 1046A 
Lexington, S.C. 29072 

\-_ <^191 *TM fanciy Cora 



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A new super hi-res space game. 
Wave after wave of alien attackers, 
each one a different and unique challenge 
to your skills. 
CASSETTE (16K) . . $24.95 
DISC (32K) . S29.95 




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We pay shipping on all orders in the continental U.S. and Canada. Overseas add $3.00. California residents 
please add 6% sales tax. We are always looking for quality machine language programs. Contact us for details. 



MASTER CHARGE 
OR VISA ACCEPTED 



HH 



y'See List of Advertisers on Page 435 



Micro, January 1983 • 207 



SPIKE-SPIKERS™ 

Protect-Control-Organize 

Computers & sensitive electronic equipment. 

Helps prevent software "glitches", unexplained 

memory loss, and equipment damage 

PROTECTS with transient 

absorber* dual five-stage 

filter. Absorbs power line 

transients fk filters out RFI 

"hash." 




CONTROLS with 8 individ- 
ually switched 120 vac 
grounded outlets. Main on- 
off switch, fuse* indicator 
light. 
Deluxe Power Console ORGANIZE your computer 
$79 95 * other equip, power cords. 

No more overloaded octopus 
cube taps. 
2-Socket Plug-In Models 

MINI-I 

Transient absorber only 

$34.95 
MINI-II 

Transient absorber plus 
3-stageRFI"Hash" filter 

$44.95 

4-Socket Plug-In Model with Light 

QUAD-I 

Transient absorber only 

$49.95 
QUAD-II 

Transient absorber plus 
dual 3-stage RFI "Hash" filter 





$59.95 



Electronics Co. Inc. 
Colony Drive lnd. Park 
6584 Ruch Rd., Dept. 80 
.Bethlehem, PA 18017 



Order Factory Direct 
215-865-0006 
Out of State Order Toll Free 
H^ 800-523-9685 

VISA 

^» PA Res. add 6% 
COD Add 3.00 + Shipping 
Dealers Invited 



PACKER: Machine language program that edits all or part 

01 your Basic program to run faster, save memory, or 
ease editing. The 5 options include UNPACK— unpacks 
multiple statement lines into single statements 
maintaining logic, inserts spaces and renumbers lines. 
SHORT— deletes unnecessary words, spaces, and REM 
statements. PACK— -packs lines into maximum multiple 
statement lines, including all branches. MOVE— moves 
line or blocks of lines to any new location on program. On 

2 cassettes for 16K, 32K. & 48K 

For TRS-80 Mod I or III Level II or Disk Basic . . . $29.95 
SYSTEM TAPE DUPLICATOR: Copy your SYSTEM format 
tapes. Includes verify routines. The Model III version 
allows use of both 500 and 1500 baud cassettes speeds. 

For TRS-80 Model I or III Level II $15.95 

CASSETTE LABEL MAKER: A mini word processor to print 
cassette labels on a line printer. Includes 50 peel - and - 
stick labels on tractor feed paper. 

For TR-80 Model I of III Level II & Printer $17.95 

PRINT TO LPRINT TO PRINT: Edits your Basic program in 
seconds to change all Prints to LPrints (except Print® or 
Print#) or LPrints to Prints. Save edited version. 

For TR-80 Modei I or III Level I! $12.95 

FAST SORT ROUTINES: for use with Radio Shack's 
Accounts Receivable. Inventory Control I. and Disk 
Mailing List Systems for Model I Level II Sorts in 
SECONDS! You'll be amazed at the time they can save. 
Supplied on data diskette with complete instructions. 

FAST SORT for Accounts Receivable $19.95 

FAST SORT for Inventory Control I $19.95 

FAST SORT for Disk Mailing List (specify data diskette of 

cassette for 1 drive system) $14.95 

ALL THREE ROUTINES $44.95 

Prices subject to change without notice. Call or write for a 
complete catalog. Dealer inquiries invited. VISA and 
Mastercharge accepted. Foreign order in US currency 
only Kansas residents add 3% sales tax. 
On-line catalog in Wichita FORUM-80: 316-682-2113 
Or call our 24 hour phone (316) 683-4811 or write 
COTTAGE SOFTWARE , 1R7 
614 N.HARDING ^ 
WICHITA. KANSAS 67208 
TRS-80™is a trademark of Tandy Corporation 



Listing 1 continued 

2060 NEXTI 

2070 CLOSE 1:IFRTHENRETURNELSEGOTO60 

2080 GOSUB2170:GOSUB2180:PRINT"WRITING TEXT TO DISK" ' WRITE 

2090 OPEN"0",l f NA$ 

2100 PRINT#1,LA;LL;S;CHR$(34) ;N$;CHR$(34) ;FL;LM/PL;CHR$(34) ;PN$; 

CHR$(34) ;FP;CHR$(34) ;P1$;CHR$(34) ;CHR$(34) ;H$;CHR$(34) >CHR$(34) ; 

SS$jCHR$(34) ;G 

2110 PORI=0TOLA 

2120 X=LEN(A$(I)) :IFX<1GOTO2150 

2140 PRINT#1,A$(I) 

2150 NEXTI 

2160 CLOSE 1:GOTO60 

2170 CLS: INPUT" ENTER FILE NAME ">NA$: RETURN 

2180 INPUT"READY DISK, THEN PRESS ENTER" ;A$: RETURN 

2190 IFPEEK ( 14312) =»>128THENINPUT"PRINTER NOT READY. ABORT(Y/N)"; 

A$:IFA$="Y"THEN60ELSE2190 ' NOTICE 

2195 GOSUB2170:GOSUB2180:PRINT"READING PIMS FILE" j OPEN" I" ,2,NA$ 

2200 PR=-1:EF=0 

2210 IFEFTHEN2340ELSEPR=PR+l:LINEINPUT#2 f T$ 

2220 IFE0F(2)THENEF=1 

2230 IFPRO0THEN2240ELSE2210 

2240 T1$=CHR$(126) :GOSUB2350 

2250 J=0 

2255 LPRINT" ": LPRINT" ":J=J+2 

2260 F0RI=1T05 

2270 IFLEFT$(B$(I) ,1)<>" "ANDLEFT$(B$(I) ,1) <>""THENLPRINTTAB(LH) 

B$(I) :J=J+(S+1) :IFSLPRINTSTRING$(S,138) 

2300 NEXTI 

2310 J=J+(S+1) : LPRINT" " :IFSLPRINTSTRING$(S,138) 

2320 J=J+(S+1) :LPRINTTAB(LH) "Dear " ;B$(I) ; ": " :IFSLPRINTSTRING$(S 

,138) 

2325 J=J+(S+1) : LPRINT" " :IFSLPRINTSTRING$(S,138) 

2330 AP=J:R=2:GOSUB1640:GOTO2210 

2340 CLOSE2:R=0:GOTO60 

2350 J=-l ' UNPARSE LABELS 

2360 I=INSTR(T$,T1$) :IFI=0THENRETURN 

2370 J=J+1:B$(J)=LEFT$(T$,I-1) :T$=MID$(T$,I+1) :GOTO2360 



Program Listing 2 

10 CLS :PRINTTAB( 20) "BASIC WORD PROCESSOR" 

20 ' (C) BY D.D.HINRICHS 1979 

30 DEFINTA-Z:CLEAR10000:NL=200:DIMA$(NL) ,X$(3) ,S(20) ,T(20) 

40 B$=CHR$(30) :C$=CHR$(143) :F$="### " :N$="Y" :PN$="N" :Pl$="Y":SS$ 

="N":G-66 

50 S$=" "»H$=S$:LA=-1:P=1:FP=1:PL=15:LL=«60:LM=10:U=32:OUT254,1 

60 L=LAi IT-0 :R=0 : A$="" :PRINT: INPUT"COMMAND" ; A$: IFA$=""GOTO80 

70 A=ASC(A$) -64: IFA>0ONAGOTO90 ,480 ,510,760 ,790 ,1220 ,80 ,1320 ,1350 

,1390,1510,1520,1580,2190,80,1640,80,1750,1770,80,80,1830,80,197 



80 PRINT"** ENTRY ERROR **":GOTO60 

90 CLS:D=0:N$="Y":IFLA<0THENL=0:GOTO130 * ADD 

100 IFNL»LA+1THEN210ELSEIFL>FL+12THENB=L-12ELSEB=FL 

110 FORI=BTOL»X=LEN(A$(I)) :D=D+INT((X+4)/64-.01) 

120 GOSUB1 910: NEXTI :L=L+1 

130 C=(L-FL+D)*64:IFC>896PRINT:PRINT:C=896 

140 PRINT@C,USINGF$|L;:PRINTA$(L) ; :P=LEN(A$(L) ) +1:C=C+P+3:K=L+1 

150 PRINTeC,C$; :A$=INKEY$:PRINT@C,S$; : IFA$=""GOTO150 

160 GOSUB290:ONA-7GOTO360,410,310 

170 IFA=13THENA$=S$:GOTO210ELSEIFA=24THEN380ELSEIFA=31GOTO460 

180 IFA=25THEN430ELSEIFA=26THEN330 

190 IFA=96IFLA<LTHENLA=L:GOTO60ELSE60 

200 PRINT§C,A$; : A$ (L) =A$ (L) +A$: IFP<=LLTHENP=P+1 :C=C+1 :GOTO150 

210 IFRGOTO60ELSEIFNL<=KPRINT:PRINT"FILE FULL" :LA=NL-1:GOTO60 

220 IFLEN ( A$ (K) ) THENL=K :GOSUB1360 

230 IFK>LATHENLA=K 

240 IFA$=S$GOTO280 

250 F0RM=LL+1T02STEP-1:A$=MID$(A$(L) ,M,1) :IFA$OS$NEXTM:GOTO280 

260 A$(K)=RIGHT$(A$(L) ,LL-M+1) :A$(L) =LEFT$(A$(L) ,M-1) 

270 PRINT@C-LL+M-1,B$;:L=K:GOTO130 

280 A$(L)=LEFT$(A$(L) ,LL) :L=K:GOTO130 

290 A=ASC(A$) :IFA>64ANDA<91THENA=A+UELSEIFA>96ANDA<123THENA=A-U 

300 A$=CBR$ (A) : RETURN 

310 IFP>LLGOTO210 ' D 

320 PRINT§C,CHR$(92);:A$(L)=A$(L)+CHR$(17) :A$=S$:GOTO210 

330 IFP>LLGOTO210 ' S-D 

340 C=(L-FL+D)*64+4:IFO900THENC=900 

350 GOSUB1180:P=1:A$=S$:GOTO210 

360 IFP=1GOTO150 • L 

370 C=C-1:PRINT@C,B$;:P=P-1:A$(L)=LEFT$(A$(L) ,P-1) :GOTO150 

380 IFP=1GOTO150 ' S-L 

390 A$(L)=""tP=l:C=(L-FL+D)*64+4:IFO900THENC=900 

Listing 2 continues 



208 • 80 Micro, January 1983 



TRS/CLK 

The clock that's turned on... even when you're not! 
Never again enter the time or date with the 
TRS/CLK from 

• Time/ Date always functional . . . even during power 
failures 

• 12/24 hours, minutes, seconds, day, month, year 

* Diskette software included 

* Dates disk automatically 

• Fully software controlled 

* Easy hookup— plugs into any TRS-80' computer 

• Full 2 year warranty 

* lil. listed adaptor 



Dealer inquiries invited. 
Price: with display $199.95 
without display~$"n3 
Unconditional money-back 
guarantee 

Call today 800-631=211 
for fast service. 
Or fill out the convenient 
Order Form below and ma 

• TRS-80 is a registered trademark of 
Tandy Corporation. 



f is-sa-HB 



Kessler-Ellis Products 
ny 

120 First Avenue 

Atlantic Highlands NJ 07716 




Ww^M^MM*: 



wmmmmmmmmmmmm 



M i 

□ COD 



TO ORDER: Specify model, DOS type and version. No charge for 

postage in continental U.S. 

Personal checks require two weeks clearance. 

D Please send me TRS CLK model(s) indicated. 

No. 



-168 



with display $199.95 $. 

without display $129.95 $. 
NJ and Cal. add sales tax 

Total $. 



D Check 
Card* 



□ MasterCard 



□ Visa 



. Exp. . 



Authorized Signature. 

Name 

Company 

Address 

City 

Phone 



State. 



.Zip. 



Kessler-Ellis Products Company 120 First Avenue Atlantic Highlands NJ 07716 800-631-2165 



# 



7.0M Bytes 1395.00 

Introductory 
^ Offer 



Prometheus 5 



That's Right! Now you can have over 5M bytes of 
formatted data storage by simply plugging the 
Prometheus 5 into the I/O connector on your TRS-80C S 
Model III. 

Developed by Computex in conjunction with leading 
engineers in the aerospace industry, the Prometheus 5 
offers quality and reliability using the latest advance- 
ments in technology. For example: the Winchester 
drive used in the system is from Ampex, the leader in 
Winchester hard disk drives. The Winchester controller 
provides CRC generation, error checking and code 
correction. The fully regulated power supply has 
current and overvoltage protection circuits and the line 
input power is EMI filtered with transient suppression 
circuitry added. 

The Prometheus 5 is operated by DOSPLUS 4.0, the 
leading Winchester disk operating system. 

So. if you're considering mass storage for your Model 
III. consider the Prometheus 5 for quality, compatibilty 
and reliability. 

Prometheus 10 10M Byte. . .$1595.00 

Prometheus 15 15M Byte. . .$1795.00 

Prometheus 20 20M Byte.. .$1995.00 

Call or Write for Brochure and Details 



trodu 

CompuCuard 



Introducing 



A leading computer engineer has designed a cover to 
protect the front of your TRS-80® keyboard from 
excessive use and wear. The guard fits securely to the 
keyboard without interference to keyboard input. Made 
of high quality PVC. 

CompuGuard $15.95 

V\w Basic and Assembly 
Language Courses 

Comprehensive courses on two popular programming 
languages, Basic and Z80, have been recorded for the 
self-learner. The courses were designed to help the 
newcomer, novice, or the advanced beginner on 
programming language. Actual classes were recorded 
along with student comments and questions. 

Z80 Assembly Language Course $150.00 

(includes manuals and class handouts) 

Basic Language Course $130.00 

(includes manuals and class handouts) 

CERTIFICATES OF COMPLETION AVAILABLE 
CALL OR WRITE FOR OUR FREE BROCHURE 



Model III Disk Controller Kits 

Everything you need to install disk drives in your Model 
III except the disk drives. 

•Winchester Host Adaptor Option-Gold Plated Edge 
Card Connectors»Silkscreened and Soldermasked 
PCB«Assembly and Installation Manual»Detailed Test 
and Troubleshooting lnstructions»Switching Power 
Supply»Mounting BracketsHnterface Cables* 
Disk Controller Kits $279.95 



5-25-inch Floppy Disk Drives 

Tandon's TM-100 family 
of mini-floppies offer the 
absolute highest storage 
capabilities of any 5.25 
inch high-speed, random 
access disk drive. Avail- 
ble in two double head 
and two single head mo- 
dels, all double density, 
with the capability to 
provides up to 720K bytes 
of formatted storage- 



TM100-1 $219.95 TM100-3 $299.95 

(single sided 40 track) (single sided 80 track) 

TM100-2 $299.95 TM100-4 S399.95 

(double sided 40 track) (double sided 80 track) 

Power Supply and Case $49.95 

NOTE: May Require Special Interface - Please Ask 




Our qualified technicians are availble for technical 
questions at (713) 488-8022 Monday thru Friday from 
4:00 to 5:00 PM CST. 




OMPL/TEX 



A subsidiary ol Worldwide Data Systems. Inc. 



17321 El Camino Real 

Houston, Texas 77058 

(713)488-8022 

VISA, MASTERCARD AND AMERICAN EXPRESS 
NET 30 TERMS AVAILABLE 

• Prices are subject to change without notice* 

• Prices do not include shipping* 

• Dealer inquiries invited* 



210 • 80 Micro, January 1983 



Customized TRS-80 Model Ill's 
Dual Drive 48K $1795. 




•Your Choice of Green or Amber Anti-Glare Display* 

•DOSPLUS 3.4- 

•Winchester Expansion Capabilities* 

•Tandon Disk Drives* 

• Floppy Controller with P.L.L. Data Separation* 



A Computex customized system starts out as a basic Model 
III with 16K RAM, modified to 48K RAM capacity. Add to 
this our Model III drive controller with the Winchester 
expansion option and the disk drive of your choice, a Tandon 
or an MPI flexible disk drive. The system is then tested for 48 
hours to assure you of peak performance when it arrives. All 
customized Model III systems from Computex now include at 
no extra charge DOSPLUS 3.4. 



TRS-80® Model III Drive Kits 




The Computex Model III disk drive kits include the 
Computex drive controller with the capabilities of 
Winchester drive expansion. Virtually everything you 
will need to install disk drives in your Model III is 
included. We even include one of the most popular disk 
operating systems available, DOSPLUS 3.4. 



M3DK-0 $495.00 

Drive Kit with 1 Single Sided 40 Track Drive 
M3DK-1 $699.00 

Drive Kit with 2 Single Sided 40 Track Drives 
M3DK-2 $995.00 

Drive Kit with 2 Double Sided 40 Track Drives 




Model III Internal 
Communications Board 

The M3CB1 communications board comes complete with 
RS232 and a direct connect modem. The kit can be supplied 
in either total kit form or as a partially assembled unit. The 
partially assembled unit only requires installation of the 
integrated circuits. All other components have been installed 
and tested. The M3CB1 mounts in the same location as the 
Radio Shack RS232 board and installs easily in less than one 
hour. 

FEATURES 

•300 to 9600 Baud RS232* 

•300 Baud Full Duplex Operation" 

•Uses FSK Modulation Techniques* 

Supports Originate or Answer Modes* 

•Will Operate DTE or DCE Equipment* 

M3CB1-1 ... P.C.B. and Manual $34.95 

M3CB1-2... Assembled and Tested RS232 $69.95 

M3CB1-3... Complete Kit with RS232and Modem . . $129.95 
M3CB1-4 ... Partially Assembled Kit $169.95 



Micro-Design 
Interface Expansion Boards 

Specials 
MDX-3 For Your Model III 



• Floppy Disk Controller • Phone Modem • 
• RS232 Port • Silkscreened and Soldermasked PCB • 

Complete Kit S219.95 

• Printed Circuit Board $74.95 

• Disk Controller Kit $89.95 

• Serial Interface Kit $79.95 

• Phone Modem Kit $39.95 



MDX-2 For Your Model I 

Complete Kit S249.95 

• MDX-2 PCB $74.95 

•Onboard Direct Connect Phone Modem Kit . . . .$39.95 
•2K/4K Eprom Kit $11.95 

• RS232 mA Serial Interface $24.95 

• Real-time Clock Kit $17.95 

•32K RAM Expansion Kit (less RAM) $17.95 

•Floppy Disk Controller Kit $31 .95 

•Cassette Port $4.95 

•Analog Power Supply $29.95 

•Hardware and Socket Kit $29.95 

• Centronic Line Printer Port $11.95 



80 Micro, January 1983 • 211 



PRICE BREAKTHRU- 




IT'S A MIRACLE!! 



TRS-80 Mod 1 and III hardware 


16K RAM upgrade 


$13.50 


External Disk Drives inc 


p.s. 


& enclosure** 




40tk 1 side 


S215.00 


40tk 2 sides 


S295.00 


80tk 2 sides 


$425.00 


Signal extender cable 




for ext. drive 


$12.50 


2 drive expansion cable 




(Mod I or III) 


$20.00 


4 drive expansion cable 




(Mod I) 


$25.00 


Bare Drives — 




40tk 1 side 


$180.00 


40tk 2 sides 


$245.00 


Drive Service Manuals 


$25.00 


Single drive p.s. 




& enclosure 


$49.95 


Hard Disk (Winchester) for 


Mod 1, LNW— Includes 




DOSPLUS 4.0 




6.3 meg 


$1649.00 


9.6 meg 


$1849.00 


19 meg 


$2449.00 


2 x 6.3 meg 


$2449.00 


2 x 9.6 meg 


$2849.00 


2x19 meg 


$3949.00 


Hard Disk 6.3 + 40tk 




floppy combination 


$1995.00 


Percom Doubler— 


$149.00 


Data Separator— 


$27.00 


LNW products 




TRS-80 Mod III 




16K L III Basic 


$899.00 


16K upgrade 


$13.50 


48K— 1 disk 


$1349.00 


48K— 2 disk 


$1549.00 


2 sided disk upgrade 


$70.00 ea 


VR RS232C— upgrade 


$70.00 


Direct Connect 300 




baud modem upgrade 


$275.00 


Hard Disk for Mod III— IBM-PC 


6.3 meg 


$1599.00 


9.6 meg 


$1799.00 


19.0 meg 


$2399.00 


2x6.3 


$2399.00 


2x9.6 


$2799.00 


2 x 19.0 


$3899.00 



Coming Soon— Internal 
Hard Disk for Mod III 
Floppy Disk III kits for Mod III 
include p.s. controller & cables 

40tk— 1 side $440.00 

40tk— 2 side $510.00 

2nd— 40tk 1 side $190.00 

2nd— 40tk 2 side $250.00 



"We use VR Data hardware upgrades 


exclusively. They are 


the best 


around!. 




Printers— 




C.ltoh F-10 40CPS 




letter quality 


$1399.00 


C.ltoh F-10 55CPS 




letter quality 


$1699.00 


C.ltoh tractor for 




F10-40 


$200.00 


F10-55 


$225.00 


Ribbons for above 




printers 


$4.50 ea 


Sheet feeder 


$1300.00 


C.ltoh Pro-writer 




parallel 


$475.00 


serial 


$575.00 


Okidata 80 


$375.00 


82A 


$479.00 



83A 
Okigraph 

NEC— 7710 RS232 
55CPS 

NEC— 7730 parallel 
NEC— 7720 KSR 
Vertical Tractors 
BiDirectional Tractors 
Sheet Feeder 
Twin Feeder 
Smith Corona— TP1 pitch 
10/12 pitch— Serial/ 
parallel interface 

Super Deal 

Standard Cable 
Tabletop Printer stand— 
12" (holds up to 50 lbs.) 
Tabletop Printer stand— 
16" (holds up to 50 lbs.) 
Diskettes— 10 per box 
Verbatim— 

5'/4"SSDD 

614* DSDD 
Maxell— 5 V*" 

Elephant by Leading Edge 
Disk head cleaners — 

VRData(5V4") 

Verbatim S'/T or 8" 
5V4" plastic library case 
8" plastic library case 
Paper & Labels 
9% x 11 Fanfold— 
2700 ct. 

14'/, x 11 Fanfold— 2700 ct. 
3% x % labels— 5M 
Modems 
Hayes 

Smartmodem 

Micromodem II 

Micromodem 100 
Novation 

Auto cat 

D Cat 

Cat 

4202B— 1200 baud 

half duplex 

Apple Cat II 
Lexicon 

Lex— II 
Monitors — 

BMC 12" Mean Green 

BMC 13" Composite 

Color 

Mod I /III software* 

DOSPLUS 3.4 Mod I 
DOSPLUS 3.4 Mod III 
LDOS 5.1 Mod I, III 
Micro Term (Best yet) 
Super utility (Best yet) 



$749.00 
$65.00 

$2495.00 
$2495.00 
$2895.00 
$229.00 
$325.00 
$1175.00 
$1595.00 



$595.00 

$25.00 

$17.95 
$24.95 



$23.95 
$39.95 
$34.95 
$22.95 

$14.95 
$29.95 



$27.50 
$35.00 
$15.00 



$229.00 
$278.00 
$305.00 

$229.00 
$165.00 
$155.00 

$475.00 
$339.00 

$124.00 

$89.00 

$325.00 

$87.50 
$87.50 
$117.50 
$75.00 
$45.00 



Terms— COD or Prepaid Only 
F.O.B. Shipping Point 
(215) 461-5437 
Prices Subject to Change 
Without Notice. 

TRS-80 Trademark of Tandy Corp. 

DISK SUPPLY CO. 

Suite 439 

111 S. Olive St. 

Media, PA 19063 



FREE 

business software 
directory 

• Radio Shack's Model I, II, III. 

• Heath's MBASICand HDOS 

• CPM: Xerox, Alto... 

• IBM Personal Computer 



"IDM2 is GREAT !" 



-publisher of 80-US 



" (GL) superior to either the Osborne (SBSG & Taranto) 
or Radio Shack... MAI L-X has a greater capacity... 
more flexible than (R.S.)" 

-columnist of 80-microcomputing 

"imperceptively fast .. .(DBMS) is a good and reliable 
workhorse" -publisher of Interface Age 



Data base manager, integrated accounting package 
(AR, AP, GL & Payroll), inventory, word proces- 
sing, and mailing list. Compare and be selective ! 



a^ 



Micro Architect, Inc. 

96 Dothan St., Arlington, MA 02174 



Tried and Proven: 




THE ELECTRONIC NOTEBOOK 
PROGRAM BY KSoft 



One year old and a proven success! LOG (or the TRS-80 (R) is still the only program on 
the market that addresses one very obvious problem: Despite data-base managers, word 
processors, and a dozen brands of spreadsheets, the (act is that most of the information 
people handle on a day-to-day basis just won't fit into fields, files, and codes. 

LOG, on the other hand, is a program that thinks' like you do! LOG turns your video screen 
into a one page of a large notebook. Thumb slowly or search like lightning through your 
previous entries; modify, update, or erase as you desire with the built-in text editor. Ap- 
pend new pages with a single keystroke, up to 170 individual pages on a Model III diskette! 
Keep a separate LOG notebook on any diskette in any drive. 

Yes! LOG supports hardcopy to your lineprinter. 

Yes! All commands are single keystroke (no modes to remember). 

Yes! You can access LOG while BASIC is running. 

Yes! It really works! 

People are using LOG to store address lists, programming notes, diaries, personnel files, 
recipes, record collections, and a hundred other uses. Think up your own applications. 
You'll probably use it every day. 



Model I 
Model III 



48K 
48K 



$49.95 
S49.95 



(upper case only) 
(upper/lower case) 



Minimum system: 48K, 2 disk drives, DOS 2.3 (I) or 1.3 (III) required. Ask about other 
Operating Systems or hardware configurations. 



Write or Call for further information: 

KSoft 

318 Lakeside Drive 
Brandon, MS 39042 



(601) 992-2239 

Master Card and Visa Accepted. 
MS Residents pay 5% sales tax. 
We pay shipping and handling in USA. 



(TRS-80 is a trademark of Tandy Corporation) 



^331 



212 • 80 Micro, January 1983 



Listing 2 continued 

400 PRINT@C,B$;:GOTO150 

410 IFP>LL-6GOTO150 ' R 

420 A$(L)»A$(L)+STRING$(5,S$) :C=C+5:P=P+5:GOTO150 

430 IFP>LLGOTO210 ' S-R 

440 C=(L-FL+D)*64+4:IFO900THENC=900 

450 GOSUB1200:P=1:A$=S$:GOTO210 

460 IFP>LLGOTO210 ' CL 

470 PRINT§C,CHR$(93) ; : A$(L) =A$(L) +CHR$ (20) :A$=S$:GOTO210 

480 CLS t PRINT "DELETING BLANK LINES" :FORJ=LATO0STEP-1 ' BLANK 

490 IFA$(J)=""F0RI=JT0LAjA$(I)=A$(I+1) :NEXTI jA$(LA) ="" :LA=LA-1 

500 NEXTJtIFRTHENRETURNELSE1830 

510 INPUT"FIRST LINE TO COMPILE" ;F:IFF<0THENF=0 ' COMPILE 

520 INPUT'LAST LINE TO COMPILE" ; Z : IFZ>LATHENZ=LA 

530 IFF>-ZTHEN80ELSECLS : PRINT"COMPILING" :FORL=FTOZ-1 : K=L+1 

540 X«LEN(A$(L)) :X$="":IFX<2THEN620ELSEIFX<=LLGOTO600 

550 FORI=XT01STEP-l:A$=MID$(A$(L) ,1,1) 

560 IFA$OS$THENX$=A$+X$:NEXTI:GOTO600ELSEIFX$=""NEXTI 

570 A=ASC(RIGUT$(X$,1)) :IFA=330RA=460RA=580RA=63THENX$=X$+" " 

580 A$(L)=LEFT$(A$(L) ,1-1) : IFLEN(A$ (K) ) =0THENA$(K) =X$:GOTO540 

590 A$(K)=X$+S$+A$(K):GOTO540 

600 X=LEN(A$(L)) :IFX<2THEN620ELSEFORI=XTO2STEP-1 

610 IFRIGHT$(A$(L) ,1) =S$THENA$(L) =LEFT$ (A$(L) ,1-1) :NEXTI 

620 NEXTL:FORL=FTOZ-l:K=L+l 

630 X=LEN(A$(L)):Y=LEN(A$(K)):X$="":IFX=0ORy=0GOTO750 

640 A=ASC(RIGHT$(A$(L) ,1) ) 

650 IFA=330RA=460RA=580RA=63THENA$(L)=A$(L)+" ":X=X+2 

660 FORI=lTOY:A$=MID$(A$(K) ,1,1) 

670 IFA$OS$THENX$=X$+A$:NEXTIELSEIFX$=""NEXTI 

680 IFLL-X<IGOTO710 

690 Y=Y-I:IFY<0THENY=0 

700 A$(L)=A$(L)+S$+X$:A$(K)=RIGHT$(A$(K) ,Y) :GOTO630 

710 X=LEN(A$(L)) :IFX<2THEN730ELSEFORI=XTO2STEP-1 

720 IFRIGHT$(A$(L) ,1) =S$THENA$(L) =LEFT$(A$(L) ,1-1) :NEXTI 

730 IFY<2THEN750ELSEFORI=YTO2STEP-1 

740 IFLEFT$(A$(K) ,1) =S$THENA$(K) =RIGHT$(A$(K) ,1-1) :NEXTI 

750 NEXTL:X=LEN(A$(Z)) :GOTO900 

760 INPUT"FIRST LINE TO DELETE";F: IFF<0THENF=0 ■ DELETE 

770 INPUT"LAST LINE TO DELETE"; Z: IFZ>LATHENZ=LA 

780 IFF>ZTHEN80ELSEFORI=FTOZ:A$(I)="":NEXTI:GOTO1830 

790 INPUT"EDIT LINE";L: IFL<0ORL>LAORA$(L) =""GOTO80 » EDIT 

800 C=4:P=1:X$(0)=A$(L) :N$="Y" 

810 CLS:I=L:GOSUB1910:N=1:Q$="" 

820 GOSUB910:IFA>47ANDA<58THENQ$=Q$+A$:N=VAL(Q$) :GOTO820 

830 M=0:IFA=8THENY=-1:GOSUB940ELSEIFA=9ORA=UTHENY=1:GOSUB940 

840 IFA=97THENA$(L)=X$(0) :GOTO800 ' A 

850 IFLEN(A$(L) ) >=LLGOTO870 

860 IFA=25GOSUB1200ELSEIFA=26GOSUB1180 

870 IFA>98ONA-98GOSUB960, 1000, 1960, 1960, 1960, 1020, 1030 

880 IFA=115GOSUB1120ELSEIFA=120GOSUB1170ELSEIFA=108GOTO800 

890 IFM=1THENN=1 :Q$="" :GOTO820ELSEIFRPRINT@320 , ; ELSE810 

900 IFLL<XPRINT"LINE" ;L; "HAS" ;X; "CHARACTERS" :GOTO60ELSE60 

910 X$=MID$(A$(L) ,P,1) 

920 PRINT@C,C$;:A$=INKEY$:PRINT@C,X$;:IFA$=""GOTO920 

930 GOSUB290:X=LEN(A$(L)) : IFA=130RA=96THENR=1:RETURNELSERETURN 

940 M=l:FORI=lTON:P=P+Y:IFP>XTHENP=X: RETURN 

950 IFP<1THENP=1 : RETURNELSEC=C+Y : NEXTI : RETURN 

960 Q=P:D=C:FORI=1TON:GOSUB910:IFRORA=27THENP=Q:C=D:RETURN ' C 

970 PRINT@C,A$;:GOSUB1100:P=P+lsGOSUB1110:A$(L)=L$+A$+R$ 

980 A=U:C=C+1:IFP<=XNEXTI 

990 P=Q:C=D: RETURN 

1000 IFP+N-1>XTHENN=X-P+1 • D 

1010 GOSUB1100:Q=P:P=P+N:GOSUB1110:A$(L)=L$+R$:P=Q:RETURN 

1020 GOSUB1100:A$(L)=L$+S$:PRINT§C,B$ » H 

1030 GOSUB910:IFRORA=27RETURN ' I 

1040 IFA=10THENA$(L)=A$(L)+CHR$(17) :R=1: RETURN 

1050 IFA=31THENA$(L)=A$(L)+CHR$(20) :R«li RETURN 

1060 PRINT§C,A$;:IFA=8THENY=-1:GOSUB940:GOTO1030 

1070 IFA=9THENY=1:GOSUB940:GOTO1030ELSEIFP>XTHENX=P 

1080 GOSUB1100:GOSUB1110:A$(L)=L$+A$+R$:PRINT@C,B$;A$+R$ 

1090 C=C+1:P=P+1:GOTO1030 

1100 L$="":IFP<2RETURNELSEL$=LEFT$(A$(L) ,P-1) tRETURN 

1110 R$="":IFP>XRETURNELSER$=RIGHT$(A$(L) ,X-P+1) :RETURN 

1120 GOSUB910:Q=P:D=C ' S 

1130 FORI=lTON : F=0 : FORJ=Q+lTOX : D=D+1 

1140 IFMID$(A$(L) ,J,1)=A$THENF=1:Q=J:J=X 

1150 NEXTJ: NEXTI :IFFTHENP=Q:C=D 

1160 A=U: RETURN 

1170 A$(L)=A$(L)+S$:P=X+1:C=P+3:GOTO1030 ' X 

1180 A$(L)=STRING$((LL-LEN(A$(L)))/2,32)+A$(L)+CHR$(20) ' S-D 

1190 PRINT@C,B$;A$(L) ;CHR$(93) ; tRETURN 

1200 A$(L)=STRING$(LL-LEN(A$(L) ) ,32)+A$(L) ' S-R 

1210 PRINT@C,B$;A$(L) ;:RETURN 

1220 CLS:PRINT"LINE LENGTH =" ;LL, :INPUT"NEW =";LL ' FORMAT 

1230 PRINTLINE SPACES =" ;S, : INPUT"NEW =";S 

1240 PRINT"LINE NOS. = ' ";N$; " ■ " , : INPUT"NEW (Y/N)";N$ 

1250 PRINT"FIRST LINE = " jFL, : INPUT"NEW =";FL 

1260 PRINT"LEFT MARGIN =" ;LM, : INPUT"NEW =";LM 



Listing 2 continues 



DC/CMD 

DISK CATALOGUE 



Finally, after more than nine 
months, of development, a 
universal diskette management 
system. A software package 
designed to keep track of all of 
your diskettes and programs. 



Contains... 

• Quick sort routine for sorting by 
program name, or program ex- 
tension, or disk number, or a 
combination of inter-woven sorts. 

• 255 Disk/510side storage capac- 
ity per data file. 

• Virtually unlimited printing and 
data access parameters. 

• Pays for itself the first week. 

(TRS MODELS I & III Only) 




P & P CORPORATION 

PO Box 362 • HADDONFIELD. N.J 08033 

^.^800-257-6170 

m New Jersey 609-428-3900 



Coordinated 
Business Software 

D.B. Software Co. announces a new 
line of coordinated business software 
designed for the Model III TRS-80. 
The BASE system consists of a Gen- 
eral Ledger System with Accounts 
Receivable and Accounts Payable. 
Other modules can be purchased 
and added as needed. 

BASE System (GL-AR-AP) $200.00 

Coordinated Modules: 

Payroll $ 75.00 

Order Entry $125.00 

Inventory $129.95 

Purchase Order Entry $1 25.00 
Inventory (special for 

Auto Parts Suppliers) $1 29.95 

Also available: 

Job Costing with GL and AP 

(Payroll optional) $500.00 

Mailing Lister $100.00 

Coming soon: 

Apartment Management System, 
Fixed Assets System, Manufacturing 
Inventory Management System 
Send S.A.S.E. for more information 
D.B. Software Co. 

1 1840 NE Brazee, Portland, OR 97220 

Phone (503) 255-7735 

DEALER INQUIRIES INVITED 



TRS-80 is a trademark of Tandy Corp. 



(^410 



■'See List of Advertisers on Page 435 



80 Micro, January 1983 • 213 




First in 

Its Class 

and 

Looking 

for 

Work. 



TRS-80 Model I, II, III 

Five multiple regression procedures 
(including stepwise, backward elimination, all 
subset, and ridge), 24 transformations, com- 
prehensive data base manager (with search 
and sort), descriptive statistics, hypothesis 
testing (7 tests), time series analysis (7 
models), random variate generation, discrete 
probability distributions, sampling distribu- 
tions, nonparametrics (5 tests), and com- 
plete documentation. 

Complete package with manual — $125 

To order, send payment plus $2.00 shipping 
and handling to: 

Quant Systems 

P.O. Box 628 

Charleston, S.C. 29402 

803-571-2825 

S.C. residents add 4% sales tax 

Overseas orders add $7 for shipping 



^194 



WILD 



TRSDOS Enhancement 
Use "wild - card" 
file names with your DOS com- 
mands (APPEND, COPY, DIR, KILL, 
LIST, etc.)* Select files based 
on character strings, position, 
type, ...» Non scrolling display 
• "All except" switch* (Yes, No, 
Quit, Go) processing controls* 
Example: Delete all files except 
those with a 2nd letter of "D", 
WILD KILL -iD*:l 

Model 3 disk $25 

CCCrpTC Sound & Graphics 
[.flLl/IO Effects Editor 
Add high speed graphics & sounds 
to BASIC programs* Create/Edit 
effects & save them in RAM or on 
disk* Screen portions saved and 
recalled to any location* 3 re- 
call modes (replace, add, and 
erase)* Text & special character 
support* Sounds generated with 
cassette port* User specified 
tones and durations* Screen for- 
matted input routines provided* 
Demo programs and a two player 
game included* 8K+ machine code 
editor with 2K run time module* 
32K and 48K version on same disk 

Manual $5, with Model 3 disk $39 

Send SASE for more information 
Else check or money order to: 

^350 

Ledford Computer Services 
23007 La Pierre Drive 
Mountlake Terrace, WA 98043 
"TRSDOS is a TANDY Corp. Trademark 



Listing 2 continued 

1270 PRINT"PAGE LENGTH =" jPL, :INPUT"NEW =";PL 
1280 PRINT"PAGE NOS. = ' " ;PN$; " ' " , :INPUT"NEW (Y/N)";PN$ 
1290 PRINT"FIRST PAGE = ";FP, : INPUT"NEW =";PP 
1300 PRINT"PAGE 1 NO. = ' " ;Pl$; " ' " , : INPUT"NEW (Y/N)";Pl$ 
1310 PRINT-HEADING = '";H$;"' ",:INPUT"NEW =";H$ 
1315 PRINT "SINGLE SHEET FEED = '";SS$;"' " , : INPUT"NEW=" ;SS$ 
1317 PRINT-PAGE SIZE = ";G;" ",:INPUT"NEW =";G:GOTO60 
1320 CLS: PRINT-LEGAL COMMANDS ARE:" ' HELP 

1330 PRINT-A ADD","B BLANK", "C COMPILE", "D DELETE", "E EDIT" 
,"F FORMAT", "H HELP"," I INSERT", "J JUSTIFY", "K KILL",". 
L LOAD","M MOVE","N NOTICE", "P PRINT", "R REPLACE", "S SAVE" 
,"V VIDEO", "X EXIT" 
1340 PRINT-KEY 'SHIFT-@* TWICE TO RETURN FROM A,E,I,R TO COMMAND 

MODE":GOTO60 
1350 INPUT-INSERT AT LINE";L: IFL<0ORL>LAGOTO80 ' INSERT 
1360 IFNL=LA+1PRINT"FILE FULL" :GOTO60ELSEIFRGOTO60 
1370 FORI=LATOLSTEP-l:A$(I+l)=A$(I) :NEXTI 
1380 A$(L)="":LA=LA+1:L=L-1:IFITRETURNELSEIT=1:GOTO90 
1390 CLS : PRINT" JUSTIFYING" :FORL=0TOLA:X=LEN(A$(L) ) 'JUSTIFY 
1400 IFX<2GOTO1500ELSEFORI=XTO2STEP-1:A=ASC(RIGHT$(A$(L) ,1)) 
1410 IFA=UTHENA$(L)=LEFT$(A$(L) ,1-1) :X=X-1:NEXTI 
1420 IFX>=LLORA=17ORA=20THEN1500ELSEJ=0:K=1:FORI=1TOX 
1430 IFMID$(A$(L) ,1 ,1) <>S$THENK=0ELSEIFK=0THENK=1:S( J) =1: J=J+1 
1440 NEXTI:IFJ=0GOTO1500 

1450 K=RND ( J) -1 : IFINT ( J/2) =J/20RJ=1THENN=1ELSEN=2 
1460 FORI=lTOLL-X:T(K)=T(K)+l:K=K+N:IFK>J-lTHENK=K-J 
1470 NEXTI: FORI =J-1TO0STEP-1:A$=STRING$(T( I) ,S$) :T(I)=0 
1480 A$(L)=LEFT$(A$(L) ,S(I) ) +A$+RIGHT$(A$ (L) ,LEN(A$(L) ) -S(I) ) 
1490 NEXTI 
1500 NEXTL:GOTO1830 

1510 CLS: INPUT "REALLY KILL (Y/N) " ; A$: IFA$="Y"THENRUNELSE60 'KILL 
1520 NA$="":IFMT$="Y"THENINPUT"IF ALL TEXT FILES READ, ENTER 'EN 
D', ELSE HIT ENTER" ;NA$ ' LOAD 
1525 IFLEFT$<NA$,3)="END"THENRETURNELSEGOSUB1820:CLS:PRINT"LOADI 

NG" 

1530 INPUT#-1,LA,LL,S,N$,FL,LM,PL,PN$,FP,P1$,H$,SS$,G 

1540 FORI=0TOLASTEP4 

1545 INPUT#-1,X$(0) ,X$(1) ,X$(2) ,X$(3) 

1550 FORJ=0TO3:L=I+J:X=LEN(X$(J)) :A$(L) ="" : IFX<1GOTO1570 

1560 FORK=lTOX:A$(L)=A$(L)+CHR$(ASC(MID$(X$(J) ,K,1))-128) :NEXTK 

1570 NEXT J : NEXTI : IFRTHENRETURNELSEGOT06 

1580 INPUT"FIRST LINE TO MOVE" ;F:IFF<0THENF=0 ' MOVE 

1590 INPUT-LAST LINE TO MOVE" ; Z : IFZ>LATHENZ=LA 

1600 IFF>ZTHEN80ELSEINPUT"FIRST NEW LINE" ;N:FORI=FTOZ 

1610 IFLEN(A$(N) ) PRINTLINE" ;N; "NOT EMPTY "; GOT06 

1620 A$(N)=A$(I) :A$(I)="":N=N+1:IFN>LATHENLA=N 

1630 NEXTI :GOT01 830 

1640 IFR=2THEN1647ELSEIFPEEK(14312)=>128THENINPUT"PRINTER NOT RE 

ADY. ABORT(Y/N) ";A$:IFA$="Y"THEN60ELSE1640 * PRINT 

1645 R=1:MT$="":INPUT"MULTIPLE TEXT FILES (Y/N) ";MT$:IFMT$<>"Y"AN 

DMT$<>"N"G0TO1645 

1647 EP=PL*(S+1) 

1650 GOSUB480:CLS:PRINT"PRINTING" 

1660 X=FP:TL=FL:IFRO2THENAP=0 

1670 IFAPO0GOTO1700 

1680 IFPN$O"Y"0R(Pl$="N"ANDX=l)THENLPRINT" "ELSELPRINTTAB(LM) H$ 

;STRING$(LL-LEN(H$)-7," ") ; "Page";USING"###";X 

1690 LPRINT" ":AP=AP+2 

1700 LPRINTTAB(LM) ; : IFN$="Y"THENLPRINTUSINGF$;TL; 

1705 LPRINTAS(TL) 

1710 IFSLPRINTSTRING$(S,138) 

1720 AP=AP+(S+1) :TL=TL+1 

1730 IFAP<=EPANDASC(RIGHT$(A$(TL-1) ,1) ) O17G0T01744 

1740 FORI=lTO(G-AP) iLPRINT" " :NEXT:X=X+1:AP=0 

1742 IFSS$="Y"THENINPUT"FEED NEXT SHEET, HIT ENTER" ;A$ 

1744 IFTL<=LAGOTO1670 

1746 IFMT$="Y"THENPR=X:GOSUB1520:X=PR:IFLEFT$(NA$,3)O"END"THENT 
L=FL:GOTO1670:ELSEMT$="N" 

1747 IFAPO0THEN1740 

1748 IFR=2THENRETURNELSER=0:GOTO60 

1750 INPUT"REPLACE LINE" ;L: IFL<0ORL>LAGOTO80 ' REPLACE 

1760 R=1:A$(L)="":L=L-1:GOTO90 

1770 GOSUB1'820:CLS:PRINT"SAVING" ' SAVE 

1780 PRINT#-1,LA,LL,S,N$,FL,LM,PL,PN$,FP,P1$,H$,SS$,G:FORL=0TOLA 

STEP 4 

1790 FORJ=0TO3:I=L+J:X=LEN(A$(I)) :X$(J) ="" :IFX<1GOTO1810 

1800 FORK=lTOX:X$(J)=X$(J)+CHR$(ASC(MID$(A$(I) ,K,1))+128) tNEXTK 

1810 NEXTJ:PRINT#-1,X$(0) ,X$(1) ,X$(2) ,X$(3) :NEXTL:GOTO60 

1820 INPUT"READY CASSETTE, THEN PRESS ENTER" ;A$: RETURN 

1830 CLS:X=FP-l:FORM=FLTOLASTEPPL:X=X+l ' VIDEO 

1840 IFP1$="N"ANDX=1GOTO1860 

1850 IFPN$="Y"PRINTH$;TAB(LL-7) "Page";USING"###" ;X:PRINT 

1860 FORI=MTOM+PL-1:IFI>LAGOTO1890 

1870 IFSPRINTSTRING$(S-1,10) 

1880 GOSUB1910 

1890 NEXTI :A$="":IFK=LAINPUT"PRESS ENTER" ;A$:IFA$<>""M=LA 

1900 NEXTM:L=LA:GOTO60 

Listing 2 continues 



214 • 80 Micro, January 1983 



Listing 2 continue? 

1910 Y=LEN(A$(I)) :IFYTHENA=ASC (RIGHTS (A$( I) ,1))ELSEA=0 

1920 IFN$="Y"PRINTUSINGF$;I> 

1930 PRINTA$(I) ;:IPA=17PRINTCHR$(92) ; 

1940 IFA=20PRINTCHR$ ( 93) ; ELSEIFA=UPRINTCHR$ ( 95) ; 

1950 IFN$<>"Y"ORYO60PRINT 

1960 RETURN 

1970 CLS: INPUT "REALLY EXIT (Y/N) ";A$:IFA$O"Y"GOTO60 ' EXIT 

1980 CLS:CLEAR50:OUT254 f 0:END 

2170 CLS:INPUT"ENTER FILE NAME ";NA$: RETURN 

2180 INPUT"READY CASSETTE, HIT ENTER" ;A$: RETURN 

2190 IFPEEK ( 14312) =>128THENINPUT"PRINTER NOT READY. ABORT(Y/N)"; 

A$:IFA$="Y"THEN60ELSE2190 ' NOTICE 

2195 GOSUB2170 :GOSUB2180 : INPUT#-1 ,T$ 

2196 IFT$=NA$THEN2200 

2197 PRINT'FOUND FILE: " ;T$:INPUT"CONTINUE SEARCH (Y/N) ";T$:IFT$ 
="N"THEN60 

2198 INPUT#-l,T$:IFT$O"E0F"THEN2198ELSE2196 
2200 PR=-1 

2210 PR=PR+1:INPUT#-1,T$ 

2220 IFT$="EOF"THEN2340 

2230 IFPRO0THEN2240ELSE2210 

2240 T1$=CHR$(126) :GOSUB2350 

2250 J=0 

2255 LPRINT" ":LPRINT" ":J=J+2 

2260 F0RI=1T05 

2270 IFLEFT$(B$(I) f 1) <>" "ANDLEFT$(B$(I) , 1) <>""THENLPRINTTAB(LM) 

B$(I) :J=J+(S+1) :IFSLPRINTSTRING$(S f 138) 

2300 NEXTI 

2310 J=J+(S+1) : LPRINT" " :IFSLPRINTSTRING$(S f 138) 

2320 J=J+(S+1) :LPRINTTAB(LM) "Dear ";B$(I) ; " : " :IFSLPRINTSTRING$(S 

,138) 

2325 J=J+(S+1) : LPRINT" " : IFSLPRINTSTRING$(S,138) 

2330 AP=J:R=2:GOSUB1640:GOTO2210 

2340 R=0:GOTO60 

2350 J=-l » UNPARSE LABELS 

2360 FORI=lTOLEN(T$)-LEN(Tl$)+l 

2370 IFT1$=MID$ (T$ , I , LEN (Tl $) ) THEN23 90 

2380 NEXTI: 1=0: RETURN 

2390 J=J+1:B$(J)=LEFT$(T$,I-1) :T$=MID$ (T$,I+1) :GOTO2360 



MODEL 3* 
CHARACTERS 

for Model 1* and LNW-80** 

Kit includes character genera- 
tor with Model 3 like char- 
acters and lower case letters 
with true descenders, software 
allows access to special char- 
acters in a manner identical 
to Model 3 from BASIC. 
Two alternate character sets 
that are software selectable in 
LNW and hardware selectable 
in MODEL 1. 



KT-1 for LNW-80 69.95 

KT-1 A for Model 1 69.95 

Assembled & tested add 15.00 

RS232 Board provides switches and 
Baud Rate Generator for LNW-80 

BD-3 12.95 

Complex Sound Generator Board for 

any 80 

BD-5 15.95 



THE MAINE SOFTWARE LIBRARY 

P.O. BOX 197 

STANDISH, ME 04084 „196 



'Model I and Model 3 are products of Radio Shack 
"'LNW-80 is a product of LNW Research 




• See List ol Advertisers on Page 435 



80 Micro, January 1983 • 215 



GAME 



LOAD 80 



Breaking through brick by brick. 



Outbreak 



Tom Hanson 

2120 Birchmont Drive 

Bern id ji, MN 56601 

One of my favorite arcade 
games is Breakout. I could 
spend hours playing the game if 
I had enough money. When I got 
my micro last fall, the first thing I 
did was write my own version of 
the game. I call mine Outbreak. 
The rules of play are similar to 
the arcade game. In Outbreak, 
the paddle moves vertically on 
the left side of the screen and is 
controlled by the up and down 
arrows. The object is to knock 
out the blocks at the right side 
of the screen by hitting a ball 
with the paddle. 

The Program 

Although the program is writ- 
ten in Basic, the action is fairly 
quick. The highlight of the 
game's programming is the 
bouncing ball routine. A random 
starting point for the ball is de- 
termined in line 120. Ball speed 



The Key Box 

Basic Level II 
Model I or III 
16K RAM 
Optional amplifier 



and random direction are estab- 
lished in line 140. A loop to 
follow the ball's progress begins 
at line 170. Lines 190 and 200 
check to keep the ball in 



bounds. If the ball hits the wall it 
bounces off in an opposite di- 
rection angle and continues on 
toward the blocks. 

Line 220 checks to see if a 



block has been hit. If one has it 
executes a subroutine at line 
460. After hitting the blocks the 
ball is bounced back toward the 
paddle. If the ball is success- 



180 DEFINT A-Y:CLS:GOSUB550 

110 CLS:AS-CHRS(191) :BS»CHR$(128) 

120 X=RND(15)+10:Y«RND(10)+10:G-323:Z=G:M=1:N>=1 

130 L-15427:PO-0 

140 A-RND ( 5) -3 : B»RND ( 5) -3 : IFA-0ORB=0THEN140 

150 GOSUB410 

160 GOS=9:GOSUB500:GOS=0 

170 X-X+A:Y-Y+B 

180 GOSUB 280 

190 IF Y<3 OR Y>44 THEN B=-B:GOTO170 

200 IF X>126 THEN A=-A:GOTO 170 

210 IF X<0THEN A=-A:GOTO170 

220 IF X>15 AND POINT (X,Y)»- 1THEN 460 

230 IF X<10 AND POINT (X,Y) =-lTHENA=-A:GOTO170 

240 IF X<3 AND POINT (X,Y)<>-1THEN 350 

250 RESET(M,N) :SET(X,Y) :H-X:N»Y 

260 GOTO170 

280 R=PEEK(14420) 

290 IFR=0RETURN 

300 G=L 

310 IF R»8 THEN L=L-64:IF L<15427 L=L+64:JK=1 

320 IF R-16 L-L+64:IF L>16319 L=L-64:JK=1 

330 POKE L,191:IF JK=1THEN JK=0:RETURN 

340 POKEG,32:RETURN 

350 PO-PO+l:IF PO>5 THEN 400 

360 X=RND(10)+25:Y=RND(10)+25 

370 FOR YO=1TO1000:NEXT 

380 PRINT@251,PO+l; 

390 A»RND(2)-3:B»RND(2)-3:IFA=0ORB=0THEN390ELSE 170 

400 PRINT:PRINT" OUT OF BALLS ":END 

410 FOR 0=1 TO 14: FOR T=30 TO 50 STEP 2 

420 POKE (0*64+T) +15360, 191 :NEXT T,0 

430 FOR R=1T0127:SET(R,45) :SET(R,2) :NEXT 

440 FOR F=2 TO 45:SET(127 ,F) :NEXT 

450 RETURN 

460 A— A 

470 P=INT(X/2)+INT(Y/3)*64 

480 PRINT§P,B$> 

490 LO-LO+l 

495 IF LO=154 THENCLS: PRINT" YOU HAVE SUCCESIVLY CLEARED THE BOARD" : PRINT "C 

ONGRADULATIONS l":END 

500 PRINT@48, "BLOCKS OUT"; 

510 PRINT@187,"BALL#"; 

520 PRINT@251,PO+lj 

530 PRINT@119,LO; 

540 IF GOS-9THEN RETURN ELSE 170 

550 PRINTCHR$(23) 

560 PRINT" BREAKOUT BY TOM HANSON" 

570 FORZX-1 TO 1000: NEXT: RETURN 

580 REM TON HANSON 

590 REM 2120 BIRCHMONT DR. 

600 REM BEMIDJI MN, 56601 



Program Listing 1 



216 • 80 Micro, January 1983 



fully hit by the paddle, line 230 
reverses the ball's direction 
back toward the blocks. If you 
miss the ball, line 250 serves a 
new one. 

The status of the paddles is 
checked by lines 280-340. Lines 
350-400 count how many balls 
you have been served and loop 
back if you have more serves 
left. The playing field is drawn at 



lines 410-450, the score is kept 
by lines 460-540 and lines 540- 
570 display the title. 

To add sound to the game 
type in the lines in Program 
Listing 2. ■ 

Tom Hanson is an 11th 
grade student who enjoys com- 
puter programming, skiing and 
biking. 



105 


GOSUB 700 


190 


IF Y<3 OR Y>44 THEN 




B = - B:JJ = USR(12):GOTO 170 


200 


IFX>126THEN 




A= - A:JJ = USR(12): 




GOTO 170 


210 


IF X<0 THEN 




A= -A:JJ=USR(12): 




GOTO 170 


230 


IFX<10ANDPOINT(X.Y)= -1 




THEN A = -A: 




JJ = USR(12):GOTO 170 


480 


PRINT @P, B$;:JJ= USR(12) 


700 


Z1 = 127:POKE 16526,235: POKE 




1652721 Z = 256*Z1 + 235 


710 


READ B:IF B>0 POKE Z.B:Z = Z+ 1: 




GOTO 710 


720 


DATA 205,127,10,62.5,21 1,255,69,16, 




254,62,4.211,255,69,16.254,37,20 




239,201,-1 


730 


RETURN 


Program Listing 2. Sound Modification 




s 

1 



AT NEW PROGRAMS FROM 

ngle SOURCE Solution- 



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RIMS, a Rental Inventory Management System, is a fully automated system de- 
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daily, monthly, yearly income, expenses, cashflow, produces statements for cust- 
omers with term rentals, produces inventory labels and rolidex cards, uses a warn- 
ing horn to alert you to potential problems and much more Model III. 

■ FPSSTM FINANCIAL PACKAGE FOR SERVICE STATION ONLY S 349. 50 
FPSSTM is a complete financial and bookkeeping package for Retail Petroleum 
Service Stations. FPSS is written in Microsoft Baalc' for the TRS-80 Model III. 
FPSSTM, which includes a 90 page detailed User's Manual, offers specialized ac- 
counting modules lailormade for the retail petroleum industry FPSSTM | S menu 
driven, keeps track of each sale, purchase, charge and collection of a service stat- 
ion, with daily, weekly, monthly oi annual reports at the user's command. Inven- 
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missions to employees can be tracked . will) two commission rates setup. 

- FORMGEN™ 2.7 ONLY $249.95 



FonrjgenTM 2.7 is a sophisticated screen and form generator which in three sep- 
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menu driven inputs for standardized forms. Complicated calculations may be in- 
cluded as part of the form output, based on the input data. Screen layout, variable 
array lengths, field sizes, prompt messages, form printing positions and variables 
used may all be modified without breaking the program Users save lime and very 
little memory is used because most things are done as part of subroutines Form- 
genTM 2.7 has been used In over 100 Bela test sites in very powerful applications 
with impressive results 

CCMS ESTIMATING SYSTEM S499.95 



The CCMS Estimating System is a comprehensive construction cost estimat- 
ing system written by a contractor/progiammer for contractors CCMS "talks" the 
contractor's language with several menu driven files The key is the systems cost 
code, which references the unit pnees established earlier and organizes the estimate 
into divisions modeled aftet the uniform system adopted by the A1A. AGCA and 
CSII. Models I and II and Compiler Basic 

•TRSFLOWTM \.\ ONLY $149.50 



Looking for a Spelling Checker? 
Get more than just a spelling checker — get 

HeXSPOLL z 

the EVERYTHING checker 



ftf«: a' Lt«M V»D tftl KTUtt HORO IS) SKIF- WOK) 

10$ i„ ehuKtj niv&*t 



IMs is ar. e: a"ple of a U*~l rei«9 checked to 
HExSiEll. the te.-l scrolls •.* trie screer. is it is checked, 
iter, p, errcr is ij?tecle<5, •£>.• have three choices. 

li ftfiatt the incorrect word. Ihe replacenerit uord 
:? InSIawTlt K-CKO'EO for correctness, ther. inserted in the 
te t. 

2> the word is correct, leave it as it is. 

31 Tell rttSftll to \XU3l this mri for fotvre 
-efererce, with jWt or* »pjslrc*e. 

He^srell rewires j-.-sl or* step to cheer 3rd 
correct a te t, i"i learr, r«w m0"1s. tow dOCvMAt is ready to 
pr:r. t as soor. as te:si>ell is fir.ishe'l. ft noM that is ir, error 
e.l.|rissl*e|.is hiqhliijhteC ir, the te.;l for easy Correction, 



Hexagon Systems is proud lo announce another first In text checking - an everylhing 
checker. Hexspell 2 checks not only dictionary words, bul learns and checks codes, for- 
mulae and numbers which are so essential in many commercial and technical documents 
With Hexspell 2 you delme what characters make up a word, then leach Hexspell the new 
"words'' n needs to check your text. This advanced system builds on Ihe unique features ol 
Ihe original Hexspell (the lirsl TRS-80 spelling checker) Hexspell 2 leatures a one-step in- 
teractive process, a word list thai adapts itself to your word usage, a 25.000 word initial 
word list and more than three years ol research and experience 

Hextpell 2 upgrade for registered owners of Hexspell Vers. 1 — 

S35 Irom Hexagon Systems or your nearest dealer. 

Hexspell requires a TRS-80 Mod i or Mod in with 2 drives and 48K US $99 



L__ 



HeXAGON 



P.O. Box 397, Station A 
Vancouver, B.C. Canada V6C 2N2 
Telephone (604) 682-7646 
Mlcronet 70235,1376 

^46 



TRSFlow"" 1.1 is a hydraulic model based upon ihe popular Hardy-Cross 
method of pipe network analysis. By telling the program certain system parameters 
such as the length, diameter and type of pipes. TRSFIowTM calculates head values 
up lo 150 pope junctions and the Hows through 150 system elements. Within the 
150 system elements, TRSFIowTM can handle 10 pumps and 10 fixed head condi- 
tions. TRSFIowTM allows the system designated to accurately determine pump and 
pipe sizes in any desired network TRSFIowTM. works with level II Baalc on 
TRSDOS. 

• BUSINESS MULTI-PACK *99.95 



' 



8 



BUSINESS MULTI-PACK blends four important business functions: sales fore- 
casting (arithmetic avg. regression analysis, expotential smoothing, futures 
analysis), determines the economic order quantity. UFO or FIFO inventory 
analysis, and a cache of general business untitles. These utilities include Pricing Mer- 
chandise to achieve a desired profit margain. a perpetual calendar, future value of a 
present sum. picsenl value of a future sum. an amortization schedule Model III. 
48Kbytcs . one disk . TM 

«rr PERSONAL ACCOUNTER ' M 2.4 ONLY »59.95 

Personal Accounter 2.4 is an easy lo use program for keeping track of one 
oi mine separate accounts and enables the user lo sec the current balance, search 
for check entries by specific dates, months or year, call up total monthly expendi- 
tures, or check when a certain account was paid A printed copy of all checking ac- 
count reports may be ordered Personal AccounterTM 2.4 is very easy to use 
and comes with a reference manual 

— . BISPLAN $69.96 

BISPIanTM i S a program for making business plans and projections With 
BISPIanTM you are led through screen prompts lo enter data concerning your 
business plans You can enter estimates of a business proposal that you are consid- 
enng and produce projections of potential earnings BISPIanTM will help you 
assess financing requirements, loan payoff rates, length of lime before return on in- 
vestment, and profit potential Estimates can be projected up lo five years, and 
dumped from screen to line printer BISPIanTM is menu driven and includes a 
manual Available In 16K lot the Model I with a more extensive version in Models II 
and III 

DISMON - An Interactive Dlaaeaembler $49.95 



! 



Now you can control the entire disassembling process through DISMON. an in- 
teractive disassembler. Code resides in middle memory and can be used to disas- 
semble programs in either high or low memory Models I or III. 16Kbytes with 
cassette. 48 Kbytes with disk 

• 458 



Dear Single SOURCE Solution ■ 

Please enter my order tot the following programs ai your special lOVo discount rate ._ ,. 



through 1982 

Circle program(s) ordered: 

NAME 



ADDRESS 

CITY 

PHONE (. 



8 9 



STATE 



.ZIP. 



I 

L 



Make check or money order payable to Single SOURCE Solution 

(California residents add 6%) Postage and Handling add $2 00. C D add Si 50 

TOTAL AMOUNT ENCLOSED S 



Satisfaction Guaranteed or Your Money Back in 10 Days • Dealer Inquiries Invited 
Mail today to: Single SOURCE Solution 

2699 Clayton Rd . Concord. CA 94519 or call (4 15) 6800202 



• See List ol Advertisers on Page 435 



80 Micro, January 1983 • 217 



ANNOUNCING THE NEW 

ACCESS UNLIMITED 








FREE! DOSPLUS 3.4** 
"'' operating system 
y Percom or 
Unlimited Drive 
irthe Model III* 



SAVE $50.00 on fully-tested PERCOM Disk 

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Reg. $499.00. Now $449.00 

Percom's internal ly-mounted drives, with their widely-acclaimed disk 
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A First-Drive System includes the four-drive disk controller, your choice 
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OVER $500,000 IN NEW COMPUTERS, 
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VALUES TO $3500.00, NOW $325.00 to 
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Make sure it's done right. Let us install 
your First-Drive System. 

Purchase your Model III* Drives from us and for $39.95 plus shipping, you 
can have our experienced professionals perform a 48-hour bum-in of your 
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Get the best! Our own fully-tested drives* 
for as low as $275.00 *»«*« 

Every Access Unlimited Floppy and Flippy Disk Drive is electrically and 
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Our floppy disk drives offer you either single or double density. With 
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can use both sides of the diskette on our flippy drives. 

SATISFACTION GUARANTEED! If you're not completely 
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limited warranty. 



We have just added approximately $100,000.00 
worth of brand new business and game software. 

Call or write for our new FREE catalog. 
Save $$ on our most popular items! 

Percom Data Separator (reg. $29.95) now $23.95 
Screens for Models I", ir.lll Green, Lt. Blue, Dark blue, 

and Amber. Bronze for color video (reg. $24.95) now S13.95 

Head Cleaning Kit (reg. $29.95) " now $19.95 

Drive Numbering Tabs, pkg. 0-3 (reg. $4.50) now $3.95 

Flip-N-File 5'/." (reg. $39.95) now $18.95 

Flip-N-File 8" (reg. $54.95) now $23.95 

AFD 100-40-track single-density drives $275.00 
^W Soft Sector Diskettes W/Hub Ring 

'BASF 5 1 /4" Lifetime Warranty Reg. $44.95 



ATHANA 1 yr Warranty 



X.WJ SSDD Box of 10 
$19.90 SSSD Box Of 10 



Anti-Glare Masks— Now $12.95 
8" Diskettes from $22.75 
Other Diskettes at Equal Savings 

Flip 'N File Boxes— Holds 50 Diskettes 
5'/." Reg. $34.95 Sale: $19.95 8" Reg. $49.95 Sale: $29.95 

LIBRARY CASES -Holds 10 Diskettes saie$2.95 ea. 

Bare Drives for "IBM PC"— Internal or 
External — $269.95 ea. 

Percom TFD 100 Mod. 1 Drive 
Reg. $439.00 Ea. Now $278.00 ea. 
OR Two for $540.00. Only 100 left. 

DOS + 3.4 Reg. $159.00. SALE. 

FREE DOS + 3.4 with any Percom or AU 

Drive for the Mod. I* or III-* 

Model III* Drive Reg. $499 Now $449. 

Add Ons $344 Single and $628 Double 

Anti -Static MatS —Colors: Russett, Blue & Gold, Natural 
Brown, & Golden Brown. 

3' x 5'— Reg. $75.60 Sale: $57.00 

4' x 6'— Reg. $120.90 Sale: $91.00 

4' x 8' — Reg. $161 .30 Sale: $122.00 

Typing Easles— $14.95 

• LIMITED TIME OFFER/LIMITED QUANTITIES • 

Prices subject to change without notice. 



MICRO SHOPPING CENTER 



&??<* 




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now $184.95! 



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reads, writes, and formats either single or double-density. Comes with a 
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on-card high performance data separation and write precompensation 

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■ DOSPLUS 3.4D" 150.00 



Total Value 
Now only 
You SAVE 




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From $1,995(5MB) 

TRS-80,"IBM-PC", 
ATARI 
Check out the benefits 
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y — can be used for Model II* Model III* computers. 
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^-lets controller handle up to 4 drives. 
Vworks along with existing floppy disk drives. 
1 'includes host system support software. 
K15-day FREE trial period. 

SAVE on an Arrick Quick Switch]: 

Changes a TRS-80* printer port or a peripheral between computers 
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TFD 100 40 track floppy disk drives-only 200 left reg. 439.00-now 
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"PAGEMATE"— $15.95 

" "Reg. Trademarks 

The above prices do not include state taxes. 



Enjoy 1-stop shopping and BIG savings 

Order your disks, software, supplies, and accessories from Access Unlimited. 
We offer low prices on automatic Datamarc"* Sheet and Envelope Feeders 
lor Radio Shack'. QUME, Ricoh. Diablo Daisywheel. and Dot Matrix Printers. 
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For more information, call (214) 340-5366 Monday through Friday: (214) 
690-0207 after 5 p.m. and Saturdays. 

To order or for FREE literature, call TOLL-FREE 



1-800-527-3475M 



Ordering Information 

Order by phone or by mail. We accept Visa, MasterCard, cashier's checks, 
certified checks, and money orders. With personal checks, allow additional 
time for bank clearance. Your bankcard will not be charged until your order is 
shipped. On orders over $1,000. we pay freight (surface only) and insurance: 
please add $3.00 shipping and handling under 50 lbs. Over 50 lbs., add 
$5.00 for orders under $1,000.00. Texas residents add 5% sales tax. Allow 2 
to 4 weeks for delivery. 

EXPLANATION 



Tradamark of Tandy Radb Snack Corp 
riF <;v "nm s 1 1 Trademark ol Apparai Cofpwaioi 
5 ULi TM Trademark o! Access Unwed 



• * Trademark ol Mem-Systems Software. Ire 
t Trademafk ol Ajrtck Products Company 
•••Trademark of Datamarc, Inc 



T Trademark ol Percom Data Company. Inc x Trademark ol Dgria! Research 

□ Please send me a FREE catalog. I'm not ready to order at this time. 

□ YES, I'm taking advantage of your Sales prices. 

Name 

Company Name 

Address 

City 



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.Zip 



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Item 



Unit Price 



Subtotal 



Subtotal 

State Sales Tax (Texas residents only) 

handling charge 

Check one: Total 

D payment enclosed □ Visa □ MasterCard* 



"If MasterCard, numbers above name: 
Expiration Date: I I I ~~ I I 



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DEPT. B/401 N. Central Expwy. #600/Richardson, Texas 75080 

Tel. 1-800/527-3475 214/340-5366 

214/690-0207— Sat. and Evenings Only 



^ 26 




LOW PRICES 

JORDAN COMPUTERS 



Okidata 


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PARALLEL 


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— 



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— 


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SPECIALS OF THE MONTH 

▲ Okidata 82 a $474.00 9.5" width 

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A EpSOn MX-100 $699.00 15" Width 

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NEC 




7710-1 RO 


55 


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55 


7720-1 KSR 


55 


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55 


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55 



STD. 
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MT-1605 200 


— 


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— 


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— 


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Manufacturer's warranty included on all equipment. 

Free use of Master Card, VISA and American Express. 
Cashier's checks, certified check, money order or C.O.D.'s 
accepted. California residents add 6% sales tax. 
Please allow 2 weeks clearance for personal checks. 

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• 293 



HOME/HOBBY 



LOAD 80 



Use your micro to wave the checkered flag. 



Judge 80 



Stuart A. Cole 

Rt. 5 #7 Five Oaks Drive 

Gulf port, MS 39503 



Every Cub Scout considers the Pine- 
wood Derby as exciting as the Super- 
bowl or World Series. Small cars carved 
from blocks of pine race on the table top 
track for the prize. 

On the night of my son Jim's first Pine- 
wood Derby, I crossed both fingers and 
prayed he would win. 

Boy— was I ever disappointed! Jim didn't 
even make the finals. The judges on two 
separate heats had misjudged his car. I re- 
alized what a difficult task the judges had. It 
was next to impossible to distinguish 
among the cars. Consider trying to deter- 
mine the position of four cars all crossing 
the finish line a split second apart. 

I knew my TRS-80 could do the job better. 



For the next several weeks I set about 
designing an interface circuit. Here are the 
results of my effort. 

Interface Circuit 

The interface circuit connects directly to 
the expansion edge connector on the key- 
board or to the screen printer port on the ex- 
pansion interface. (Do not use the RS-232C 
port on the expansion interface, as it is 
keyed differently.) 

Photo 1 shows the interface unit itself. 
The cabinet is an experimenter's box (Radio 
Shack #220-224). The schematic diagram is 
shown in Fig. 1 . Figure 2 is the schematic of 
the power supply. 

Under static conditions the ambient light 
striking the photo resistors (PR-1 through 
PR-4) reduces their resistance to about 100 
ohms. This causes one leg of each AND 
gate (IC-3) to go low. Address lines A1-A4 
hold the other leg of each gate high. 

The low on each photo resistor is applied 
to the input of IC1 and IC2. When the TRS-80 
inputs data from the data bus these lows 



are applied to data lines D1-D4. Data lines 
DO and D5-D7 are not used. Therefore, they 
are held low by permanent grounds on the 
inputs to IC1 and IC2. The low signals on 
the data lines represent static conditions 
(decimal 0). 

Let's assume a car crosses over the 
photo resistor in lane 1. The car prevents 
light from striking the photo resistor, caus- 
ing the resistance of the photo resistor to 
increase immediately to several thousand 
ohms. This increase in resistance replaces 
the low signal on IC1 pin 1 with a high sig- 
nal. Pin 2 is already high, so the high on pin 
1 is passed by IC3 to IC1 pin 14. 

When the program directs the TRS-80 to 



The Key Box 

Model I 
16K, 32K RAM 
Cassette or Disk Basic 
Electronic components 




Photo 1. Closeup of interface board. Wiring is not critical. 



Photo 2. Bottom of the race track showing wiring of the photo 
resistors. J2 is mounted on the side of the track. 

80 Micro, January 1983 • 221 



input data from the expansion port the (IN) 
signal line (pin 19 of the edge connector) 
goes low enabling IC1 and IC2 (74LS367s). 
IC1 applies the high from pin 14 to the 
TRS-80 data bus line D1. 

Construction 

Photo 1 shows the circuit board and 
power-supply components. Photo 2 shows 
the photo resistor installation in the end of 
the track. (I used Radio Shack #276-116 
resistors.) 

One word of caution here: The resistors 
come in two case styles. The black plastic 
case makes installation easier— just drill a 
hole in the center of each lane of the track 
and glue the resistors in with epoxy or white 
glue. The other case style is metal with a lip 
around the lower rim. This lip must be 
ground off so the resistor will fit snug in the 
hole. You must be extremely careful when 
grinding or the resistor will be damaged. J1 
and J2 (Fig. 1) are Radio Shack DIN connec- 
tors (#274-005). P1 and P2 are the matching 
plugs (#274-003). 

Software 

The Basic program is shown in the Listing. 
Line 260 checks to see if the interface 
power is turned on. Lines 270 and 280 allow 
four inputs, one for each lane of the track. 

Lines 290-370, the heart of the program, 
determine the position in which each car 
finishes. For example, line 290 looks at port 
1 for input, and assigns any non-zero value 
to variable E1. (An input of zero represents 
static conditions; therefore, the TRS-80 
continues to look at port 1 until it sees a 
non-zero value.) 

Line 300 prints a non-zero value on the 
screen. (Printing the value of E1 normally 
has no use since during a race the values of 
all four tracks are printed and erased by the 
print routine of line 410 before you can read 
them. I put this feature into the program to 
be sure I wired the cable between the inter- 





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face and track correctly.) 

Line 310 checks to be sure the interface 
power is on. 

Once a car has been detected, line 320 
looks to the expansion port for an input, 
but instead of looking at port 1 it looks at 
a port whose value is determined by the 
value of E1. 

Let's continue with our assumption that 
a car had crossed in lane 1. Data line D1 is 
high as a result of the increase in the re- 
sistance of the photo resistor (PR1). A 
high on data line D2 represents a decimal 
value of two to the TRS-80; therefore, if E1 
equals two line 310 looks at port 2 for its 
input. As a result, address line A1 goes 
high to address port 2. 



Address/Data line 


Decimal value 


A7/D7 


128 


A6/D6 


64 


A5/D5 


32 


A4/D4 


16 


A3/D3 


8 


A2/D2 


4 


A1/D1 


2 


A0/D0 


1 


Table 1. Decimal 


values seen by the 


computer can be determined by add- 


ing the decimal values of any lines with 


highs on them. 





When A1 goes high the high is applied to 
the input of an inverter (IC4). The low from 
the inverter is applied to one leg of IC3, 
blocking any further input from lane 1. 

The purpose is to prevent the computer 
from printing erroneous race results. For 
example, suppose the car in lane 1 leads a 
car in lane 3 by only a quarter of an inch. If 
the input is not turned off as soon as the 
computer detects it, the computer would 
see both cars at the same time. By remov- 
ing the input from lane 1 as soon as the 
computer sees car 1, the computer only 
sees car 3 when it crosses. 

When car 3 crosses, the signal flow 
from the photo resistor is the same as 
previously discussed for lane 1 except 
data line D3 is now high. A high on D3 
represents decimal eight, so variable E2 is 
assigned the value eight. 

Table 1 shows how to calculate the deci- 
mal value from a high on an address or data 
line. Line 330 prints the eight on the screen, 
adds E1 to E2 (two plus eight), and assigns 
the total (10) to E5. Line 330 also checks to 
see if all four lanes have been blocked (all 
cars in). If so, control jumps to line 410, the 
print routine. 

Line 340 looks at the expansion port 
again, using the value of E5 (decimal 10) to 
determine the port number. Referring to Ta- 
ble 1 we can see that address lines A1 and 
A3 must be high to enable port 10. As be- 



40 PIN CONNECTOR 




PHOTO RESISTORS 
IN TRACK 



PR-lLj 



Fig. 1. Schematic Diagram of Interface Unit 



II 5 VAC 
INPUT 




w A? 



Fig. 2. Schematic Diagram of Power Supply 



222 • 80 Micro, January 1983 



fore, these lines are inverted by IC4 block- 
ing any further input from lanes 1 and 3. 

Let's now assume that the last two cars 
tie for third. A high on lanes 2 and 4 sends 
data lines D2 and D4 high. The TRS-80 sees 
a decimal 20 (4 plus 16), and assigns this 
value to E3. Line 350 prints the value (20) on 
the screen and assigns E6 the total value of 
E3 plus E5 (10 plus 20). Since 30 represents 
all cars, control jumps to the video print rou- 
tine starting in line 410. 

The video print routine is contained in 



lines 410-880, and the line-printer routine in 
lines 950-1390. 

Lines 1400-1460 draw a line of equal 
signs after each fourth heat to separate the 
races. Each car runs in a different lane in 
each heat, giving each car an equal oppor- 
tunity. 

Conclusion 

My TRS-80 has performed perfectly in 
two races. It is accurate in even the clos- 
est finish! ■ 



Program Listing 



10 CLEAR100 
20 B$=" 

30 CLS:POKE16553,255:FORI=0TO63:POKEl5360+I,191:POKE16320+I,191: 

NEXTI 

40 FORI=0TO15:POKE(15360+I*64) ,191:POKE(15423+I*64) . 191 i NEXTI 
50 GOSUB180:GOSUB140:GOSUB100 



1979"; 
U A R T 



A. 



COLE 



B Y 



PRINT@856 , "FEBURARY 
70 PRINT@207, "B Y ST 
80 GOSUB170:GOSUB170 
90 CLS:GOTO220 
100 READA$:PRINT@401,A$ 
110 READA$:PRINT@535,A$ 
120 READA$:PRINT@728,A$ 
130 RETURN 
140 PRINT@386,B$; 
150 PRINT@514,B$; 
160 RETURN 

170 FORI=1TO1000: NEXTI: RETURN 
180 FORI=1TO250: NEXTI: RETURN 
190 DATA"P INEWOOD DER 
200 DATA"J U D G E 8 0" 
210 DATA"16K LEVEL II" 
220 CLS:H=1 

230 INPUT"ENTER TODAYS DATE (FEB/26/1 97 9 )" ;D$ 
240 CLS:N=1 

250 PRINT"HEAT # n ;H:PRINT 

260 E=INP(0):IF E=255 THEN PRINT"TURN INTERFACE POWER ON" 
270 PRINT H ENTER CAR# FOR LANE" ;N; : INPUTA(N) 
280 N=N+1:IFN<5THEN270 
290 E1=INP(1):IF E1=0 THEN 290 
300 PRINT E1:IF El=30 THEN410 
310 IF El=255 THEN 380 
320 E2=INP(E1) :IF E2=0 THEN 320 
330 PRINT E2:E5=E1+E2:IFE5=30THEN410 
340 E3=INP(E5) :IFE3=0THEN340 
350 PRINTE3 : E6=E5+E3 : IFE6=30THEN410 
360 E4=INP(E6) :IF E4=0 THEN 360 
370 PRINT E4:GOTO410 

380 CLS:FOR IE=lTO 10:PRINT@460, "T URN INTERFACE P 
W E R ON !":FOR K=1TO100:NEXT K 

390 PRINT@460," ". 

FOR K=l TO 100:NEXTK,IE 

400 E=INP(0):IF E=255 THEN 380 ELSE 290 

410 CLS:PRINT@79,"THE OFFICIAL PACK 304 PINEWOOD DERBY HEAT RESU 
LTS" 

420 PRINT@143,"FOR HEAT #" ;H;TAB ( 54) ;D$ 

430 A$="CAR #":B$="TIE BETWEEN CARS" :C$="TIE BETWEEN ALL CARS FO 
R FIRST" 

440 Pl$="FIRST":P2$="SECOND":P3$="THIRD":P4$="FOURTH" 
450 IFE1=16PRINT@256,A$;A(4) ;P1$:GOTO490 
460 IFE2=16PRINT@384,A$;A(4) ;P2$:GOTO490 
470 IFE3=16PR